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Unedited Character Comments Generated from WinClada Data File. Sorted first by character and then by taxon. Letters refer to individual specimens; see taxon comments above for key.
Character 2 :

Kentriodon pernix : A and B

Brachydelphis holotype : Inferred, even though anterior end of rostrum is broken.

Pliopontos 193 : Inferred although rostrum incomplete.
Character 4 :

Globicephala macrorhynchus : Originally coded as 1but changed to 0 based on USNM specimens. Although the rostrum is flattened, the edge is abrupt and forms about a 90 degree angle with the palate.
Character 5 :

Orcaella brevirostris : Mesethmoid has filled in posterior third of canal. Not like ziphiid condition but coded the same here.
Character 6 :

Pliopontos 193 : Approaches state 1.
Character 8 :

Pseudorca crassidens : Same width in B but widens slightly in A and D.

Orcinus orca : True polymorphism. State 0 in B but state 1 in C and D. State 1 best developed in D.

Brachydelphis uncat : Narrow.
Character 9 :

Globicephala macrorhynchus : In A and B, for a short distance there is sporadic contact between the premaxillae.
Character 10 :

Globicephala macrorhynchus : State 1 in A, state 2 in B and C.

Ninoziphius platyrostris : Ambiguity.
Kentriodon pernix : In some areas suture approaches state 3, particularly on left side..
Character 11 :

Orcinus orca : Approaches state 2 in USNM specimens.

Brachydelphis 124 : Ambiguity.

Character 15 :

Kentriodon pernix : Visible on right side of A. Left side of A is broken.

Orcaella brevirostris : This is 0 based on A. Check lit for polymorphism.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : 1 in A and B but 0 in C.

Orcinus orca : Coded as state 1 although originally coded as 0 based on ChM specimen. Clearly 1 in A and B although less clear in C.

Brachydelphis holotype : Left side approaches state 0.
Character 17 :

Globicephala macrorhynchus : In A there are several foramina on the center of the palate just anterior to the max/palatine suture. These are absent are much fewer in B and C.
Character 19 :

Kentriodon pernix : A and B

Leucopleurus acutus : Changed from original codings. Current coding based on E through H.
Character 20 :

Kentriodon pernix : Changed to ?.

Orcaella brevirostris : Processes are very short and wide.
Character 22 :

Pliopontos littoralis 953 : Posterior part approaches state 1.
Character 24 :

Kentriodon pernix : Based on A and B appears to be about 31 teeth in max. Max/premax suture is unclear so there could be a few more.

Grampus griseus : Looks like no teeth in upper jaw.

Orcaella brevirostris : A= r-8, l-7; B= r- , 16 or 17, l-17. Based on alveoli. There is a big difference in these specimens.

Pseudorca crassidens : A= 8 both sides; B= 9 both sides, D= 9 right, 10 left.

Leucopleurus acutus : E= 32 right, 32 or 33 left; F=?; G= 31 right, 34 left; H= 34 right, 33 left.

Orcinus orca : C= 12 teeth, B and D= 13 teeth.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : A= 7 or 8 on both sides, although anterior alveolus is partially filled in or may not be an alveolus at all, making 7 teeth on each side; B=7 on both sides, there may have been an 8th much earlier on in the animals life; C=7 on both sides.

Lipotes vexillifer : 31 teeth in AMNH specimen. This is somewhat of a guess because the premax/max suture is fused. There are 34 teeth on each side and I estimate that the first three are all or partially in the premax.

Inia geoffrensis : Following based on estimate that first two teeth are in premax. A= 25 right, 26 left; B= 26 right, 25 left; C= 24 both; D= 29 right (counted presumed reabsorbed alveoli, actual teeth and alveoli is less), 30 left; E= 28 right, 27 left.

Brachydelphis holotype : Based on right side, at least 16 teeth.

Brachydelphis 124 : 20 or 21 teeth based on left side.

Pliopontos 193 : 26 alveoli preserved on right side of maxilla. Certainly more but depends on length of rostrum.

Pliopontos littoralis 953 : 10 alveoli preservd on left side. Certainly many more teeth originally.
Character 26 :

Grampus griseus : All tooth characters based on lower teeth since upper teeth are absent. Teeth preserved in E and H.

Orcinus orca : Not observed in D.
Character 27 :

Pseudorca crassidens : B only.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : A.

Ninoziphius platyrostris : Ambiguity. Based on alveoli.
Character 28 :

Grampus griseus : Based on 571350, which has one ant tooth in and another out.

Pseudorca crassidens : B only.
Character 31 :

Orcinus orca : Not observed in D.
Character 32 :

Orcinus orca : Not observed in D.
Character 33 :

Orcinus orca : Not observed in D.
Character 35 :

Grampus griseus : Based on 571350, which has one ant tooth in and another out. The anterior tooth is angled slightly anteriorly although mostly vertical.

Orcaella brevirostris : Changed from 0 based on alveoli orientation.

Pseudorca crassidens : Actually anterodorsally.

Leucopleurus acutus : In G and H these teeth are erupted. It seems like they would point anterodorsally but not sure.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : A.

Ninoziphius platyrostris : Ambiguity, based on alveoli.
Character 36 :

Grampus griseus : Based on 571350, which has one ant tooth in and another out.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : A.
Character 37 :

Grampus griseus : There are 9 isolated teeth in E and 10 in H, which leads to 5 teeth on each side.

Orcaella brevirostris : A has 10 on right and 13 on left. Missing teeth so probably old or pathologic.

Simocetus : 11 teeth.



Pseudorca crassidens : 9 in B (both sides) but 10 in D (both sides)

Leucopleurus acutus : G= 36 (2 unerupted) right, 35 (2 unerupted) left; H= 35 right (1 unerupted), 36 (3 unerupted) left.

Orcinus orca : C= 11 teeth, E = 12 teeth.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : A= 9 both sides, B=8 both sides; C=7 both sides.

Lipotes vexillifer : 34 on right 33 on left.

Inia geoffrensis : A= 28 right, 27 left; B= 28 both sides; C= 27 right, 26 left; D= 32 on both; E= 33 on both.

Bos : 10 teeth

Pliopontos littoralis 953 : Ambiguity. 11 teeth/alveoli preserved on fragment of left ramus. Another fragment shows at least 6 more teeth. Certainly there were many more. At the least double that number.

Ninoziphius platyrostris : Estimate about 39 teeth.
Character 39 :

Pliopontos littoralis 953 : Symphysis is long but length very uncertain.
Character 40 :

Grampus griseus : True polymorphism. Fused to varying degrees in F, G, and H but not in E. Condition in E shared with other USNM specimens.

Pseudorca crassidens : Maybe partially fused.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : Suture is still visible but clear areas where both sides are fused to each other.

Ninoziphius platyrostris : Not certain, could be sutured.
Character 42 :

Ninoziphius platyrostris : Approaches state 1.
Character 45 :

Orcaella brevirostris : Looks elevated.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : Changed from 1 to 0 based on USNM specimens.
Character 46 :

Leucopleurus acutus : Changed from original codings. Current coding based on E through H.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : More gradual in C.
Character 47 :

Brachydelphis holotype : Aligned with top of rostrum.
Character 51 :

Pseudorca crassidens : In ChM specimen and A have state 1 but state 0 in B and D.
Character 53 :

Brachydelphis holotype : Probably fused but there are symmetrical "cracks" on both sides that could be sutures.
Character 54 :

Kentriodon pernix : Changed to ?.
Character 56 :

Orcinus orca : Not observed in D.
Character 57 :

Kentriodon pernix : Changed to 2 based on A.
Character 58 :

Grampus griseus : Formed by maxilla and palatine.

Pseudorca crassidens : Palatine only.

Leucopleurus acutus : Max and palatine, E through H.

Orcinus orca : True polymorphism. B= 0, C= 1 (palatine), D= 0 on right side, 1 on left (max and palatine).

Globicephala macrorhynchus : The edge is formed nearly entirely of palatine.

Simocetus : Ambiguity.
Character 61 :

Grampus griseus : Tough call.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : Short in A and B but long in C.
Character 62 :

Grampus griseus : There is an incipient ridge on F. The orbital region in H is heavily pitted. Something wrong with this specimen on this side.

Pseudorca crassidens : Not sharp.
Character 64 :

Grampus griseus : This is complex, particularly since the maxillary and infraorbital foramina are close. In E r= 7, l = 9 (two are tiny); F r= 4, l= 5; G r= 4, l= 4; H r=5, l=5.

Orcaella brevirostris : In A there 4 on the right (two tiny and one that looks like two merged foramina) and 3 on left (but another is considered part of the maxillary complex of foramina).

Simocetus : Based on left side. Right seems to have 2 maybe more. Matrix filling the foramina makes it hard to say.

Pseudorca crassidens : A= r-5, l- 5; B= r-5, l-3 (plus one tiny one and another large one that is here interpreted as a maxillary foramen, not infraorbital); D= r-7 (4 very small), l-3 (there is another large one here interpreted as maxillary).

Leucopleurus acutus : E= 4 on right, 6 left; F= 4 on right, 6 on left (1 tiny); G= 5 on right, 4 on left; H= 4 on right, 6 on left (2 tiny).

Globicephala macrorhynchus : A= 4 on right (2 of them are tiny), 3 on left; B= 5 on right, 6 on left; C= 3 on right, 4 on left.

Orcinus orca : B= 5 on both sides, C = 2 on both sides, D = 5 on right and 4 on left, although left also has an additional tiny foramen.

Brachydelphis holotype : There are clearly two foramina on each side... could be more.

Brachydelphis uncat : Looks like 2 on each side, although there may be more.

Pliopontos 193 : Two on right side at least one foramen on left.

Pliopontos 931 : Three foramina on left side (posterior one could be considered an additional maxillary foramen). Right side at least two foramina.

Pliopontos littoralis 953 : Three foramina on right side, two or three on left.
Character 68 :

Kentriodon pernix : Are flat transversely in A.

Grampus griseus : Are inflated. Generally sigmoidal transversely, with convex and concave portions.

Simocetus : Flat.

Leucopleurus acutus : Flat transversely, E-H.

Brachydelphis holotype : The surfaces are quite weathered, thus coded as ambiguity.

Ninoziphius platyrostris : Not certain because dorsal surface is corroded.
Character 69 :

Simocetus : I am not sure if the anterior foramen is really homologous to other premaxillary foramina. Breakage also makes this unclear. So coded as one or two foramina.

Orcinus orca : B has one foramen on both sides, C has 1 on right and 2 on the left, D has 2 on both sides.

Ninoziphius platyrostris : Ambiguity.
Character 72 :

Simocetus : Very long but does not reach nares because of anterior position of foramen.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : Changed from 1 based on USNM specimens.

Orcinus orca : Short and shallow in ChM specimen and C but absent in B and D.

Brachydelphis holotype : Ambiguity.
Character 74 :

Kentriodon pernix : Changed from original coding. Based on right side of A. At level just posterior to postorbital process.

Grampus griseus : In all USNM specimens, the right premax is a little behind the ant edge of the squamosal floor.

Simocetus : In line with postorbital process.

Pseudorca crassidens : Aligned with anterior third of zygoma in A, B, and D.

Leucopleurus acutus : Changed from original coding to 4 based on E to H. In E could also be coded as state 3.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : Changed from 4 to 5 based on USNM specimens.

Brachydelphis holotype : Close to state 3, aligned with anterior part of zygomatic process.

Pliopontos 193 : On right side the right premax might be just ever so slightly behind the ant edge of the squamosal floor.

Pliopontos littoralis 953 : Ambiguity, ant edge of squamosal floor is broken.

Ninoziphius platyrostris : Ambiguity.
Character 75 :

Kentriodon pernix : In A could be a smaller 2nd on the right side but not on the left.

Grampus griseus : True polymorphism. E = 1, F = 1 on right but 2 on left, G = 1 on right but 3 on left, H = 2 on both sides.

Orcaella brevirostris : Within individual polymorphism. In A, 1 on right side but two on left.

Pseudorca crassidens : One maxillary foramen in A, one on the right side of B and D but two on the left side of B and D.

Leucopleurus acutus : Changed from original coding (which was 2 foramina) to 1 foramen based on E-H.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : Two in A and B but 1 in C.

Orcinus orca : Left side of D has 2 maxillary foramen. Thus polymorphic 1 and 2 is an alternative coding.

Brachydelphis holotype : In anterior position, could be considered part of the infraorbital complex.

Brachydelphis uncat : In anterior position.

Ninoziphius platyrostris : Ambiguity
Character 76 :

Simocetus : Does not cover lateral side of frontal. Fordyce, in original description, interpreted this as broken.
Character 77 :

Ninoziphius platyrostris : Ambiguity.
Character 78 :

Pseudorca crassidens : Thin in B and ChM specimen. Thick in A and D.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : Thick in A but same thickness in B and C.

Brachydelphis uncat : Although extreme anterior corner is thickened the rest of the anterolateral margin is not.
Character 79 :

Grampus griseus : The ridge is weak in G but well developed in other USNM specimens.

Orcinus orca : State 0 in D and state 1 in B and C.

Brachydelphis holotype : Present but low.

Brachydelphis uncat : Approaches state 1.

Pliopontos 931 : Approaches state 0.
Character 80 :

Kentriodon pernix : Changed from original coding. In A. amterior edge of nasals in line with postorbital process of frontal.

Leucopleurus acutus : Aligned with postorbital process.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : In line with ant edge of squamosal floor.

Orcinus orca : Based on ChM specimen.

Brachydelphis 124 : Ambiguity, inferred from position of antorbital notch.

Simocetus : Polymorphism.
Character 82 :

Kentriodon pernix : Changed from original coding to 0. I see no evidence of maxilla exposed in this area. Maybe based on one of the other specimens now excluded.

Orcaella brevirostris : True polymorphism. State 1 in A but 2 in B.

Pseudorca crassidens : State 1 in A and D but state 2 in B.

Orcinus orca : State 1 in ChM specimen and B but state 2 is in C and D.

Brachydelphis holotype : Not certain.
Character 84 :

Grampus griseus : The right premax is just slightly post to the left in G, but in rest of USNM specimens examined it is clearly more posterior.

Orcaella brevirostris : Not by much.

Brachydelphis holotype : Based on sutural surface.
Character 87 :

Orcaella brevirostris : Coded as zero but in fact right is about 75% the size of the left.
Character 89 :

Grampus griseus : True polymorphism. State 0 in G and state 1 in E,F, H. State 0 also seen in some other USNM specimens, but did not get numbers.

Leucopleurus acutus : True polymorphism. Adjacent to nasal opening in G but not in E, F, and H.

Orcinus orca : Originally coded as 1 based on ChM specimen. May need to check for polymorphism in this character.
Character 93 :

Orcinus orca : Dorsal end of plate still divided by a ridge.
Character 107 :

Kentriodon pernix : The inflection is absent but the place where it used to be is visible. Based on that next character is coded.

Grampus griseus : Inflection absent.

Orcaella brevirostris : No inflection and posteromedial splint.

Pseudorca crassidens : Inflection absent and premax not divided into a posteromedial splint and posterolateral plate.

Leucopleurus acutus : Premax not split into two posteior parts.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : Premaxilla not divided.

Brachydelphis holotype : No inflection.

Brachydelphis uncat : No inflection.

Pliopontos 193 : No inflection.

Pliopontos 931 : No inflection.

Pliopontos littoralis 953 : No inflection.
Character 108 :

Kentriodon pernix : In line with postorbital process.
Character 109 :

Simocetus : This is a tough call. Simocetus has a pronounced cleft but it originates about 2 cm anterior to where the posteromedial splint and anterolateral plate join. This is my best guess.
Character 110 :

Grampus griseus : This is complex. On all USNM specimens examined, the left premax overhangs slightly while the right does not, except in H.

Orcaella brevirostris : Right premax does not but left does.

Pseudorca crassidens : Just anterior to nasal opening, the right premax slightly overhangs in A and D, the left does in A only, and neither side does in B.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : C approaches state 0.

Orcinus orca : True polymorphism. State 0 in C and D, state 1 in B.
Character 111 :

Kentriodon pernix : Changed to ? from original coding. Presumably based on one of the excluded skulls.

Grampus griseus : There is a foramen in this region but based on a juv/neonate USNM 550348, this foramen is continuous with a canal that leads into the infraorbital/maxillary complex.

Orcaella brevirostris : C only.
Character 112 :

Grampus griseus : Subtle but should go with state 0, anterolateral. Least developed in H.

Leucopleurus acutus : Changed from 0 to 1 based on E-H.

Orcinus orca : Approaches state 0.

Pliopontos 193 : Much better developed on left side. Right side closer to state 1.

Pliopontos 931 : Much better developed on left side. Right side closer to state 1.

Pliopontos littoralis 953 : Much better developed on left side. Right side closer to state 1.
Character 113 :

Orcinus orca : L only.
Character 114 :

Orcinus orca : L only.

Brachydelphis uncat : The braincase is slightly crushed, complicating this coding, but I am fairly sure the nasal suture is not shifted to the left, or if so, it is quite minor. Overall the face itself in posterior view seems to be facing slightly to the left, thus being rotated counterclockwise. Seems to be the same in the holotype, although this could be due to distortion.
Character 116 :

Orcinus orca : L only.

Pliopontos 193 : Approaches state 0.

Pliopontos 931 : Approaches state 1.
Character 117 :

Orcinus orca : L only.
Character 118 :

Globicephala macrorhynchus : In A, medial portions are slightly lower but certainly no trough.

Orcinus orca : L only.

Kentriodon pernix : Polymorphism
Character 121 :

Grampus griseus : The left frontal has a prominent process that wedges between the nasals.

Orcinus orca : L only.

Brachydelphis uncat : There is a deep cleft, but no apparent processes of frontals.
Character 122 :

Kentriodon pernix : In A aligned with ant edge of squa fossa floor.

Pseudorca crassidens : In line with anterior edge of squamosal floor.

Brachydelphis holotype : Just anterior to edge of squamosal floor.

Brachydelphis uncat : In line with anterior edge of squamosal floor.

Simocetus : Polymorphism
Character 124 :

Grampus griseus : Nasals are very slightly higher than the frontals.

Brachydelphis uncat : Approaches state 0.
Character 125 :

Orcaella brevirostris : Seem to be the same width in A and B.
Character 126 :

Grampus griseus : Although the frontals are not nodular, they have a prominent cleft/open suture separating them.

Orcaella brevirostris : Clear open suture in A and B.

Pseudorca crassidens : The suture is quite open in A.
Character 127 :

Kentriodon pernix : Changed to ?. Presumably was based on one of the excluded skulls.

Orcinus orca : L only.
Character 128 :

Kentriodon pernix : Changed original coding from 2 to 1. Based on A supraoccipital is at same level maybe even a little lower.

Grampus griseus : Subtle, supraoccipital is really close to nasals in height.

Pseudorca crassidens : Slightly below in A and D but same level in B.

Leucopleurus acutus : True polymorphism. Same height in G but lower in E, F, and H.

Orcinus orca : Changed from 1 to 0 based on USNM specimens. Original coding based on ChM skull, which was somewhat worn.

Brachydelphis uncat : Approaches state 1.
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