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Character 130 :

Grampus griseus : Lateral edge is upturned but otherwise fits state 0 best.

Pseudorca crassidens : Edge of crest is upturned in D.
Character 132 :

Simocetus : Actually roof is quite small.

Orcinus orca : True polymorphism. Maxilla exposed in ChM specimen and B but not in C and D.
Character 133 :

Kentriodon pernix : Changed to ?.

Brachydelphis holotype : Angled anteroventrally.

Pliopontos 193 : Slightly anteroventral.

Pliopontos 931 : Slightly anteroventral.
Character 134 :

Grampus griseus : In USNM 550982 (a juv) the parietals are large and articulate via an irregular suture.

Orcaella brevirostris : C only.

Pseudorca crassidens : No immatures available, that is why coding is ambiguous.

Leucopleurus acutus : Based on USNM 504178, a juvenile skull.

Brachydelphis uncat : Ambiguity.

Pliopontos 193 : Ambiguity.

Pliopontos 931 : Ambiguity.

Pliopontos littoralis 953 : Ambiguity.
Character 135 :

Kentriodon pernix : Changed to ?.

Grampus griseus : Based on USNM 550982 (a juv).

Pliopontos 931 : Not certain.
Character 136 :

Pseudorca crassidens : Not really the case in D since the maxillary edge is upturned.

Pliopontos 193 : Not really.
Character 138 :

Kentriodon pernix : Changed to ?.
Character 139 :

Kentriodon pernix : Based on A changed from 1 to 0. In A, supraoccipital is close to but behind ant edge of squa fossa floor.

Simocetus : Close but looks a little anterior to the anterior edge of the squamosal floor.

Brachydelphis holotype : Approaches state 1, could be that state if supraoccipital is broken.

Brachydelphis uncat : Just posterior to edge of squamosal floor.

Simocetus : Ambiguity.
Character 141 :

Pliopontos 193 : Does not have broad temporal exposure.

Ninoziphius platyrostris : The subtemporal crest is well developed but this does not mean it has a bulge.
Character 142 :

Leucopleurus acutus : Too short.
Character 143 :

Kentriodon pernix : Probably have some polymorphism here. In B, there is a distinct flange, but flange is absent in A. In this taxon zygoma is inclined anterodorsally with a flat to slightly concave dorsal margin.

Pseudorca crassidens : Actually sort of sigmoidal with a posterior convex part, then a swell that curves slightly anterodorsally.

Brachydelphis holotype : Oriented anterodorsally.

Brachydelphis uncat : Slightly concave, approaches state 0. The entire process is directed anterodorsally.

Pliopontos 193 : Directed anterodorsally.
Character 144 :

Pseudorca crassidens : Check ChM specimen. In USNM specimens examined, it looks like slight emargination.

Leucopleurus acutus : Changed from 2 to 1 based on E-H.
Character 147 :

Globicephala macrorhynchus : Maybe straight is a better way to describe it. The floor rises up posteriorly but is not sigmoidal.
Character 148 :

Pliopontos 193 : Not dramatic thickening.

Pliopontos littoralis 953 : Not dramatic thickening.
Character 150 :

Leucopleurus acutus : Slightly concave, nearly flat.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : Changed from 0 to 1 based on USNM specimens.

Brachydelphis holotype : Ambiguity.

Pliopontos 193 : Actually sigmoidal, convex anteriorly but concave posteriorly.

Pliopontos littoralis 953 : Actually sigmoidal, convex anteriorly but concave posteriorly.
Character 151 :

Grampus griseus : Sort of ambiguous in USNM specimens.

Leucopleurus acutus : True polymorphism. In E-G blunt but in H comes to a point.

Ninoziphius platyrostris : But differs from eurhinodelphid condition in that it is not blocky.
Character 152 :

Orcaella brevirostris : True polymorphism. Round in A box like in B.

Orcinus orca : M only.

Brachydelphis holotype : Ambiguity.

Pliopontos 193 : Does have median point but overall rectangular. Same in all three specimens.
Character 153 :

Leucopleurus acutus : Changed from 1 based on E-H. Was state 2.

Pliopontos 931 : Ambiguity.

Pliopontos littoralis 953 : Ambiguity.
Character 154 :

Kentriodon pernix : Changed to ?.
Character 155 :

Grampus griseus : Development varies. Best developed in E and F.

Orcaella brevirostris : Crest is low and indistinct.

Pseudorca crassidens : Crest is very weak in D but clear in A and B.

Leucopleurus acutus : There is a tiny and very short sagittal crest in F.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : Changed from 0 to 1. The crest is much better developed in A and B (which are probably males) than C.

Orcinus orca : M only.

Pliopontos 931 : There is a very small crest at the dorsal end but this is absent on nearly all of the supraoccipital, thus coded 0.
Character 157 :

Grampus griseus : Does seem to excavate into the maxilla, particularly in F and H but is short not long.

Brachydelphis holotype : Short fossa that extends slightly anterior to jugal.

Brachydelphis 124 : Short fossa.

Pliopontos 193 : No clear fossa.

Pliopontos littoralis 953 : No clear fossa.

Ninoziphius platyrostris : Ambiguity. No fossa.
Character 159 :

Orcaella brevirostris : Current coding based on A.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : In A and C the pterygoid coveres all of the medial exposure of the palatine leaving just the lateral lamina exposed.
Character 160 :

Ninoziphius platyrostris : Very shallow fossa.
Character 161 :

Kentriodon pernix : Changed to 0. I can see the max/palatine suture in A
Character 163 :

Orcaella brevirostris : Maybe a little anterior to orbit but not by much.

Brachydelphis 124 : Ambiguity.

Pliopontos 931 : Ambiguity.
Character 164 :

Orcinus orca : Not unreasonable to code as 2, absent entirely.

Brachydelphis 124 : Could be broken so extent is uncertain. Does seem more extensive than in most Pliocene odontocetes.

Brachydelphis uncat : It is possible that the lateral lamina extended more posteriorly but it seems to be ending in the same in place 2 specimens (this one and 124)
Character 165 :

Ninoziphius platyrostris : Very well developed.
Character 167 :

Kentriodon pernix : Changed from 2 or 3 to 3 based on A.

Brachydelphis holotype : Ambiguity.

Ninoziphius platyrostris : Approaches state 0 but most of alisphenoid exposed. It almost seems like early in ontogeny pterygoid covers the alisphenoid but as the sinus develops, it is reabsorbed exposing the alisphenoid.
Character 169 :

Leucopleurus acutus : Getting close to state 4 but I would code as 3.

Pliopontos 931 : Ambiguity.

Pliopontos 193 : Approaches state 4.

Pliopontos littoralis 953 : Approaches state 4.
Character 170 :

Kentriodon pernix : There is an excavation but the fossa is very small in A. Orcaella brevirostris : Looks like there is a postorbital fossa in B.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : Changed from 3 to 2 based on USNM specimens.

Brachydelphis holotype : Ambiguity. No clear fossa present.
Character 172 :

Pseudorca crassidens : Are hollowed out, like state 2 but the ends are plate-like.

Leucopleurus acutus : They are hollowed out laterally but most of it is a plate.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : Changed from 2 to 3 based on USNM specimens. It is plate-like medially, although thick. Laterally it is hollowed out.

Brachydelphis 124 : Is hollowed out latreally but medial portion is a plate.

Ninoziphius platyrostris : Posterior end approaches state 1.
Character 173 :

Grampus griseus : Keels are very weak in E and F.

Orcaella brevirostris : Keels look really weak in A.
Character 174 :

Grampus griseus : Really between states 0 and 1 but closest to state 1.

Leucopleurus acutus : Actually over posterior half of orbit but closest to middle of orbit.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : Changed from 2 to 1 based on USNM specimens. The hamular processes are approximately in line with the postorbital processes.

Brachydelphis 124 : Ambiguity.

Ninoziphius platyrostris : Approaches state 2.
Character 175 :

Globicephala macrorhynchus : True polymorphism. There is a shallow fossa in A but none in B or C.
Character 176 :

Kentriodon pernix : Changed to ?. Could be broken.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : Based on A and B.

Ninoziphius platyrostris : Not entirely preserved but looks like state 1.
Character 184 :

Grampus griseus : True polymorphism and varies a lot. There is a clear ridge in G and in the ChM specimen examined. the ridge is absent in E, F, and H.

Pseudorca crassidens : A and D.

Leucopleurus acutus : Hard to say. Looks like a ridge in G but not in E, F, and H. Code as polymorphic.

Platanista gangetica : A
Character 185 :

Grampus griseus : In F and to a lesser extent in G there is an excavation into the squamosal but this is in a more anterior position, really lateral to where the anterior process of the petrosal would lie.

Orcaella brevirostris : Probably not homologous because in a slightly more dorsal position than in platanistoids and xenorophoids.

Pseudorca crassidens : Absent but there is an excavation dorsolateral to the anterior process. Same thing seen in Grampus.

Leucopleurus acutus : rue polymorphism. Shallow in F but deep in E, G, and H.

Orcinus orca : True polymorphism. C= 0, B and D = 1.

Platanista gangetica : A
Character 186 :

Grampus griseus : This area is complex but I could not find a clear foramen.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : There is a large opening in C but not sure if it is just a gap in the suture or a true foramen.

Platanista gangetica : A
Character 187 :

Grampus griseus : True polymorphism. State 0 is in F and G, state 3 is in G and H.

Leucopleurus acutus : Polymorphism. State 3 in E and G, state 0 in F and H.

Orcinus orca : True polymorphism. B = 2, C and D = 0.
Character 189 :

Orcinus orca : It is wide but not compared to the size of the skull. Relatively it is quite narrow.
Character 192 :

Globicephala macrorhynchus : Very well developed.

Brachydelphis holotype : Part on basioccipital approaches state 1.
Character 193 :

Kentriodon pernix : Coded as 1 based on A.

Pliopontos 931 : Flange but no notch and is more like an undercut ridge.

Pliopontos 193 : Flange but no notch and is more like an undercut ridge.
Character 196 :

Globicephala macrorhynchus : Narrow in A and B but open in C.

Brachydelphis holotype : Approaches state 1, but much more open than many foramina.
Character 197 :

Orcinus orca : In far posterior position compared to most delphinids.
Character 200 :

Leucopleurus acutus : F and G
Character 201 :

Leucopleurus acutus : F and G

Grampus griseus : True polymorphism. The point when present is at the anterodorsal corner. Point developed in E (left side , G (right side), and H (left side). In others squared off.
Character 202 :

Leucopleurus acutus : F and G

Globicephala macrorhynchus : Deflected in D but not in A.
Character 204 :

Leucopleurus acutus : F, G, H

Orcaella brevirostris : Slightly concave but close enough to flat to code as such.

Pseudorca crassidens : Flat to slightly concave.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : Slightly concave in A but clearly concave in D.

Orcinus orca : In all concave but in H nearly flat, F, clearly concave, and in G and I concave but not as concave as in F.
Character 205 :

Leucopleurus acutus : F, G, H

Brachydelphis holotype : There is a groove but is bowed dorsally.
Character 206 :

Leucopleurus acutus : F,G,H

Brachydelphis holotype : There is a groove here, position seems correct.

Kentriodon pernix : There is a hint of a shallow sulcus here.

Brachydelphis_125 : There is a hint of a shallow sulcus here.
Character 207 :

Leucopleurus acutus : Based on F and G

Pseudorca crassidens : Based on B, which has petrotympanics still in articulation with the skull.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : Petrosal not articulated so unsure. Regardless little to no contact, thus 2 or 3.
Character 209 :

Orcinus orca : Based on F, G, and I.

Brachydelphis holotype : Too short.

Kentriodon pernix : Too short

Pliopontos littoralis 953 : Too short.

Brachydelphis_125 : Too short

Brachydelphis_230 : Too short.
Character 210 :

Leucopleurus acutus : F, G, and H
Character 211 :

Orcinus orca : The lateral tuberosity actually has a fossa for the sigmoid process. Best developed in G and H. Makes the tubeosity seem smaller.

Brachydelphis holotype : Approaches state 0.

Pliopontos littoralis 953 : Really absent.

Ninoziphius platyrostris : Very well developed.

Brachydelphis_230 : Very weak, approaches state 0.
Character 212 :

Orcinus orca : True polymorphism. Narrow in G, but wide in F, H, and I.

Pliopontos littoralis 953 : Hard to code. Looks narrow but edge of posterior process poorly defined.
Character 213 :

Leucopleurus acutus : Both this and character 214 (malleus fossa) based on F and G.

Grampus griseus : Present in F and H but cannot find in G. In G this could be a preservational artifact so coded as present.

Pseudorca crassidens : Broken off in A.

Orcinus orca : Could not be scored in F.
Character 214 :

Orcinus orca : Could not be scored in F.
Character 216 :

Leucopleurus acutus : Both this and next character (tensor tympani groove) are based on F amd G.

Grampus griseus : True polymorphism and highly variable. Whole side is pitted in H, both the anterior and posterior processes in G, similar in F except just the dorsal edge of anterior process and the ventral edge of posterior process, and just sporadic spongy bone in F.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : Changed from 2 to 3 based on USNM specimens.

Orcinus orca : Extreme ventral edge of posterior process contains rugged bone but rest is smooth.

Ninoziphius platyrostris : This is difficult. On the right side the petrosal almost approaches state 0. The posterior process is definitely rugose as is the anteriormost point of the anterior process. On the left side the petrosal is not very rugose laterally, but not quite smooth either. State 2 seems like the best compromise coding, although alternatively within individual polymoprhism could be used too.
Character 217 :

Globicephala macrorhynchus : Changed from 2 to 1 based on USNM specimens.
Character 218 :

Leucopleurus acutus : True polymorphism.

Orcinus orca : Could not be scored in F.

Ninoziphius platyrostris : It appears like state 2 (acute) because of the accessory ossicle but if this is removed it is 9 degrees.
Character 220 :

Leucopleurus acutus : This and character through 329 based on F and G.

Pliopontos littoralis 953 : Tough call.
Character 221 :

Orcinus orca : Could not be scored in F.
Character 222 :

Leucopleurus acutus : State 0 in F and 1 in G.

Orcinus orca : True polymorphism. Tear-drop shape with short fissure in G, tear-drop but no fissure in H, oval in F and I.
\Character 223 :

Pseudorca crassidens : True polymorphim. A = 0 while C and D =1.

Pliopontos littoralis 953 : Approaches state 1.
Character 224 :

Grampus griseus : True polymorphism. The stylomastoid fossa is absent in E and G, but small and present in F and G.

Pseudorca crassidens : Really small in A but well developed in others.

Kentriodon pernix : Approaches state 0.

Pliopontos littoralis 953 : Very poorly defined. Approaches absent.

Ninoziphius platyrostris : Very small.

Brachydelphis_125 : Approaches state 0.
Character 225 :

Grampus griseus : Does not look prominent on left side of H but I think this is broken.

Orcinus orca : Not visible in I, caudal tympanic process appears to be broken.
Character 226 :

Ninoziphius platyrostris : Left petrosal approaches state 1.
Character 227 :

Orcaella brevirostris : Endolymphatic foramen is huge.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : Perilymphatic is smaller in A but subequal in D.

Orcinus orca : Could not be scored in H because foramina filled with matrix.

Ninoziphius platyrostris : On both petrosals the perilympahic foramen is slightly smaller than the endolympahtic foramen. However, in both the perilymphatic is quite large and close enough in size to the endolympahtic to be considered subequal.
Character 231 :

Ninoziphius platyrostris : Not certain.
Character 234 :

Leucopleurus acutus : F, G, H

Orcinus orca : Funnel-shaped in all but F.
Character 235 :

Ninoziphius platyrostris : Unlikely to be homologous to early mysticete condition, but it is certainly very high.
Character 236 :

Leucopleurus acutus : This through character 241 based on F, G, and H.

Grampus griseus : True polymorphism. State 1 in E, G, and H. State 2 is in F and a ChM specimen.

Pseudorca crassidens : Nearly equal in D.

Ninoziphius platyrostris : Partition separating singular foramen from tractus spiralis is quite high.
Character 238 :

Grampus griseus : True polymorphism. Circular in E and G and oval in F and H.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : Circular in D and A right side, oval in A left side.

Orcinus orca : Could not be scored in H. Also in F there appears to be a fissure but this is superficial. The foramen itself is circular.
Character 240 :

Leucopleurus acutus : Hard to tell either 3 or 4.

Grampus griseus : Not sure. My best guess is state 3 or 4.

Pseudorca crassidens : Based on B only.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : Unsure but either 3 or 4 based on articulating the petrosal by hand.
Character 241 :

Leucopleurus acutus : F only

Orcinus orca : Could not be scored in F and I.

Brachydelphis holotype : Slight hint of grooves, so approaches state 1.

Kentriodon pernix : Very faint grooves, approaches state 1.

Brachydelphis_125 : Very faint grooves, approaches state 1.
Character 242 :

Leucopleurus acutus : F only

Pseudorca crassidens : Approaches flat in A.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : Slightly concave but close enough to flat so coded as state 1.

Orcinus orca : Could not be scored in F and I.

Brachydelphis holotype : Slightly concave.

Pliopontos littoralis 953 : Slightly convex.
Character 243 :

Leucopleurus acutus : F, G, and H
Character 244 :

Leucopleurus acutus : F, G, H

Kentriodon pernix : Long relative to length.

Brachydelphis_125 : Long relative to length.
Character 250 :

Grampus griseus : Very long in G and H. Small in F and probably broken in E. This projection originates almost entirely from the involucrum side and may not be homologous to the spine in other taxa.

Orcaella brevirostris : Looks absent.
Character 252 :

Leucopleurus acutus : F and H

Pseudorca crassidens : Does point on right side in C but ignored because state in minority.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : Does not protrude much but definitely forms an angle and not rounded over.

Orcinus orca : In G does not really point medially but still is not rounded.

Pliopontos 931 : Does not point much medially, more ventrally.
Character 253 :

Globicephala macrorhynchus : A left side.
Character 254 :

Globicephala macrorhynchus : A, left side only.

Ninoziphius platyrostris : Just not sure. It is not obviously state 1 but need to compare with other ziphiids.
Character 255 :

Leucopleurus acutus : Based on F. In G there posterior end of the ossicle is fused but most is not.

Grampus griseus : Posterior portion is partially fused but rest is not.

Orcinus orca : Based on G.
Character 256 :

Leucopleurus acutus : This through char 265 are based on F and H.

Globicephala macrorhynchus : A only.

Orcinus orca : It is really faint in F and G. Could not be scored in I.
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