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Fourth National Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity

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Fourth National Report to the United Nations

Convention on Biological Diversity


Table of Contents:
CHAPTER 1 - Overview of Biodiversity Status, Trends and Threats

1. Biodiversity overview

1.1 Features of biodiversity

1.2 Status of threatened wildlife

1.3 Review of the Red List

2. Drivers of environmental changes

2.1 Air pollution and air quality

2.2 Water pollution and water quality

2.3 Soil quality and impact of mining activities

3. Biodiversity in each geographical area

3.1 Landscape and habitat

3.2 Flora and fauna

3.3 Genetic diversity
CHAPTER 2 - Status of National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plans

2.1 National Biodiversity Strategy

2.2 Check and Review of the National Strategy

2. 3 Implementation of the National Biodiversity Strategy

2.4 Biodiversity in agriculture

2.5 Biodiversity in forests

2.6 Biodiversity in coastal areas

2.7 Protected areas and Natura 2000 Network

2.8 Preservation Programmes and ex-situ conservation

2.9 Protection of species endangered by trade

CHAPTER 3 - Cross-sectional and fundamental measures

3.1 Sustainable use of genetic resources

3.2 Promotion and implementation

3.3 Measures against global warming

3.4 Ecological sustainable tourism
CHAPTER 4 - Progress in the implementation of the 2010 Biodiversity Target and the Strategic Plan for the CBD

4.1 Progress towards the 2010 Biodiversity Target

4.2 Progress towards the goals and objectives of the Strategic Plan for the CBD
CHAPTER 5 - Conclusions
Abbreviations and acronyms

Contracting Party


N a t i o n a l F o c a l P o i n t

Full name of the institution

Ministry of Environment

Name and title of contact officer

Director Silviu MEGAN

Mailing address

12, Bd. Libertătii, 5 District, Bucharest, Romania


+40 21 31664922


+40 21 3163382


Contact officer for national report (if different FROM ABOVE)

Full name of the institution

Ministry of Environment

Name and title of contact officer


Mailing address

12, Bd.Libertatii, 5 District, Bucharest, Romania


+40 21 3163382


+40 21 3163382


S u b m i s s i o n

Signature of officer responsible for submitting national report

Date of submission

17th of July 2009

Fourth National Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity

The present report covers a period of four years from 2004 to 2008, while the Third National Report ended in 2004.

The methodology used in preparing the report consisted in collecting all data included in public documents: strategies, sectoral and intersectoral programs, plans and action plans, legislation (laws, government decisions, ordinances, orders, decisions) and from studies (synthesis, reports, scientific publications, presentations at scientific meetings and symposia).

Specialists and decision-makers from central administration and institutions involved in the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity were consulted.

The interviews added new information to the one obtained from the public documents.

More details were gathered during a workshop including specialists from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Environment, National Environmental Agency, Administration of the Environmental Fund, Institute of Forestry Research, Academy of Agriculture Sciences and Forestry, Botanical Garden-Bucharest, Romanian Ornithological Society, Romanian Herpethological Society environmental NGOs, Regional Environmental Agencies, Local Administration of Bucharest, Ministry of Agriculture Forests and Rural Development, National Laboratory for Phytosanitary Quarantine.
CHAPTER 1 - Overview of Biodiversity Status, Trends and Threats
Romania is situated in the geographic center of Europe, half the distance between the Atlantic Ocean and the Ural Mountains, in and outside the Carpathians arch, in the lower basin of the Danube, having a gateway to the Black Sea.

The Romanian territory (238,391 km2), is between 43°37’07’’ and 48°15’06’’ northern latitude and between 20°15’44’’ and 29°41’24’’ eastern longitude. The data defining the geographical position of Romania are shown in Table 1

Table 1 Geographical position of Romania

Extreme point


Eastern longitude1)

Northern latitude


Horodiştea Village





Zimnicea City





Sulina City





Beba Veche Commune




Romania is neighbouring with Bulgaria, Serbia, Hungary, Ukraine and Republic of Moldova and has a gateway to the Black Sea.

The Romanian seaside of the Black Sea measures 245 km, between the borders with Ukraine and the border with Bulgaria.

The total area of the country is 23,839,100 ha. This includes 31% mountains, 36% hills and plateaus and 33% plains and meadows.

The main characteristic of these relief components is their proportional distribution in form of an amphitheatre.

As a consequence of its geographical location, Romania is a country with unique and high ecosystems, species and genetic diversity, with extensive unspoiled forests and alpines habitats associated with the Carpathians mountain chain.

Romania has the most number of EU bio-geographic regions in Europe (5) (2 of them only present in Romania) and great species diversity with about 3,700 species of flora and 33,800 species of fauna, including significant populations of large mammals, such as bear, wolf and lynx.

Romania is rich in freshwater and coastal resources, including the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve, the 22nd largest protected area in the world and the 3rd largest in Europe.

The hydrological network has a total length of 65,000 km.

The natural and semi-natural ecosystems are covering approximately 47% of Romania’s territory. Agricultural lands are covering some 30% of the country. Native steppe and steppe-associated wet meadows have been systematically converted to cropland and pastures.

Forests cover about 30% of the country. Romanian forests face a serious challenge in the immediate future as approximately 30% of standing forests are slated to be restituted to families of former land owners.

Mountainous, grassland and deltaic ecosystems dominate Romania’s landscape. In the central and western parts of the country, mountainous areas comprise some 28% of total land area, dominated by vast tracts of relatively undisturbed forest in the U-shaped Carpathian Mountains.

Around the mountains, forests gradually give way to grasslands, which have been predominantly converted, to agricultural use.

To the east, the Danube River completes its 2,850 km course through 13 countries as it discharges into the biologically rich Danube Delta. The Delta, one quarter of which is shared with Ukraine, covers approximately 580,000 hectares [1 ha = 0.01 km2 = 2.47 acres].

The extent of loss of steppe is not thoroughly documented, but less than 10% remains of some types of grassland and shallow marsh ecosystems that were once common in Romania.

Draining of wetlands, elimination of native riparian vegetation, impoundment and channelling of streams and rivers have all taken a serious toll on local aquatic resources in Romania.

These activities have had greatest impact on the lower Danube River, the Danube Delta and on the Black Sea coastal ecosystem.

Romania has a comprehensive legal framework directly or indirectly concerned with environmental protection.

Recent legislation is derived from the new Romanian Constitution, international treaties and the requirements of the EU membership. Convention on Biological Diversity was ratified by the Romanian Government and enforced through Law no. 58 of 1994.

Romania has benefited before from GEF technical and financial assistance for enabling activities.

There were two UNDP implemented projects:

  • The project Romania’s National Capacity Self Assessment was implemented during 2004-2005.

  • Three thematic reports and a cross cutting report has been developed for all three Rio Conventions: CBD, UNCCD, UNFCCC. The main result of the NCSA project was the National Report and the Action Plan. Both documents were endorsed by the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development and consequently they formed the foundation of other official documents such as the National Communication to UNFCCC. For developing the 3rd National Report to the CBD Romania benefited financially in 2005.

    1. Features of biodiversity

Biodiversity, ecosystems, ecosystem services and climate change are closely linked. Changes in ecosystem composition, in ecosystem structure and function, in many cases have important implications for the interactions between the biosphere and the climate system, as well as for the ecosystem services on which society depends.

The EU CORINE Biotope Program has identified 783 habitat types in 261 areas throughout the country. Among the 783 habitat types, 94 have been designated as special conservation areas, while 25 of these are priority habitat types.

There is growing evidence that, for the proper functioning of ecosystems and the delivery of ecosystem services, the interaction of their individual components – the biodiversity present – is essential.

The juridical acts for regulate the nature conservation are the Treaties, the Conventions and the International Agreements.

In the field of nature conservation, are in force the following treaties/conventions/agreements:

  • The Treaty on Antarctica (Washington 1959), ratified by Decree 255/1971, is a legal instrument establishing the action way, by which the contracting parts can used the Antarctica, exclusive in peaceful purposes including the measures for protection of the flora and fauna. One principle of this treaty is the ensuring the freedom scientific research in the frame of the international cooperation, including the participation of the international organizations.

  • The Convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage, accepted by Decree 187/1990, whilst fully respecting the sovereignty of the state on whose territory the cultural and/or natural heritage is situated, as well the property right provided by national legislation. The States Parties to this convention recognize that such heritage constitutes the world heritage, for whose protection it is the duty of the international community as a whole to cooperate. On the “World Heritage List”, Romania was put down with approximately 75% of the Danube Delta (360.000 ha).

  • The Convention on wetlands of international importance especially as waterfowl habitat, ratified by Law 5/199. The purpose of this convention is designate, by the Contracting Parties, of the wetlands of international significance in terms of ecology, botany, zoology, limnology or hydrology and ensuring the appropriate state of the conservation for these areas. The Danube Delta was declared Ramsar Site.

  • The Convention on the conservation of European wildlife and natural heritage (Berna, 1979), whose Romania was accepted by Law 13/1993. The purpose of this convention is ensuring the conservation of the wild flora and fauna and their natural habitats, in particular those species and habitats whose requires the cooperation of several states.

  • Convention on biological diversity (Rio de Janeiro, 1994) ratified by Law 58/1994. The objectives of this convention are the conservation of the biological diversity and the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resource, especially by appropriate access to these resources and by appropriate transfer of relevant technologies. The main measures set out for biodiversity conservation and sustainable use of its components are develop national strategies, plans or programs or adapt for this purpose existing strategies, plans or programs, as well integrate as far as possible and as appropriate the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity into relevant sector or cross-sector plans, programs or policies.

  1. The Convention on international trade with endangered species of flora and fauna (Washington, 1973), whose Romania was accepted by Law 69/1994 ensuring the protection of the endangered species by regulating the trade with their.

  1. The Convention on conservation of migratory species of wild animals (Bonn, 1979), ratified by Law 13/1998, is a universal instrument, developed following Recommendation 32 from the Action Plan elaborated by the Stockholm Conference. This Convention recognize that the management for efficacy conservation of the migratory species require both the states cooperation and commune actions within the national territory in relation to migration routes, as wintering, staging, feeding, breeding areas.

  1. The Agreement on the conservation of African-Eurasian migratory water birds, ratified by Law 89/2000, aiming coordination of measures to maintain migratory waterfowls in a favorable conservation status or to restore them to such a status.

  1. The Agreement on the conservation of bats in Europe (London, 1991), accepted by Law 90/2000, is the first international agreement devoted to the conservation of bats and the first of its kind under Art. IV of the Bonn Convention.

  1. The Agreement on the conservation of cetaceans in the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and contiguous Atlantic area, ratified by Law 91/2000, having as purpose to reduce the treat to cetaceans and improve the knowledge of these animals.

In the field of nature conservation, are in force the following internal laws:

  • Law 82/1993 on setting up the Biosphere Reserve “Danube Delta” has at purpose the setting up the Reserve Administration as public institution with a legal identity, under the Ministry of Environment. The Reserve Administration is lead by a Scientific Council at their order is the Executive Boards, as body for enforcing the decisions of Scientific Council. The Scientific Council including the local persons proposed by County Council. The Governor and members of the Scientific Council are appointed by the Government on the recommendation of the Ministry of Environment, with the approval of the Romanian Academy.

  • Government Decision no. 1143/2007 regarding the establishment of new protected areas;

  • Government Decision no. 1284/2007 regarding special protected areas designation, as a constitutive part of Nature 2000 Ecological Network in Romania;

  • Minister Order no. 1710/2007 regarding the approval of necessary documentation for setting up the regime of natural protected area of national interest;

  • Minister Order no. 539/2008 for declaring day of 1 September „The Day of Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve” ;

  • Minister Order no. 1964/2007 regarding the establishment of natural protected areas regime for sites with community importance, as a constitutive part of Nature 2000 ecological network in Romania;

  • Government Decision no. 2151/2005 regarding the establishment of new protected areas;

  • Government Decision no. 1.586/ 2006 regarding the including of some natural protected areas in wetlands included in the international importance category;

  • Government Decision no. 1581/2005 regarding the establishment of new protected areas;

  • Minister Order no. 604/2005 for the approval of caves and cave sectors classification – natural protected areas;

  • Minister Order no. 1533/ 2008 regarding the approval of methodology for assigning the management of natural protected areas which are requiring the establishment of management structures and of methodology for assigning the custody for natural protected areas which don’t need the establishment of management structures;

  • Minister Order no. 610/2009 for the approval of the fees for activities carried out by Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve Authority, requested by legal and natural person;

  • Government Decision no. 1320/2008 regarding the organising and functioning of National Agency for Protected Areas;
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