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Proforma for registration of subject for dissertation

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Name of the Candidate

and Address


P.G. Scholars

Department of Ilmul Advia,

National Institute of Unani Medicine,

Kottigepalya, Magadi Main Road,

Bangalore- 91.


Name of the Institution

National Institute of Unani Medicine,

Bangalore- 91.


Course of Study and Subject

MD ( Ilmul Advia )


Date of Admission to Course

25th October 2008 (Batch 2008 - 09)


Title of the Topic

Pharmacognostical studies on Gumma (Leucas cephalotes



Brief resume of the intended work


Introduction & Need for the Study:
The Universal role of plants in the treatment of diseases is proved by their utilization in all Traditional systems of medicine irrespective of the underlying philosophical premise. There is pressing need to record

local knowledge of Traditional systems of medicine before it is lost forever. The need arises for increased efforts directed towards Pharmacognostical and Pharmaceutical studies of the plants.1 In present global scenario, natural medicines are gaining prominence, because they are economical, easily available and relatively safe.2 Most of the medicinal plants evaluated scientifically have not been incorporated in Unani system of medicine. Much of the modern approach related to the study of drugs is based on interpretation

of experimental evidences, Pharmacognostical characters and Pharmacological action of these constituents

is the basis to our approach in understanding the modern trends in Unani system of medicine.5 The use of modern isolation techniques and Pharmacognostical studies procedures mean that plants drugs used as medicine should be in the purified form having a specific standard. A large number of plants are constantly being screened for their possible Pharmacological values. It is important to make valuable contribution to these rapidly developing fields of Pharmacognostical study.1 A number of plants are not mentioned in

Unani literature, these have been taken from other systems of medicine, and are exotic for Unani medicine.

Gumma is one of such exotic drugs, which has been incorporated in Unani medicine probably by Indian Hakeems. This plant has not been studied extensively for its Anatomical, Physiochemical and Phytochemical properties. The present study aims at Scientific evaluation of this plant, which is a lesser known plant mentioned only in few Unani books.


Review of Literature:

Gumma is an Indian origin plant. It has not been mentioned in classical Unani literature. It has been described only in few Unani books, which were composed in India by Hakim Ghani N. (Khazainul Advia)3 and Hakim Mohd Abdul Hakim (Bustanul Mufradat)4 etc. But It has been described in detail in the Ayurvedic books and Ethanobotany of India. It seems that this drug was introduced into Unani medicine from Ayurvedic medicine after immigration of Unani physicians from Arab and Persia9. So, now it is considered as a Unani drug.

Vernacular Names :

Urdu : - Gumma 3,4 Hindi: - Dhrupi sag, Deldona, Goma. Sanskrit: - Chatraka, Drona, Dronapuspi.

Marathi: - Tumba-phul , Kumba-phul, Bahuphuli. Delhi: - Gubba. Punjabi: - Sisaliyus, Guldoda.

Telugu: - Peddatummi. Bengali: - Barahalkusa. 9,12,13,14,15

Temperament [Mizaj]: Gumma is Hot and Dry in second degree. 3


It belongs to family Lamiaceae.7,10,14 It is an erect, scaberulous or pubescent, stout, annual, herb,0.6-0.9 m. 9 30-100 cm high 12 found as a common weed in cultivated ground and waste land throughout the greater part of India. 9,12,13 Leaves 3.8-7.5 by 1.3-2.5 cm opposite and decussate, simple, exstipulate, subacute, membranous, more or less pubescent, crenate-serrate base tapering obtuse, tips acute, petioles 6 -13 mm long, pubescent laminate ovate or ovate lanceolate. Flowers small, white, in dense terminal globose whorls 2.5-5 cm in diameter nutlets small, smooth, brown. Flowering and fruiting periods: October June.17 Plants have pungent taste with flavour. The plant is reported to possess rennet like properties. 9,12 It is considered as stimulant, diaphoretic, laxative, antihelmentic, antiseptic and insecticidal.3,4,9,12,13,15,16 Leaves are useful

in jaundice, oedema, polyurea, cough, asthma, metrorrhagia, urinary tract infection, pruritis, scabies and aspermia. 4,9,10,12,15,16,17 Flowers are used as a domestic remedy for coughs and colds. 9,12,13,17 Infusion of plants is used in infantile cough, rheumatism, antidote for snake bite.3,15,17 Infusion of fresh plant is used as antidote for snake bite. 10,17 Fruits are used for malaria as an antipyretic. 3,16,17 It has beta-sitosterol glycoside and traces of alkaloids. 7,10


Objectives of the Study:

To study Gumma (Leucas cephalotes, Spreng) on Pharmacognostical Parameters in order to

establish its identity and purity.




Material and Methods:

Source of Data:

Through Pharmacognostical, Phytochemical and Analytical studies.

Method of Collection of Data:

The plant will be studied Macroscopically, Microscopically, Physically and Chemically. 9

Macroscopic studies:

The macroscopic study of the plant will be conducted by naked eye. The external features of the plant including shape, size, leaves, seeds and the types of florescence and floral characters etc. will be noted.

Microscopic studies:

Various parts of the plant will be studied microscopically.

Phytochemical studies:

This study will be done for estimation of various phytochemicals.

Anatomical studies:

The phytochemicals will also be estimated analytically.

Physical standards:

The plant will be evaluated for Extractive values in various solvents like Petroleum ether, Alcohol, Distilled water etc. Ash value; Moisture content etc. 1,6 ,18

Statistical analysis:

The data will be analysed statistically by using appropriate test.


Does the study require any investigation or intervention to be

conducted on patient or other humans or animals.



Has ethical clearance been obtained from your institution in case of 7.2

Not Applicable.


List of reference:

  1. Evans W.C. (2008) Pharmacognosy, Elsevier, A Division of Reed Elsevier India Private Ltd. New Delhi. P-96-105, 139-143, 516-525, 538.

  2. Kokate C.K. (2006) Pharmacognosy, Nirali Prakashan, Pune. P- 5, 99-122.

  3. Ghani N. (1971) Khazaenul Advia, Vol - I, Idarah Kitabus Shifah, New Delhi.P-1160.

  4. Hakeem M.A. (2002) Bustanul Mufradaat, Idarah Kitabus Shifah, New Delhi. P-503.

  5. Mukundan, Rai, Vaidya, (1997) Botany: A New Approach, Agro Botanica, J.N. Vyas Nagar, Bikaner. P-276, 313.

  6. Martin J, Willoughby, Simon Y. Mills. (1996) British Herbal Pharmacopoeia, BHMA (British Herbal Medicine Association) Great Britain. P-195-200.

  7. Rostogi, Mehrotra. (1999) Compendium of Indian Medicine, Vol. II, Central Drugs Research Institute, Lucknow and National Institute of Science and Communication, New Delhi. P- 414.

  8. Anonymous. (2000) The useful Plant of India, National Institute of Science and Communication CSIR, New Delhi. P-326.

  9. Kirtikar K.R, Basu B.D. (2003) Indian Medicinal Plants, Vol. IX, 2nd Edition, Oriental Enterprises, Dehradun. P-2779.

  10. Anonymous. (2001) Medicinal Plants in Folklores of Bihar and Orissa, CCRUM, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Govt. of India, New Delhi. P-314.

  11. Shah, Quadari. (2007-2008) Pharmacognosy, B.S.Shah Prakashan, Ahmedabad. P-1.

  12. Anonymous. (2003) The Wealth of India, Vol. VI, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. P-79-80.

  13. R.N. Chopra. (2002) Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources, CSIR, New Delhi. P-153.

  14. N.D. Prajapati / S.S Purohit. (2004) Argo’s Colour Atlas of Medicinal Plants, Agro bios (India) Agro house, Behind Nasrani Cinema, Chopasani Road, Jodhpur. Plate-77, P-480.

  15. William Dymock. (1890) Pharmacographia Indica, A History of the Principal Drugs of Vegetable Origin, Part- III, M/S Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun. P-123.

  16. Vaidya Bhagwan Das. (1994) Materica Medica of Tibetan Medicine, Sri Satguru Publication, A Division of Indian Books Centre, Delhi. P-356.

  17. Medicinal Plants of Myanmar. /Myanmar med plant/TIL /family ( 20.2.09)

  18. S.H. Afaq. (1994) Standardization of Herbal Drugs, Publication Division, A.M.U. Aligarh. P-26-44, 61-75, 93-108.


Signature of Candidate


Remarks of the Guide


Name & Designation of

11.1: Guide

11.2: Signature:

11.3: Co-Guide:

11.4: Signature:

11.5: Head of Department:

11.6: Signature



12.1:Remarks of the Chairman & Principal:

12.2 Signature

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