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A new fossil cetacean. Harv Univ Bull Mus Comp Zool 1921, 65:3-15.
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Kasuya T: Systematic consideration of recent toothed whales based on the morphology of tympano-periotic bone. Sci Rep Whales Res Inst 1973, 25: 1-103.
Kellogg AR: Description of an apparently new toothed cetacean from South Carolina. Smithson Misc Coll 1923a, 76:1-7.
Kellogg AR: Description of two squalodonts recently discovered in the Calvert Cliffs, Maryland; and notes on the shark-toothed cetaceans. Proc US Natl Mus 1923b, 62:1-69.
Kellogg AR: On the occurrence of remains of fossil porpoises of the genus Eurhinodelphis in North America. Proc US Natl Mus 1925, 66:1-40.
Kellogg AR: Supplementary observations on the skull of the fossil porpoise Zarhachis flagellator Cope. Proc US Natl Mus 1926, 67:1-18.
Kellogg AR: Kentriodon pernix, a Miocene porpoise from Maryland. Proc US Natl Mus 1927, 69:1-55.
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Kellogg R: A new whalebone whale from the Miocene Calvert Formation. Bull US Natl Mus 1965, 247:1-45.
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Luo Z-X. Homology and transformation of cetacean ectotympanic structures. In The Emergence of Whales. Edited by Thewissen, JGM. New York: Plenum Press; 1998:269-301.
Luo Z-X, Gingerich PD: Terrestrial Mesonychia to aquatic Cetacea: transformation of the basicranium and evolution of hearing in whales. University of Michigan Papers on Paleontology 1999, 31: 1-98.
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Unedited Taxon Comments and Key for Character Comments, Generated from WinnClada Data File
Kentriodon pernix : In July 2007, went back over this. It seems that I previously included some skulls that may represent a new species. Revised codings to be based on two specimens: specimen referred to this species by Kellogg (USNM 10670, referred to as A) and the type (USNM 8060, referred to as B). The type is in a plaster mount, which makes several codings difficult. Unless specified, all codings are based on A only, except for the petrotympanics and mandibles, which are based on B, the type.

Leucopleurus acutus : E= USNM 14243, F = USNM 14279, G = USNM 504196, H = USNM 571390, I= USNM 484916, J= USNM 571447. Each of these has a skull. F, G, and H have petrosals, although in H the tympanic covers most structures on the ventral side. Tympanics are in F and H only. Mandibles are in G and H only. These apply to characters higher than 328 unless otherwise stated. Skeletal features are based on H and I. J is used too but H and I take precedence because J is not an adult. E through H used to check codings based on GCM 936 through character 200.

Grampus griseus : E= USNM 550308, F = USNM 550393 (includes skeleton with scapula but no limbs), G = USNM 550437 (includes skeleton with scapula but no limbs), H = USNM 550936; I= USNM 24224 (used for number of digits, forelimb characters but not scapula); J= USNM 504328 (used for skeletal features only). Petrosal observations based on all three, but ventral side of petrosal only visible in F (right side), G (right side), and H (both sides).

Orcaella brevirostris : Based initially on published literature. Checked and modified codings on USNM specimens. A= USNM 199743 (skull, dentaries wo teeth and earbones), B= USNM 284429 (partial skull), C= USNM 486170 (immature skull including dentaries and earbones). Did not look at c except for some earbone features and immature skull features.

Pseudorca crassidens : A= USNM 11320 skull, no jaws, some teeth, petrotympanics (right side separated, left are still connected but bulla broken revealing some of ventral surface); B= USNM 484982 skull, jaws, no petrotympanics; C= USNM 218360 right separated petrosal and bulla; D= USNM 501200 skull, jaws. left petrotympanic joined and right petrosal. E= USNM 20932 (looked at skeleton only, includes most of the vertebral column), F= USNM 23283 (looked at skeleton only, includes most of vertebral column, left scapula and forelimb, but not manus); G= USNM 218360 (looked at sternum only).

Platanista gangetica : A=USNM 23456. B = USNM 172409 (left petrotympanic and righ tympanic).

Orcinus orca : Initially based on ChM 433, but then check based on larger sample size, which is available at the USNM. B= USNM 16488, C= USNM 11980, D= USNM 238112, E= USNM 239351 (looked and mandible only); F= USNM 22068 (looked at joined, right petrotympanic only); G= USNM 219326 (looked at separate right petrosal and tympanic); H= 49909 (looked at right petrosal only); I= USNM 504925 (joined right petrotympanic, tympanic broken to reveal most of petrosal ventral surface); J= USNM 23004 (looked at skeleton only, does not include humerus and more distal forelimb elements); K= USNM 37166 (looked at cervical complex only); L= USNM 219326 (juvenile with skull, was the only specimen examined that still retained the nasals, only examined for a few characters, which are specifically mentioned); M= USNM 294406 (worn and abraded skull, used for features of the occiput not visible on skulls in carriages); N= USNM 571360 (looked a forelimb only, mainly humerus). Mandibular characters observed in C and E.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : Originally based on ChM 412, then checked codings with more specimens at USNM. A=USNM 22571 (skull with jaw and separate petrotympanics), B= USNM 22572 (skull and jaw), C= USNM 37261 (skull and jaw, skeleton), D= USNM 550797 (looked at right petrosal and tympanic only, separated from each other); E= USNM 22570 (looked at skeleton only); F= USNM 500213 (looked at skeleton only).

Phocoenoides dalli : A= AMNH 90802, B = AMNH 12103, C= GCM 349, D= USNM 504969, E= USNM 396304

Pontoporia blainvillei : I= USNM 49432 skull and postcrania but petrotympanics still attached to skull, J= USNM 49442; K = USNM 48254 skull and separate petrotympanics; L = USNM 482747 skull and separate left petrotympanic but joined right; M = USNM 482733 skull and separate petrotympanics.

Phocoena phocoena : M=USNM 218739, N= USNM 218738 (used M and N for a few postcranial characters. Speficially noted for each character when these specimens examined). O = USNM 572018 (skull, jaw, separate petrotympanics); P = USNM 572174 (skull, jaw, separate petrotympanics); Q = 572297 (skull, jaw, separate petrotympanics); R = USNM 572300 (skull, jaw, separate petrotympanics).

Tasmacetus shepherdi : A = USNM 484878.

Inia geoffrensis : A= AMNH 93412, B= AMNH 93414, C= AMNH 93415, D= AMNH 209101, E= AMNH 209103 (each is a skull with lower jaws), I= 93413 (postcranial only), J = USNM 395415 (joined petrotympanics

Delphinus delphis : G = USNM 550228 skull with petrotympanics separate; H = USNM 550240 skull with petrotympanics separate; I = USNM 550305 skull right petrtympanic separate left is joined.

Delphinapterus leucas : H= USNM 16485 (skull jaws, petrotymapanics); I - USNM 22433 (skull with separate petrotympanics but no jaw); J = USNM 23208 (skull, jaws, petrotympanics still attached to skull); K = USNM 275075 (skull with separate petrotympanics and fragmentary jaws).

Brachydelphis holotype : MNHN PPI 121, Holotype. Includes partial skull, both petrosals, and partial tympanic bullae.

Brachydelphis 124 : MNHN PPI 124. Fragmentary skull including nearly all of the rostrum, much of the area around the internal nares, and anterior part of basicranial stem. Dorsal surface is highly corroded.

Kentriodon pernix : Fragmentary skeleton. Includes left petrosal and left posterior process of tympanic, some vertebrae, both humeri and partial ulna and part of left scapula that has glenoid fossa.

Brachydelphis uncat : Nearly complete, but not totally prepared skull. The ventral side in particular is not prepared. No #.

Pliopontos littoralis 953 : SAS 953. Includes partial skeleton with skull and right petrotympanics (separate). The rostrum on the skull is incomplete.

Pliopontos 193 : Pliopontos_littoralis. SAS 193. Partial skull.

Pliopontos 931 : Pliopontos_littoralis holotype. SAS 931. Partial skull with right bulla.

Ninoziphius platyrostris : MNHN SAS 941. Partial skull and skeleton including both petrosals and a right tympanic.

Brachydelphis_125 : Fragmentary skeleton. Includes left petrosal and left posterior process of tympanic, some vertebrae, both humeri and partial ulna and part of left scapula that has glenoid fossa.

Brachydelphis_230 : MNHN PPI 230. Very fragmentary skeleton. Includes most of left petrosal, both humeri, left radius and ulna, proximal end of right radius.
Unedited Taxon Comments and Key for Character Comments, Generated from WinnClada Data File
Kentriodon pernix : In July 2007, went back over this. It seems that I previously included some skulls that may represent a new species. Revised codings to be based on two specimens: specimen referred to this species by Kellogg (USNM 10670, referred to as A) and the type (USNM 8060, referred to as B). The type is in a plaster mount, which makes several codings difficult. Unless specified, all codings are based on A only, except for the petrotympanics and mandibles, which are based on B, the type.

Leucopleurus acutus : E= USNM 14243, F = USNM 14279, G = USNM 504196, H = USNM 571390, I= USNM 484916, J= USNM 571447. Each of these has a skull. F, G, and H have petrosals, although in H the tympanic covers most structures on the ventral side. Tympanics are in F and H only. Mandibles are in G and H only. Skeletal features are based on H and I. J is used too but H and I take precedence because J is not an adult. E through H used to check codings based on GCM 936 through character 200.

Grampus griseus : E= USNM 550308, F = USNM 550393 (includes skeleton with scapula but no limbs), G = USNM 550437 (includes skeleton with scapula but no limbs), H = USNM 550936; I= USNM 24224 (used for number of digits, forelimb characters but not scapula); J= USNM 504328 (used for skeletal features only). Petrosal observations based on all three, but ventral side of petrosal only visible in F (right side), G (right side), and H (both sides).

Orcaella brevirostris : Based initially on published literature. Checked and modified codings on USNM specimens. A= USNM 199743 (skull, dentaries wo teeth and earbones), B= USNM 284429 (partial skull), C= USNM 486170 (immature skull including dentaries and earbones). Did not look at C except for some earbone features and immature skull features.

Pseudorca crassidens : A= USNM 11320 skull, no jaws, some teeth, petrotympanics (right side separated, left are still connected but bulla broken revealing some of ventral surface); B= USNM 484982 skull, jaws, no petrotympanics; C= USNM 218360 right separated petrosal and bulla; D= USNM 501200 skull, jaws, left petrotympanic joined and right petrosal. E= USNM 20932 (looked at skeleton only, includes most of the vertebral column), F= USNM 23283 (looked at skeleton only, includes most of vertebral column, left scapula and forelimb, but not manus); G= USNM 218360 (looked at sternum only).

Platanista gangetica : A=USNM 23456. B = USNM 172409 (left petrotympanic and righ tympanic).

Orcinus orca : Initially based on ChM 433, but then check based on larger sample size, which is available at the USNM. B= USNM 16488, C= USNM 11980, D= USNM 238112, E= USNM 239351 (looked and mandible only); F= USNM 22068 (looked at joined, right petrotympanic only); G= USNM 219326 (looked at separate right petrosal and tympanic); H= 49909 (looked at right petrosal only); I= USNM 504925 (joined right petrotympanic, tympanic broken to reveal most of petrosal ventral surface); J= USNM 23004 (looked at skeleton only, does not include humerus and more distal forelimb elements); K= USNM 37166 (looked at cervical complex only); L= USNM 219326 (juvenile with skull, was the only specimen examined that still retained the nasals, only examined for a few characters, which are specifically mentioned); M= USNM 294406 (worn and abraded skull, used for features of the occiput not visible on skulls in carriages); N= USNM 571360 (looked a forelimb only, mainly humerus). Mandibular characters observed in C and E.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : Originally based on ChM 412, then checked codings with more specimens at USNM. A=USNM 22571 (skull with jaw and separate petrotympanics), B= USNM 22572 (skull and jaw), C= USNM 37261 (skull and jaw, skeleton), D= USNM 550797 (looked at right petrosal and tympanic only, separated from each other); E= USNM 22570 (looked at skeleton only); F= USNM 500213 (looked at skeleton only).

Phocoenoides dalli : A= AMNH 90802, B = AMNH 12103, C= GCM 349, D= USNM 504969, E= USNM 396304

Pontoporia blainvillei : I= USNM 49432 skull and postcrania but petrotympanics still attached to skull, J= USNM 49442; K = USNM 48254 skull and separate petrotympanics; L = USNM 482747 skull and separate left petrotympanic but joined right; M = USNM 482733 skull and separate petrotympanics.

Phocoena phocoena : M=USNM 218739, N= USNM 218738 (used M and N for a few postcranial characters. Speficially noted for each character when these specimens examined). O = USNM 572018 (skull, jaw, separate petrotympanics); P = USNM 572174 (skull, jaw, separate petrotympanics); Q = 572297 (skull, jaw, separate petrotympanics); R = USNM 572300 (skull, jaw, separate petrotympanics).

Tasmacetus shepherdi : A = USNM 484878.

Inia geoffrensis : A= AMNH 93412, B= AMNH 93414, C= AMNH 93415, D= AMNH 209101, E= AMNH 209103 (each is a skull with lower jaws), I= 93413 (postcranial only), J = USNM 395415 (joined petrotympanics

Delphinus delphis : G = USNM 550228 skull with petrotympanics separate; H = USNM 550240 skull with petrotympanics separate; I = USNM 550305 skull right petrtympanic separate left is joined.

Delphinapterus leucas : H= USNM 16485 (skull jaws, petrotymapanics); I - USNM 22433 (skull with separate petrotympanics but no jaw); J = USNM 23208 (skull, jaws, petrotympanics still attached to skull); K = USNM 275075 (skull with separate petrotympanics and fragmentary jaws).

Brachydelphis holotype : MNHN PPI 121, Holotype. Includes partial skull, both petrosals, and partial tympanic bullae.

Brachydelphis 124 : MNHN PPI 124. Fragmentary skull including nearly all of the rostrum, much of the area around the internal nares, and anterior part of basicranial stem. Dorsal surface is highly corroded.

Kentriodon pernix : Fragmentary skeleton. Includes left petrosal and left posterior process of tympanic, some vertebrae, both humeri and partial ulna and part of left scapula that has glenoid fossa.

Brachydelphis uncat : Nearly complete, but not totally prepared skull. The ventral side in particular is not prepared. No #.

Pliopontos littoralis 953 : SAS 953. Includes partial skeleton with skull and right petrotympanics (separate). The rostrum on the skull is incomplete.

Pliopontos 193 : Pliopontos_littoralis. SAS 193. Partial skull.

Pliopontos 931 : Pliopontos_littoralis holotype. SAS 931. Partial skull with right bulla.

Ninoziphius platyrostris : MNHN SAS 941. Partial skull and skeleton including both petrosals and a right tympanic.

Brachydelphis_125 : Fragmentary skeleton. Includes left petrosal and left posterior process of tympanic, some vertebrae, both humeri and partial ulna and part of left scapula that has glenoid fossa.

Brachydelphis_230 : MNHN PPI 230. Very fragmentary skeleton. Includes most of left petrosal, both humeri, left radius and ulna, proximal end of right radius.
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