|Science Attachment #11
“A federal judge in California Aug. 30 temporarily blocked the use of herbicides in an ongoing restoration project in the Tahoe National Forest.
The U.S. Forest Service was planning to use two herbicides, glyphosate and triclopyr, which it says are available at nurseries and farms and garden stores. Several groups, including the Californians for Alternatives to Toxics, Forest Issues Group and the California Indian Basketweavers Association, targeted the plan in a lawsuit.
U.S. District Court Judge Lawrence Karlton found the Forest Service violated provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act by not properly evaluating the potential of the herbicides to promote the spread of noxious weeds. The judge also found the agency did not adequately consider the possible negative impacts the herbicides could have on fish, amphibians and mammals.
In addition, Karlton found that the Forest Service should have published a detailed report on possible alternatives to the use of herbicides. He blocked the agency from spraying "until they have complied with the requirements of NEPA" as detailed in his order.”
Winograd, Jeffrey, “Federal judge halts spraying in Tahoe National Forest”
Pesticide & Toxic Chemical News, September 10, 2001
“ ‘The agency admits that toxic herbicides can poison water, make people sick, and kill plants and wildlife already on the brink of extinction,’ said Jay Lininger, an ecologist with the Center for Biological Diversity. ‘It must take a hard look at alternatives and tell the public where, how, and why it will use these dangerous chemicals.’ “
“ ‘The BLM overlooked impacts to some of the rarest species in the state, seemingly determined to write itself a blank check to proceed with herbicide use,” said Dr. Nicole Rosmarino of WildEarth Guardians. ‘We’re pleased by the withdrawal of this reckless plan, which would have allowed the agency to apply toxic chemicals wherever and whenever it chose despite the dangers herbicides pose to endangered species and drinking water.’ ”
Rosmarino, Nicole Ph.D., “Conservationists Stop Herbicide Spraying
on 1.5 Million Acres of Public Land”
Center for Biological Diversity news release, July 17, 2009
“The table that may be accessed through this link shows herbicides in 3 categories: Tier I: Highest Concern, Priority for Phaseout, Tier II: Moderate Concern, Possible Restrictions, and Tier III: Lowest Concern. Only those herbicides in tier III must be used on public land.”
King County Executive Order regarding Integrated
Pest Management, October 6, 1999
“For example, a primary problem affecting salmon is the non-point-source pollution coming from intensive agriculture, including intensive forestry, which laces the soil with toxic pesticides, herbicides, and synthetic fertilizers. This combination of pollutants not only kills fish and other aquatic life but also damages marshlands in more than a third of the nation's coastal areas, according to the National Academy of Sciences.
Every autumn, this "toxic cocktail" means Monte Graham gets nervous because, as a soil and water conservation officer for Marion County, in western Oregon, he knows that tons of farmland soil—and its myriad synthetic chemicals—will erode with each inch of rain. As the soil moves, it carries the poisonous compounds into ditches and streams. In addition, the pollutants leach through the soil into the groundwater, and from there into the same ditches and streams.
Once in the waterways, the chemicals can cause bone deformities in the baby salmon, damage their reproductive systems, destroy their food supply, and block their adaptation to saltwater. These contaminants can also prevent migrating adults from finding their home waters in which to spawn. Not surprisingly, a study by the U.S. Geological Survey found that the Willamette River Basin of western Oregon to be among the most degraded in the nation, due in part to chemical runoff from cities, farms, and intensively managed forests.
The persistence of many pesticides in the environment has "sub-lethal" effects on biota and is a possible culprit in the escalating crisis of salmon in the Pacific Northwest. Once in the soil and/or water, some herbicides, pesticides, and fertilizers may break down and combine with other compounds to form new combinations that are even more toxic than the original ones. Under certain conditions, tiny amounts can accrue high toxicity. In addition, the only part of a pesticide that is tested for toxicity is the active ingredients that, by themselves, usually form a tiny portion of the solution. This means the larger, untested portion of most pesticides, containing other, so-called "inert" chemicals, can be even more toxic than the active ingredients.”
Maser, Chris. 2006 “The Misguided Fear of Forest Fire”
An excerpt from "Our Forest Legacy: Today's
Decisions, Tomorrow's Consequences" 2005
“Epidemiological studies have revealed an increased risk of cancer, notably soft-tissue sarcomas and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, in people occupationally exposed to chlorophenoxy herbicides, including those contaminated by 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). We report here a historical cohort study of mortality in an international register of 18 910 production workers or sprayers from ten countries. Exposure was reconstructed through questionnaires, factory or spraying records, and job histories. Cause-specific national death rates were used as reference. No excess was observed in all-cause mortality, for all neoplasms, for the most common epithelial cancers, or for lymphomas. A statistically non-significant two-fold excess risk, based on 4 observed deaths, was noted for soft-tissue sarcoma with a standardised mortality ratio (SMR) of 196 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 53-502; this was concentrated as a six-fold statistically significant excess, occurring 10-19 years from first exposure in the cohort as a whole (SMR=606 [165-1552]) and, for the same time period, as a nine-fold excess among sprayers (SMR=882 [182-2579]). Risks appeared to be increased for cancers of the testicle, thyroid, other endocrine glands, and nose and nasal cavity, based on small numbers of deaths. The excess of soft-tissue sarcomas among sprayers is compatible with a causal role of chlorophenoxy herbicides but the excess does not seem to be specifically associated with those herbicides probably contaminated by TCDD.”
Saracci, R. MD, “Cancer mortality in workers exposed
to chlorophenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols”
The Lancet, Volume 338, Issue 8774, Pages 1027 - 1032, 26 October 1991
“A common weedkiller in the U.S., already suspected of causing sexual abnormalities in frogs and fish, has now been found to alter hormonal signaling in human cells, scientists from the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) report.
The herbicide atrazine is the second most widely used weedkiller in the U.S., applied to corn and sorghum fields throughout the Midwest and also spread on suburban lawns and gardens. It was banned in Europe after studies linked the chemical to endocrine disruptions in fish and amphibians.”
Browning, Leslee Dru, “Breast Cancer Link: Common
Herbicide Disrupts Human Hormone”
NaturalNews.com, August 19, 2008
“There was an outcry in 2003 when the Environmental Protection Agency decided not to limit the sale of the weed-killer atrazine amid charges that the chemical industry had undue influence in the decision. The EPA's own research had shown that atrazine was toxic to some water-borne species in extremely low parts-per-billion. (A few years ago France ordered the withdrawal of atrazine and related weedkillers, saying the chemicals were building up in water supplies and threatening human health.)”
Vinje, Eric, “Chemical Quandary: The Problem with
“Dr. Tyrone Hayes, professor of integrative biology at the University of California, Berkeley discovered that atrazine, an herbicide, has a multitude of damaging effects on the environment.”
“Hayes found that the male frogs exposed to atrazine become hermaphroditic and feminized. ‘Studies in human populations and cell and tissue studies suggest that atrazine poses similar threats to humans,’ Hayes said.”
“The effects of atrazine on humans are being linked to prostate and breast cancer and low fertility.”
Weitener, Andrew, “Biologist Hayes speaks about environmental
dangers of herbicide, as demonstrated in frogs”
The Wichitan, Oct. 15, 2008
“On September 21, 2009, Beyond Pesticides, joined by 32 other groups and individuals, submitted comments to the U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) showing new and emerging science which illustrates that glyphosate and its formulated products pose unreasonable risk to human and environmental health, and as such should not be considered eligible for continued registration. EPA opened up the Glyphosate Registration Review for comments on July 22, 2009 with a window for submitting comments extending to September 21, 2009.
Beyond Pesticides does not believe that glyphosate should be eligible for registration on the grounds that: human exposures to glyphosate pose unacceptable risks; Roundup formulations are toxic, yet go unevaluated; Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) 10x (additional margin of safety) factor must be reinstated; Polyethoxylated Tallowamine (POEA) surfactant; glyphosate and Roundup threaten water quality and aquatic life; glyphosate and Roundup-ready crops lead to increasing resistance; and human incidents are too high.”
Groups Say Science on Glyphosate Disqualifies It for Reregistration
Beyond Pesticides, September 23, 2009
“A recent study of Roundup presents new evidence that the glyphosate-based herbicide is far more toxic than the active ingredient alone. The study, published in the June 2005 issue of Environmental Health Perspectives, reports glyphosate toxicity to human placental cells within hours of exposure, at levels ten times lower than those found in agricultural use. The researchers also tested glyphosate and Roundup at lower concentrations for effects on sexual hormones, reporting effects at very low levels. This suggests that dilution with other ingredients in Roundup may, in fact, facilitate glyphosate's hormonal impacts.”
“The evidence presented in the recent study is supported by earlier laboratory studies connecting glyphosate with reproductive harm, including damaged DNA in mice and abnormal chromosomes in human blood. Evidence from epidemiological studies has also linked exposure to the herbicide with increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and laboratory studies have now begun to hone in on the mechanism by which the chemical acts on cell division to cause cancer. A Canadian study has linked glyphosate exposure in the three months before conception with increased risk for miscarriage and a 2002 study in Minnesota connected glyphosate exposure in farm families with increased incidence of attention deficit disorder.”
Pesticide Action Network North America (PANNA) Update, August 5, 2005
“PITTSBURGH--The herbicide Roundup® is widely used to eradicate weeds. But a study published today by a University of Pittsburgh researcher finds that the chemical may be eradicating much more than that.
Pitt assistant professor of biology Rick Relyea found that Roundup®, the second most commonly applied herbicide in the United States, is "extremely lethal" to amphibians. This field experiment is one of the most extensive studies on the effects of pesticides on nontarget organisms in a natural setting, and the results may provide a key link to global amphibian declines.
In a paper titled "The Impact of Insecticides and Herbicides on the Biodiversity and Productivity of Aquatic Communities," published in the journal Ecological Applications, Relyea examined how a pond's entire community--25 species, including crustaceans, insects, snails, and tadpoles--responded to the addition of the manufacturers' recommended doses of two insecticides--Sevin® (carbaryl) and malathion--and two herbicides--Roundup® (glyphosate) and 2,4-D.
Relyea found that Roundup® caused a 70 percent decline in amphibian biodiversity and an 86 percent decline in the total mass of tadpoles. Leopard frog tadpoles and gray tree frog tadpoles were completely eliminated and wood frog tadpoles and toad tadpoles were nearly eliminated. One species of frog, spring peepers, was unaffected.”
Reeves, Walter. “Roundup®highly lethal to amphibians, finds
University of Pittsburgh researcher”
The Georgia Gardener, 2009
“Symptoms of exposure to glyphosate include eye irritation, blurred vision, skin rashes, burning or itchy skin, nausea, sore throat and difficulty breathing, headache, lethargy, nose bleeds and dizziness.
In lab tests, glyphosate and herbicides containing glyphosate caused genetic damage to human and animal cells.
Studies of farmers and other people exposed to glyphosate herbicides link this exposure to increased risks of cancer, miscarriages and attention deficit disorder. Additional laboratory tests have confirmed the results of these studies.
Laboratory evidence indicates that glyphosate herbicides can reduce production of sex hormones.
Studies of glyphosate contamination of water are limited, but new results indicate that it can easily contaminate streams in both agricultural and urban areas.
Glyphosate herbicides cause more off-target damage incidents than all but one other herbicide — 2, 4-D.
Glyphosate herbicides cause genetic damage and harm to the immune system in fish. In frogs, glyphosate herbicides cause genetic damage and abnormal development.”
Long, Cheryl. “Hazards of the World’s Most Common Herbicide”
Mother Earth News, October/November 2005
“A recent study by eminent oncologists Dr. Lennart Hardell and Dr. Mikael Eriksson of Sweden , has revealed clear links between one of the world's biggest selling herbicide, glyphosate, to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, a form of cancer .
In the study published in the 15 March 1999 Journal of American Cancer Society, the researchers also maintain that exposure to glyphosate 'yielded increased risks for NHL.' They stress that with the rapidly increasing use of glyphosate since the time the study was carried out, 'glyphosate deserves further epidemiologic studies.' “
“New Study Links Monsanto's Roundup to Cancer”
Organic Consumers Association PRESS RELEASE, June 22, 2009
“Controversy exists around the use of herbicides more commonly used by home gardeners, such as, 2,4-D and Roundup. A manufacturer supported review of studies found Roundup safe for use around humans while anti-herbicide groups cite studies that find it affecting human embryonic, placental, and umbilical cells in vitro as well as testosterone development in mice.”
Vinje, Eric, “Chemical Quandary: The Problem with
Pesticides, Herbicides and Chemical Fertilizer”
“Our studies show that glyphosate acts as a disruptor of mammalian cytochrome P450 aromatase activity from concentrations 100 times lower than the recommended use in agriculture, and this is noticeable on human placental cells after only 18 hr, and it can also affect aromatase gene expression. It also partially disrupts the ubiquitous reductase activity but at higher concentrations. Its effects are allowed and amplified by at least 0.02% of the adjuvants present in Roundup, known to facilitate cell penetration, and this should be carefully taken into account in pesticide evaluation. The dilution of glyphosate in Roundup formulation may multiply its endocrine effect. Roundup may be thus considered as a potential endocrine disruptor. Moreover, at higher doses still below the classical agricultural dilutions, its toxicity on placental cells could favor some reproduction problems.”
Richard, Sophie et al., “Differential effects of glyphosate and
Roundup on human placental cells and aromatase”
Mindfully.org, February 24, 2005
“Very low doses of some types of the herbicide Roundup can disrupt human liver cell function; the formulations' toxicity may be tied to their "inactive" ingredients rather than the active weed-killing ingredient glyphosate.
French scientists report that a number of Roundup formulations tested at very dilute concentrations can alter hormone actions and cause human liver cells to die within 24 hours of treatment.
The toxicity of some of the formulations was independent of how much glyphosate - the active herbicide in Roundup - they contained, suggesting it is other "inert" ingredients that may alone - or in combination with each other and/or the weed killer - assault the cells. This study's results are similar to prior studies - as reported in a recent Environmental Health News article - that find human embryo cells are affected more by the Roundup formulations and an inert ingredient than by the active ingredient.
The levels of Roundup used in this study are similar to what is typically found in food crops or animal feed treated with Roundup. Because of this, it is possible that people, livestock and wildlife may be exposed to levels of the herbicide mix that can damage cells.”
Martin, Negin P. Ph. D. “Monsanto's Roundup More
Deadly to Liver Cells than Glyphosate Alone”
Organic Consumers Assn. Current News
“Roundup is claimed to have an active ingredient known as glyphosate (G) and said to be safe for humans even though plants are readily killed. In a first of its kind published study, French researchers recently sought to examine the toxicity of four popular G-based herbicide formulations on human placental cells, kidney cells, embryonic cells and neonate umbilical cord cells and surprisingly found total cell death of each of these cells within 24 hours.”
“The researchers were surprised by the findings and reported that all four herbicides caused cellular death for all four types of cells within 24 hours. The researchers reported several mechanisms by which the herbicides caused the cells to die including: cell membrane rupture and damage, mitochondrial damage and cell asphyxia. Following these findings, the researchers tested G, AMPA and POEA by themselves and concluded that, ‘It is very clear that if G, POEA, or AMPA has a small toxic effect on embryonic cells alone at low levels, the combination of two of them at the same final concentration is significantly deleterious’. “
Damato, Gregory Ph.D., “The Hidden Dangers of Roundup”
Natural News, February 05, 2009
“A recently published study by Italian researchers  examined the toxicity of four popular glyphosate based herbicide formulations on human placental cells, kidney cells, embryonic cells and neonate umbilical cord cells and surprisingly found total cell death of each of these cells within 24 hours. The researchers reported several mechanisms by which the herbicides caused the cells to die including: cell membrane rupture and damage, mitochondrial damage and cell asphyxia. Following these findings, the researchers tested G, AMPA and POEA by themselves and concluded that, ‘It is very clear that if G, POEA, or AMPA has a small toxic effect on embryonic cells alone at low levels, the combination of two of them at the same final concentration is significantly ’deleterious’.
Although previous researchers have proposed that the supposed ‘inert ingredients’ alter the role of cell membrane disruptors in fish, amphibians, microorganisms  and plants , independent of G, this study is the first of its kind to report similar findings in human cells. The researchers concluded that, “the proprietary mixtures available on the market could cause cell damage and even death around residual levels to be expected, especially in food and feed derived from R [Roundup] formulation-treated crops” which are pervasive in GM-soya.”
“Toxicity of Glyphosate”
Natural Communities Magazine, July 16th, 2009
“Paraquat-induced toxicity in rats has also been linked to Parkinson's-like pathological degenerative mechanisms. A study by the Buck Institute shows a connection between exposure to paraquat and iron in infancy and mid-life Parkinson's in laboratory mice.
Long term exposures to paraquat would most likely cause lung and eye damage, but reproductive/fertility damage was not found by the EPA in their review. Some suspect a possible link to a greater incidence of Parkinson's disease.”
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
“While most modern herbicides are designed to kill only plants and have little or no toxicity to humans, many still have extreme consequences in the environment, changing habitats in ways that affect insects and wildlife. These consequences extend to water courses where they may kill beneficial aquatic plants and fish.
Some herbicides continue to be toxic to animals and plants. One study showed dogs who play in herbicide-treated yards have three-times the risk of cancer. A Swedish study linked herbicides with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cancer in humans.
Paraquat, one of the most widely used herbicides in the world, is so toxic it's frequently used in third-world countries as a means of suicide. Large, unintentional exposure to paraquat almost always leads to death. Smaller exposures, usually through inhalation, have been linked to lung damage, heart and kidney failure, Parkinson's disease and eye damage.
Vinje, Eric, “Chemical Quandary: The Problem with
Pesticides, Herbicides and Chemical Fertilizer”
“Theo Colborn, Ph.D., who is highly published in the peer-reviewed literature on pesticides, gave some revealing insights into the persistence of these toxic chemicals in the body. He found that the herbicide 2,4 D (the most widespread herbicide) was detected in 50 percent of the semen samples taken from a group of Canadian men ages 20 to 59, and that the pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) was detected in 82 percent of the urine samples tested. These are just two that were tested out of more than 1,400 known pesticides that have been developed!”
“And you thought you were pretty safe from environmental toxins? Now that you know this, it may shock you to know that more than 60 percent of the poundage of all agricultural herbicides and up to 90 percent of a typical pesticide product is capable of disrupting animal (and presumably human) endocrine and/or reproductive systems.”
Cutler, Michael Ph.D., “The Dangers of Pesticide Contamination”