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Iran. It is derived from “Pars”, now a province of that country. Meanwhile, the name Iran

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Contribution of Persia to the World Civilization *
Persia” is a Greek name for the ancient Iran. It is derived from “Pars”, now a province of that country. Meanwhile, the name Iran (=Land of the Aryans ”the Nobles”) comes from the Aryan people, who first moved from the Central Asia, the Caspian sea region and settled in this land, some 30,000 years ago. And here are some of the most significant contributions of the people of Persia or Iran, to the world civilization:


  1. The first great human civilization - - The Persian Civilization (=Eilam” High Land”); It was ahead of Egypt by 500 years, of India, by 1,000 years, of China, by 2,000 years, of Greece by 3,000 years, and of Rome, by 4,000 years! According to Professor Arthur A. Pope, the famous Orientalist (A.H. Saidian, “Iran: Land and the People,” Tehran 2001 P. 358)

Professor Pope also believes that the world owes its greatest industrial developments, in the early stages, to the Persian Civilization! (Ibid).

  1. Professor Arthure Pope (1881-1969) who was an American, and his beloved wife, spent their entire lives studying the Persian Civilization, and promoting throughout the world, especially in Europe and America. They actually lived and also died in Isfahan(Iran) and they are now buried on the shores of the river called “Zayandeh Road” in Isfahan.

Once during a lecture about the greatness of the Persian Civilization, the great Professor said: “If I had a throat of brass, and a heart of silver, and the life of Noah, still I wouldn’t be able to finish telling you the wonderful story of the greatest Persian Civilization!”(See: “chashmandaz”, the Iranian magazine, Tehran, AP.1998 p. 20)

On the other hand, Sir John Malcolm , the British scholar and his country’s Ambassador to Iran, (1890-1900) fell in love with Persia, so much so that he spent the rest of his life on researching about Iran, and promoting its culture, through his many writings.

Sir John Malcolm (d.1900 A.D.) used to say: “I actually spend every waking hour of my life, studying this extraordinary country.”(ibid)

Later on another British scholar, Christopher Matthew in an article titled “Roman orgy of destruction” went on further to say:” One people the Romans never managed to crush were the Parthians of ancient Persia. Their knowledge and art was passed on and survives today among the successors of the great Persian Civilization---The Arabs(=Islamic civilization) (see “Daily Mail” June 12, 2006 p.55)

Again he adds: “The golden glow of the Rome blinded us (the Europeans) to the fact that there were more advanced civilizations around.” (ibid)

“For 300 years, Persians held off Rome (see Compton’s Interactive Encyclopedia” 1997, p.280)

Another Orientalist, the French Professor Kalamar of the Sorbonne University of Paris believes that: The Persian Civilization is the mother of all civilizations! (Ibid).

  1. The first empire in the world,(see British Historian Robert Payne in his book “The Splendor of Persia” wrote: “Persia Empire, the greatest empire the world had ever known” (see p.81) Then he further ads: “ For two centuries, it’s capital was the capital of the world” (Ibid) Mr Payne calls the Persians “the Europeans of the East” while the truth is that “The Europeans are the Persians of the west” considering that they are the Aryan migrants, which means Iranian (the birth place of the Aryans) in origins. He again says:” Persians were the first world conqueros (Ibid) (Eat your hearts out Alexander, the Ruman Rules, the Arabs, the Mongols, the Spanish, the Portugues, the British, and finally the Russians and Americans!) He even says: “They were the most tolerant empire-builders the world has ever see” (Ibid) No wonder Lord Curzon of Britain called Cyrus of Persian” The most excellent of all Heathen Princess” who not only liberated the Jews from the slavery of the Babylonians, but even built their destroy temple in Jerusalem at his own expense! “See Curzons Persia” p.21 As another Greek philosopher wrote his book titled “Cyropedia:Education of Cyrus” and holds him as the model of an ideal monark/philosopher-King” (Ibid) Another example of the Persians kings good attitude twards the conquered territory was that: “ The Persian rebuilt Tom Holland’s “Persian Fire” and International Herald Tribune, May 16, 2007 P. 2) the Persian Empire stretched (from the Indus River (now Pakistan) down to the Danube River in Europe and up to the Nile River in Africa; the Central Asia, present-day Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Azirbaijan, Georgia, Armenia, Palestine, Lebanon, Egypt, Libya, Macedonia, Cyprus, Lydia and up to the borders of Greece. It stretched from India to Ethiopia, with 127 provinces and 28 different nationalities). See “The Discovery Channel” (July 31, 2006). This is why the Persian army was also known as the “Army of a hundred nations.”

“The Greeks and the Romans later copied the best features of the Persian Method of Governing the Empire, as did the Arabs, the Mongols and the Turks, later”. (See: Philip Groisser “World History,” New York, 1970, p.17)

  1. The “Industrial Revolution” of the world started in Medeo-Persia, some 10,000 years ago (not in the 18th century England, as the people are made to believe!) when for the first time metals were melted, the pottery, the bricks and glass, were mass produced and knitting and weaving of clothes were invented! (See “History of Industry in Persia” by Dr.Christie Wilson, P20)

  2. Some archeologists believe that Glassmaking was invented between 3000-2000 B.C. in Mesopotamia. (Now, Iraq, but in those days, it was called Babylon and later on the Medeo-Persia) (“The Int’l Herald Tribune.” June, 27, 2004.)

  3. Cyrus the Great conquered Babylonia, Assyria, Media and India; His son Cambodia (any influence on the Cambodian People?) added Egypt later, and for the first and the last time in history, all the governments of the known world were ruled under one color!

  4. The first agricultural adventure by man, took place in Persia, around the Caspian Sea (Professor Arthur Pope, “ A Survey of the Persian Art “ Vol. 1/p. 41)

  5. The first time that human beings learned to milk the animals, was in Persia (see “The History of the Persian Civilization” by Ralph Linto, p.204.)

  6. Also the first time in history that milk was used for food was in Persia (Ibid)

  7. Insurance by the Government was started during the reign of Cyrus the Great of Persia. (See “Gardeshgari,” Iran, March 2000).

  8. Weight, Money and Measurements were standardized in Persia, for the first time, some 2, 500 years ago (See “Gardeshgari,” March 2000)

  9. Private banking was started in Persia, some 2,500 years ago, with special coins and other related services (That’s why the words “Bank, Check, Bazaar, Caravan etc.” are of the Persian origin) see

“Iran Archeology Magazine,” 1971, p.87. (So, banking system did not start in England in the 17th


  1. Sanskrit, which is the mother of all modern languages, (=Indo-European) was born in Iran, before it went to India (“Gardeshgari,” Aug. 2001). Take note that the Sanskrit is an Aryan language, meaning Iranian is the origin (Ibid).

  2. The Stone Age, which dates back some 70,000 years ago, was started in Iran, the cradle of the earliest human civilization! (“Gardeshgari,” July 2000).

  3. In Iran today, there are 1.2 million historical sites, discovered so far, with some 70,000 historical moulds (“Gardeshgari,” July 2000).

  4. The first accounting tools were found in Iran, belonging to 9,000 years ago. (“Gardeshgari,” March 2000).

  5. The first brick invention took place in Iran. (“Gardeshgari,” Iran, March 2002).

  6. The world’s greatest masonry work is Perspolis, Iran. (“Gardeshgeri,” Iran, March, 2000).

  7. The First King who divided the Aryan people into different professional classes (4 Professional classes for the social order/ caste system, that still exists in India and some other parts of the world) was King Jamshid of Persia, Some 7,000 years ago (See “Parsi Names”, Maneka Gandhi, India, 1994, p. 202) He also introduced the Nauruz Festivals, the Aryan New Year, The first day of Spring, March 21, every year (ibid)

  8. The First man who issued “The First Ten Commandments was not Moses, but King Jamshid of Persia, some 7,000 years ago. (ibid)

He is considered in the Persian Folklores, as the first ruler of mankind (Aryans) who ruled for 700 years, his name means “The Shinning/ Glorious Ruler (ibid)

  1. The architecture of castles originated in Persia thousands of years ago. (Ibid).

  2. Iranian tales/legends are some 20, 000 years old.(Ibid)

  3. According to the Shah-Namah of Ferdausi, the first caesarian operation (actually Persian-Birth) took place in Persia, some 5,000 years ago upon the birth of Rustom from his mother---Rudabeh. (“Gardeshgari,” Iran, Jan. 2000).

  4. According to the Persian Holy Books--- Avesta and Gatha, the first anesthesia was administered in Persia around 1,000 B.C.

  5. According to Professor Griffith Taylor of Australia, the homo sapiens (Caucasians) were originated from the Iranian Plateau, also known as the Land of Mahd (the Medes?) and they scattered throughout the world some 17,000 years ago (15,000 B.C.) “Gardeshgari,” Iran, Jan. 2001.

No wonder, the famous Orientalist, Professor Arthur Pope (1881 – 1969) said: “Western world has a vast unpaid debt to the Persian civilization!” (See Arthur Pope, “The History of the Persian Civilization” P.11)

Also Hegel, the great German Philosopher, wrote: “The beginning of the evolution of man starts with the history of Persia” (Hegel, “The Philosophy of History”, p. 174).

  1. Some paintings in Lorestan caves in Persia, that show a horse-riding man, are 17,000 years old! (15,000 B.C.) (“Gardeshgari,” Iran, Jan. 2001).

  2. The original homeland of the Chaldeans (Father Abraham?) was Susa, Iran. The word Chaldean comes from Khald, which in turn comes from Kurd (Kurdish) who were originally Tajiks from Tajikistan of the ancient Persia, (“Gradeshgari,” Iran, Sep. 2000).

  3. According to the Encyclopedia Britanica, “It may well be proved eventually that the human race evolved in Central Asia or Iran” (“Gardeshgari,” Iran, Sep. 2000).

  4. According to the Indian Professor, Mereji Baba Kolka: “A group of Iranian migrants were settled along the Nile River and they founded the Egyptian civilization, thousands of years ago!” (“Gardeshgari,” Iran, March 2000). That’s why the term “Pharao” comes form the Iranian words “Phar” meaning son/ child and “Ra/Rao” the Persian sun-god of Mithra. So Pharao means “the son of Mithra” see Abul Ala Maudredi of Pakistan, “Commentary of the Holy Qur’ran” (urdu) 4th edition 1982 p.435, under the term “paharao” or “Feraun”

  5. Sumerians were originally Iranians from Kurdestan. So were the Chaldeans, Babylonians, Assyrians, Achadians; All of them spoke Chaldean, as their original language. (Ibid).

  6. According to Professor Filder Petry: The civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt are actually branches of the older Culture of Eilam (Persia), which dates back to 6-10 thousand years ago! (“Gardeshgari,” Iran, March 2000).the walls from Athens to the piracus which the Spartans (the Greeks!) had earlier destroyed! “(Ibid)

And while, according to the norm of those days, the slaves as did the Romans in building their colleseums, the Persians built the Persepolis with the multi-national artisans from Greece to Egypt, Ethiopia, Phynicia and India, with paid labor! Persepolis with 125,000 sq m. was built in 150 years. (Ibid) Sir Roger Stevens, the British Ambassador to Persia (1954-5 q) stated that:

“ Few countries can rival Iran in the length and the variety of her history” (see “Persia; History and Herritage” p.9)

He than goes on to say: “ Persian language and her artistic achievements have profoundly influenced her neighboring countries, especially India (Pakistan, Bangladish and China, included) Her monuments, both from classical times and since the coming of Islam, bear witness to distinctive and enduring civilization” (Ibid)

“For two centuries and more, British schoolars and travellers have been fascinated by different aspects of Persian civilization – her long momentous history, the beauty of Persian language and poetry, the art of Persian miniatorists, the skill and originality of her architects and designers, the glories of Persian carpets and pottery, the lessons to be learn from the unending wealth of Persian archeological sites” (Ibid)

P.R.L. Brown caps it all by saying:” Persians,,,who were once the mosters of the world!” see P.R.L. Brown’s “ Persia” p. 24

  1. The Turkish People are a result of the mixture of the early Iranians and the Chinese; Semites and Egyptians, Palestinians and the Arabs, are the mixtures of the Iranians and Africans; while the Indians are a mixture of the Iranians (Brahmans) and the native blacks of India, i.e. the Dravidians. (“Gardeshgari,” March 2000 p. 47).

  2. The history of the first people of Persia goes back some 30,000 years ago (28,000 B.C.) “Gardeshgari,” Iran, March 2000).

  3. The oldest rock relief in the world is the Bistoon rock relief in Persia, which is some 2,500 years old. (Note; some scholars believe that Bistoon (or Bagastana) comes from two Old Persian worlds of Bagh (=Bhagwan or God and Astana (= Palace or Temple) meaning Temple of God. see “Parsi Names” by Maneka Gandhi, India 1994 P.91.

  4. The most mammoth ziggurat was constructed in Persia, near the historic city of Susa, thousands of years ago. (Ibid).

  5. The biggest thatch construction also took place in Kerman, Persia, some 2,000 years ago. (Ibid).

  6. King Darius of Persia wrote the first Human Rights Charter, some 2,500 years ago. It is still engraved in the Alvand Mountain (Ganj-Nameh), near the ancient Persian Capital of Hagmataneh (Present day City of Hamadan).

It was this concept of Human Rights, freedom of religion and the equality of all races that lead to the freedom of the Jews, from the captivity of Babylon, by Cyrus the Great of Persia in 537 B.C.

  1. Cyrus the Great of Persia had his own Declaration of the Human Rights, when he conquered Babylon, in 537 B.C. This charter, which is written on a baked-clay tablet, in the Cuneiform Alphabet of Ancient Persia, was discovered by Mr.Hormuzd Rassam, in 1878 A.D., during the excavations in Babylonia (modern Iraq).

In 1971, the United Nation hailed it as the first charter on the Human Rights, in the world. It was translated into all the official languages of the U.N. and then it was published worldwide (the original tablets are now being kept 37-almost 2,000 years after King Cyrus the Greats declaration of the first human rights chart, One of his great great grand children, the Sheikh Sa’di of Shiraz (Persepolis) made his own declar action of the “Human Rights” this time in the form of an immortal universal poem: “Of e essence is the human race thusly has creation put the base;

One limb impacted is sufficient for all others to feel the mace (Sa’di 12:13-1292 A.D.)

His poem is now engraned in the United Nation’s building (Hall of Nations) in New York, too, as a testimony to the Universality of his message ( see ECO Culture magazine, Tehran,Iran, Winter 2007, p.32 at the British Museum with catalogue No. -BMWAA 90920).

  1. While all other world powers persecuted and discriminated against the Jews (e.g. The Egyptians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Romans and later Germans and the Russians, etc.) the Persians were the only world power who actually liberated and protected the Jews (the only monotheistic religion of that time). By doing so, the Persians pioneered the freedom of religion and culture of the minorities in the world. (While some European conquerors, like Alexander the Great, destroyed Persepolis and other areas, or exiled their people, the Persian kings supported the local culture and religion).

The American scholar Mr. Alex Beam, while commenting on the Persian-Greek and Persian-Spartan war stories, that are often biased towards the west, simply because “the history is written by the victors” and also because the writers of those history books are themselves Westerners, says: “But, Herodotus(The father of history”) is kinder to the Persians, generally praising their valor and spiritual bent, if not their diet: ”They eat little solid food, but a lot of dessert.”

“Although the Persians are portrayed as a decadent hookah-wielding slobs in “300”(movie), Herodotus emphasizes that they were, on measure, a well-mannered lot. The Persians never vomited, relieved themselves, nor broke wind in the presence of others. Can your civilization say that?” (see the “International Herald Tribune ”March 9, 2007)

Another Western author, H.D.F. Kitto says: “Many Greeks admired the moral code of the Persians” (Ref. H.D.F. Kitto “The Greeks “ a Penguin Books, USA.1951/ The introduction)

  1. The first World Super-Highway, that connected the East and the West, was the Silk Road. It joined China to Europe; and its main part was the Central Asia (Ancient Persia) with its many Caravans, Caravansarais, Bazaars, etc. (See “The World History” by the Greek Historian, Herodotus).The first Caravan using the silk road, from China into Persia, came in 106 B.C. (“Silkroad Magazine” Tehran, Iran, Jan. 1995, P.9)

  2. The first time that the Navy was used in a Military Operation was by the Persian Army some 2,500 B.C. In fact, the word Navy comes from the Persian word “Nav” meaning a big ship. (Also take note of Naval, Navigation, Navigator, etc.)

Another interesting contribution of the Persian Navy men was the invention of the helm in the ships, for a better and more technically advanced control of the ship’s movement and maneuverability. The system of helm was invented by the Persians during the 8th century A.C. (see “Speyke Darya” (seamen’s voice) Iran, pp. 645-650).

  1. The first time that the ships were used as a bridge to cross the river, was done by King Darius, who crossed the Nile and conquered Egypt, in 480 B.C.

  2. The first ruler who planned and constructed the Suez Canal in Egypt was King Darius of Persia (480 B.C.).

  3. The first time that a canal was built to connect two seawaters, for military purposes, was by King Xerxes of Persia, who built the Xerxes’ canal, near Greece, and attacked Greece, during the Persian Wars, 500 B.C. (“The International Herald Tribune,” Nov. 15, 2001).

  4. One of the earliest Legal Codes in the world is called The Law of the Medes and the Persians (the “unchangeable”).

  5. The first book on law, called “Ur-Nammu” (=City – law or City-book, a Persian term like Shah-Namah, Book of the King) was produced in the City state of Ur (=Urok = Iraq, The Medeo-Persia of the ancient world).

  6. The First City states were not created in Greece, as they taught us in the Hi-School, but it was the City state of “Ur” (in the Medeo-Persia, 2100 B.C. around the mouth of the Persian Gulf) from which the Cities of “Ur” (=City) and “Uruk” (=Smaller City) and Iraq (modern Iraq) and the historic City of “Arak” in modern Iran, are originated.

  7. The first system of federal government was started in the Persian Empire. There were many Ostans (Stan or State, like what you see in Pakistan, Afghanistan, Hindu-stan, Uzbeki-stan, etc.) that were run by the satraps or smaller kings (Shah) who were under the great king or Shahan-Shah (Kings’ King).

  8. The first secret service, called “the eyes and the ears of the king”, was started in Persia. (Eat your heart out, CIA!)

  9. The first world leader, who was called great, was Cyrus the Great of Persia, some 200 years ahead of Alexander the Great! (“Gardesh-gari,” Iran, March, 2,000).

  10. Darius the Great of Persia established the First Tax System, Customs Duties, Official Records and The Legal Code, in the world level. (It was copied later by the Greeks, Romans, the Arabs the Monguls and the Turks).

  11. The eagle with open wings, as a symbol of power and military might (which is now in use in many countries around the world) was first used by the Persian Kings, some 3,000 years ago.

  12. The tradition of Chevaliers (the noble horse-riding fighters) in Europe, during the Middle Ages (500-1500 A.C.) has a Persian Origin, in the Immortal Guards of the Persian Empire. Also considering that the horses were first tamed and used by the Persians, the connection becomes even more clear.

  13. The earliest form of flag was started in Persia, some 5000-6000 years ago, by Kaveh, the Blacksmith, a folk hero, who rebelled against the oppressive rule of king Azhi-dehak. Kaveh, used his own blacksmith’s apron (probably made of leather) as the flag of freedom fighters’ movement (see “The Shah Nameh of Ferdaousi”). The International Herald Tribune writes: “The modern nation of Iran traces back to ancient Persia, and that beneath every Iranina lies a Persian, who views his country in the context of the “greater Iran.” Even before Rome conquered the Western world, the lands controlled by a series of Persian Empires stretched from the Caucasus to the Indus river, a cultural and sometime political arc that not so long ago contained Iraq and Afghanistan, and much, much more.” (Ref. IHT, Feb. 7, 2007, P.7, An article by Milt Bearden, the former CIA Chief in Pakistan, 1986-1989)

  14. Countries of the world, whose names are originally Persian:

1) Afghanistan, 2) Iran, 3) Kazakhstan, 4) Azirbaijan (Fire Temples Land), 5) Turkministan, 6) Qirqizistan, 7) Tajikistan 8) Uzbikistan, 9) Pakistan (Land of the Pure), 10) Hindustan (also the Khalistan of the Sikhs) 11) Haistan(Armenia) 12) Iristan (Autonomous Republic in Caucasia, Russia), etc.

  1. Regions of the world, whose names are originated from Persian:

1) Dagestan (Caucasus), 2) Qara Bagh (Azirbaijan, also Afghanistan) 3) Baluchistan (Iran and Pakistan) 4) Rajastan (India) 5) Panjab or Punjab (India and Pakistan) 6) Waziristan 7) Koohistan (Pakistan) 8) Turkistan (China) 9) Kurdistan (Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Syria and Russia), 10) Bash-Kurtustan (Russia), 11) Hazara (Afghanistan, Pakistan) 12) Kafiristan, 13) Noorestan (Afghanistan) 14) Forghana Valley (Uzbikistan) 15) Russia (from the Persian words Ruse=Rustic=Rusta(village) and Rustai(villager)=rural, countryside, far from the civilization 16) Tatarstan (Russia) 17) Marawi (Muslim City in southern Philippines) from Marav or Marv or probably Maragheh 18) Xeres (Spain, from Shiraz of Persia) 19) Possibly, the “Iranon” tribes of the Southern Philippines, the Ire-an of Palawan (Pahlawan) in Southern Philippines, and the Irian Jaya of Indonesia, or even Ireland. 20) Zanzibar (Tanzania, Africa), from two Persian words of “Zanzi” or “Zangi”, meaning Black or Negro, and “Bar”, meaning place.21) Arana region (Thailand, where the famous Aranyka knives are made) see BBC Aug. 5, 2006. 22) Aran (Azarbaijan). 23 Palao/Pallaw (Pahlavi) in the Pacific Ocean

  1. Capitals of the world, whose names are Persian:

  1. Baghdad (Iraq), combination of Bagh (God, Garden) and Dad (justice / giving) A God given Place (Diosdado) or Garden of Justice (of King Anush Ravan or Anushirvan of Persia).Actually, Baghdad was rebuilt by the Iranian Master Architect, Nou-Bakht, during the Abbasid Era (8th century A.D.).

  2. Damascus (City of Musk, capital of Syria, the oldest existing city in the world).

  3. Ashq Abad (or Eshqabad) capital of Turkmenistan, Central Asia.

  4. Islamabad capital of Pakistan (Note: Abad in Persian means Town, City).

  5. Baku (Baad Kubeh = the Windy City) capital of Azerbaijan.

  6. Doshanbeh, capital of Tajikistan, Central Asia.

  7. Tashkant (or Tashkent) capital of Qirqizistan., Central Asia.

  8. Muscat or Muskat (=Musky, see Webster) the Capital of Oman, on the shores of the Persian Gulf. (In fact, up to the 10th century A.D. the people of Muscat were communicating in Persian Language, according to the famous Historian Al-Maqdesi, in his book “Ahsan Al-Taqasim” P.129)

  9. Samarkant (or Samarqand) Capital of Uzbekistan, Central Asia.

  10. Bandar Sri Begawan (Brunei).

  11. Iravan (Yerevan) capital of Armenia (Armanestan).

  12. Astana, Capital of Kazakhstan, Central Asia.

  13. Moscow or Musk_va (City of Musk, from Moschi or Moschos=Persian word for musk).

  14. Sarajevo (Capital of Bosnia-Herzegovina; It comes from the Persian word “Saray” (=place) like Caravansaray, etc.) Also the “Grand Saray” the seat of the Lebanese government in Beirut, as well as “Amansara” the place of King Nordom Sihanok of Cambodia, built in 1960.

  15. Bach-Chisarai (=Bagh-che Sarai) capital of the Khanate of Crimea (Russia).

  16. Ankara (capital of Turkey) from the Persian word “Angoria” or “City of Grapes”

  17. Kabul (Kapul) Afghanistan.

  1. Historical cities whose names are Persian:

1) Bukhara (=Bogh-Ara or “God’s Own City”), 2) Samarkand 3) Khawrazm (Khiveh) in Central Asia, 4) Allahabad, 5) Ahmed Abad, 6) Heydar Abad, 7) Faiz Abad, 8) Jamshid Pour, 9) Mahmood Abad, 10) Shah Abad etc. (India) 11) Faisal Abad, 12) Heydar Abad, 13) Ghazi Abad, 14) Khorram, 15) Pir Abad Chaman, 16) Khahir Abad Islamabad, etc. (Pakistan) 17) Murshid Abad Rajshahi 18) Cox Bazaar, (Bangladesh) 19) Mozaffar Abad (Pakistani Kashmir) 20) Kufah or Kuppah (Hillside) Iraq 21) Anbar (Iraq) 22) Salman Pak (Pure) Iraq, 23) Ctesiphon (Iraq), 24) Halabcha (Iraq) 25) Khorsabad (Iraq) 26) Nippur (Iraq) 27) Khanaqin (Iraq) 28) Khan Azad (Iraq) 29) Diwaniyyah, 30) Kharanabat(=Kharn-abad, (Iraq) 30) Bandar Sri Begawan (Brunei). (Note: Bandar in Persian means port city like Bandar Abbas) 31) Banda Aceh (Indonesia) 32) Shirwan (Caucasia) 33) Nakhjavan (Armenia) 34) Mozdok (=Mazdak,Caucasia) 35) Astarkhan (Russia) 36) Ankara (Turkish Capital from the Original Persian “Angoria” or “City of Grapes” 37) the Xeres or Jerez in Spain (from the name of Shiraz. Also the Wine Shiraz or Sherry, see “The Int’l Herald Tribune” April 2006 P.P2) 38) Jauhar (= Gauhar or gem) a city in Somalia, Africa. 39) Qirawan (the historic city in the North Africa) from the Persian word “Caravan” 40) Probably Badjos(pron. Bada-khos) in Spain from “Badakh-shan” 41) Arana village in Thailand with its famous “Aranyka”(Iranica?) knives (see “International Herald Tribune May 14, 2006) 42) Qaraman (Turkey) 44) Pouran (swat valley, Pakistan)

  1. Famous Persian Queens/Princesses in History: 1) Queen Vashti of King Xerxes (see the Bible) 2) Queen Esther, a Jewish girl, born in Persia, who became the Queen of the Persian King Xerxes (see Old Testament, Book of Esther. Note: Esther’s tomb is still in Hamadan, Iran, today; Esther is her Persian name, meaniang star. Her Jewish name is Hadassah). 3) Queen Roxana, the wife of Alexander the Great of Macedonia (324 B.C.) 4) Shain Fy one of the most popular queens in the history of China, was also a Persian. She was the queen of the 18th century Chinese Emperor “Chian Loon” also known as Hon Lee and Gau Zoon 5) Queen Cleopatra of Egypt (Part Greek, Part Persian) 6) Queen Maham Begum (Delbar Begum) the wife of Emperor Babar of India (the founder of Mughal Dynasty in India, 1526 – 1530 A.D.) She was the sister of the famous, Persian King, Sultan Hosain Baiqura of Heart(Afghanistan) Queen Mumtaz Mahal (of Taj Mahal ) the Queen of the Mogul Emperor of India (who died at childbirth in 1631 A.D.) 7) Queen Noor Jahan, the wife of the Mughol Emperor of India, Jahangir Shah (17th century) Note: Queen Noor Jahan was the Aunti of Queen Mumtaz Mahal. “ Noor Jahan, a formidable combination of brain and beauty, Jahangir’s Persian-born queen (b. 1577) was the real power behind the throne” (See “India” by DK publications, UK, 1999, p.51) 8) Also the mother of emperor Jahangir was a Persian Lady by the name of Maryam Zamani (the Christian wife of Emperor Akbar) Ibid 8) Princess Shahr Banu of the Sasan Dynasty, the daughter-in-law of Prophet Mohammad (wife of Imam Hosain) 9) Madam Maragel, one of the wives of the Emperor Harun Rashid, the Abbasid Khalif (she was the mother of Mamoon, the most intellectual Khalifah in the history of Islamic civilization, who translated and transferred all the Greek philosophy and science books into Arabic language) 10) Puran-Dokht, the First Lady of Khalifah Ma’moon, 11) Shah Parand (the granddaughter of the last Persian Emperor Yazdgird) the queen of Umayyad Khalif, Walid Bin Abdul Malik (15 the Century A.D.) 12) Shah Bandar, the first wife of Saddam Hosain of Iraq (1970's) 13) Princesses in several Arab states of the Persian Gulf, including the mother of Shaikh Makhtum of the United Arab Emirates, 14) Madam Ruttie, the wife of Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the founding father of Pakistan, (1947 A.D.). She was a Parsi, living in India, at that time. 15) Also the grandmother of Mohammad Ali Jinah was a Persian. Jinah’s own sister, Fatimah Jinah, (1880-1950) who is known in Pakistan as the "Mother of the Nation" was also of the same origin. (see "Danesh" Pakistan Magazine, 2005, P.30) 16) Delshad Beigum, the mother of the first president of Pakistan, President Iskandar Mirza, was also of the Persian origin. 17) Madam Raf'at Shirazi, the first lady of Pakistan (1954-1958) during the rule of president Iskandar Mirza, the first president of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan 18) Madam Nahid Afkhami, the 2nd wife of president Iskandar Mirza of Pakistan (Incidentally the 3rd president of Pakistan, Gen. Yahya Khan [1968-1971] was also of the Persian descent). 19) Nusrat Bhutto, the First Lady of Pakistan (1971-1978) wife of the Pakistani Prime Minister, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. (see “Time “ Jan.14/2008 p.22) 20) Also her Prime Minister of Pakistan (1988-1990 and 1993-1996) Benazir Bhutto 21) Begum Khalida Zia, the Prime Minister of Bangladesh, from 1990-1998, was also half Persian, since her mother was a pure Iranian (exactly like Benazir Bhutto of Pakistan, 1993-1996 Jihan Sadat, the First Lady of Egypt (1970-1982), wife of President Anwar Sadat of Egypt, etc.

  2. In the Field of Fashion: Almost all the clothing and dresses of the Mogul Darbar in the Indian subcontinent (Including Pakistan, Bangladesh, etc) are Persian in origin; that includes the world famous Nehru Tunic or Shirwani, the Jinah Cap (made of lamb skin), the Shalvar Qamis, the Indian Turban, the Parsi Gara and Zar-duzi (Persian Style Embroidery in India), Klamakari (painted cotton clothes) and a variety of shoes and other accessories, including the well known Sukarno cap in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, The Philippines, etc.

The earlier Indian attires, too, being Aryan (meaning Iranian in Origin) came from Persia, especially from the Medes (see the National Geographic” Dec. 1980)

  1. According to Professor Noel Malcom, the Necktie (or cravat in European languages) came from the Croats (of Balkan) a branch of the Iranian people, who migrated from Persia, some 2000 years ago! Even the Serbs were originally from Persia.

(Ref. Malcolm, Noel: Bosnia, A Short History, Mc. Millan, London 1996). Also: The CNN World Report, November 16, 2003.

  1. In Jewelries: The most famous jewelries of the Moguls of India (including those of Taj Mahal) were designed by the Persian master designers. The well-known Kooh-i Noor is a Persian name, which means the mountain of light.

Incidentally, the word Jawaher (as in Jawaher Lal-Nehru) comes from the Persian word Gauhar (=Gem/Precious stone). Also the word La’l is another Persian word, meaning Ruby and Red.

  1. The punks of the modern world may be amazed to know that “The Persians pioneered the art of facial piercing, thousands of years ago” (as a fashion accessory for women and as a scaring tactic—just like their head gears with horns, for the warrior men) Ref. “International Herald Tribune” March 9, 2007.

In Linguistic Influences:

1. For 700 years, Persian was the official language of the Moguls of the Indian subcontinent (including Pakistan, Bangladesh, etc).

Practically, every Mogul miniature or painting, contains not only the Persian arts and drawings, but also Persian poetry in Farsi Alphabet (a mixture of Persian and Arabic letters) in them.

2. Urdu language: the official language of Pakistan (and India) is a result of Marriage between Persian-Arabic (which came through Persia) and the Sanskrit. It is now spoken by some 800 million people around the world. Take note that 60% of the Urdu language, including its alphabet, is Persian in origin (Even Sanskrit itself was born in Persia, before it reached India, some 7,000 years ago!). see “Gardeshgari”, August 2001. That’s why the Indian professor, Dr.Mahmood Shirani said, and we quote: "Urdu is a beautiful daughter of Persian Language." (See "The Persian Letters" Sum. 2000, P.199)

  1. Persian literature of the Indian subcontinent, with great writers and poets, the jewel of them being, the late Dr. Mohammad Iqbal, the National Poet of Pakistan (and India) is another good example of the linguistic influence of Persia beyond its borders. (It is quite interesting to note that even the declaration of the Independence of India and Pakistan (and also Bangladesh) from the British Colonial Rule in 1947 was officially done in Persian Language, over All India Radio. Meanwhile the name of Hindustan (India) and Pakistan are actually Persian names, and the "National Anthem" of Pakistan (except for one little word "ka" meaning "of") is entirely composed in Persian Language!)

  2. The first poet of the Urdu language(India, Pakistan,etc.) was of the Persian origins, by the name of Amir Khosrow of Delhi (1253-1325 A.D.) see “The Cultural Exchanges” Tehran, Iran 1993 p.93)

He was also a great musician of the Indian subcontinent, who for the first time introduced the “Qawwali” (sufi chants with music, like the “Barzanji” in Malaysia, Indonesia, etc.) into the Indian subcontinent. (Ibid)

  1. The first great poet of the Punjabi language (the Indian subcontinent) was also of the Persian descent—the great sufi poet, Sheik Farid of Punjab (ibid p. 104).

  2. The first animal domesticated by man was goat, and it was done in Persia, some 10,000 years ago. (See "The Manila Bulletin", February 20, 2001).

  3. The names and surnames of almost all the people in Armenia (Armanestan) and the Armenians around the world, is totally or partially influenced by the Persian language and culture. (Examples: Melekian, Saturian, Haturian, Nalbandian, etc.).

  1. Also the so-called Arabian horse (which was originally Persian) See “BBC Worlds’ Simpson Report.” (Note: In Arabic Language, horse is called Al-Faras, and Persia is called Al-Fars; while the Persian is called Al-Farsi!). According to another BBC Report (“Speed”) the horse was first domesticated in Central Asia (ancient Persia) thousands of years ago (BBC, Speed Report, April 10, 2005). Actually, the Persians had hundred of names and titles for their horses, many Persian heroes and Kings’ names end up in “…-asb” meaning “horse owner or rider” etc. (see “The Parsee Names” by Maneka Gandhi, India 1994). Other animals, which were also first domesticated in Persia, are Sheep, Cow, and Camel.

  2. The first people who used fish as food were the people around the Persian Gulf, ("The Philippine Daily Inquirer" Manila, Jan.30, 1998).

  3. Nargileh/Hookeah or Shishah, the most famous pastime smoking pipe in the Ottoman Empire, and the rest of Asia and the Middle East, was invented in Persia (“Actually Hookah is a 3,500 year old tradition and it’s part culture, part religion “See “The New York Times” Sept. 9, 2006”, Also the Webster Dictionary).

  4. The first time in the world that pearl was discovered and harvested (Some 5,000 years ago) was in the Persian Gulf state of Bahrain (which was part of the greater Persia, before the British colonization in the 19th century) CNN Jan. 5, 2002 from here started the term ”Pearl of the Persian Gulf”.

  5. Noodles were first invented in Persia. (“Expat”. Weekly, Manila 1996)

  6. King Jamshid of Persia discovered winemaking method, some 3,000 years B.C.

  7. The first Beer-making techniques were invented in the Medeo-Persia some 5-6000 years ago (on the Net://www.udli./

The legend says that Beer was first brewed by Ninkasi, some 3500 B.C. (for details, see the cult of Ninkasi). Also "The Manila Bulletin", Aug. 30, 2002.

  1. Punch (the mixture of five beverages) though it was popularized in British-India, is actually a Persian concoction. Panj in Persian means five, the number of the mixtures. ("The Philippine Daily Inquirer" (Trivia) Feb. 2000)

Also the word Punjab (or Panjab = Five waters/rivers, in India and Pakistan) and Panjacila (Five Principles) of Sukarno in Indonesia, etc.

  1. A Persian Alchemist, called Zacharia Alrazi discovered the Industrial Alcohol. (Al Razi is known in the west as Rhazes).

  2. As for the winemaking, the earliest evidences date back from 5,400 B.C. in the Azirbaijan province of Iran (Haji Firuz hills excavations, near the city of Orumieh).

“It predates the birth of French wine. The French are in fact jealous about that, because the earliest evidence in France goes back to 500 B.C., “Said Remy Boucharlat, a French archaeologist who works in the Southern archaeological sites in Iran.”

“The Iranian grape is so good for making spicy wine that the Australian Shiraz, also known as Syrah, is made from the same grapes that grow in Iran’s Southern City of Shiraz, which gave the wine its name” (See “The International Herald Tribune” Apr. 5, 2006, p.2).

  1. Various musical instruments, including setar (cithara or cittern) and probably even guitar, Tamboor (Tambourine,) and Santour (Dulcimer) were invented in Persia. Other musical instruments are Tar (six-stringed, while Setar is four-stringed) and Ud, from which the medieval European lute developed; as well as Ney or Flute. (“Iran Today,” MFA, Tehran, 1976, p. 122). Iranian Music has even influenced the Flamenco tradition of Spain. (“Iran Today” p.122). Also, the Spanish dance called “Saraband” is originally a Persian dance (see Webster). And the world famous “Shiraz” wine, or sherry from Xeres or Jerez of Spain, which itself is derived from the city of Shiraz, in Persia, etc). See “The International Herald Tribune” Jan. 5, 2006. P.3. Take note that the Persian musical instrument setar ( “seh tar” or three strings) was adopted by the Greeks and called Cithara or Cittern and also, by the Chinese, and it is still called “san hsien” meaning three strings and later on by the Japanese, also which still call it as “Samisen” (three string). The Indians apparently did not need to translate it and they still call it as in its original name “Sehtar”.

  2. The first people, who started the “Birthday” celebrations, were the Persian nobility and the royalty. (So, “Happy Birthday” could originally be a Persian song?) (“The Philippine Daily Inquirer” (Trivia) Jan.20/1999)

  3. The first time that cake was used in a birthday party was by King Darius of Persia, when he conquered Egypt. (500 B.C.) ”The Philippine Daily Inquirer” 1999.

  4. Polo game was invented in Persia, some 500 years B.C. (“The Philippine Daily Inquirer”Mar.28, 1998).

  5. Wrestling, both as an art of war and sports, originated in Persia. (Ibid). Today, there are more than 200 words and expressions about wrestling in Persian language (See “The Wrestling Magazine” Tehran, 2005 – Nov. 20 / P.15).

  6. Even Kabbadi sports, which some believe to have been originated in India, is itself one of the many Persian exports to the Indian sublontinent.( see “The Wall Street Journal Asia” oct.19-106)

  7. Poker was also invented in Persia some 3,000 years ago. It was called Aas. (“The Philippine Daily Inquirer (Trivia)” June 18, 2000)

  8. Chess, though some say was originated in India, was perfected and passed on to the West, through Persia, in the 10th century. Some researchers say that Chess was invented or perfected by a man named “Lilaj” see “Parsi Names” P. 242; It is Believed that Chess or “Nard” as it is known in Persian, was perfected in Persian, thus the words Chess (from Shah or King) Shakhmat (Shahmat) Rook (rokh, or Chariot) etc.

  9. The world’s first known money appeared in Persia, at 800 B.C.(“The Philippine Daily Inquirer,” April 27, 2002)

  10. There are more than 300 Persian words in English Language today, some of which are as fallows; Paradise,(A Persian word meaning “Walled garden” see “Panorama magazine” Manila, Sept.18, 2007).Star (setareh/ishtar), Bazaar, Caravan, Bank, Check, Chess, Roxan, Rose, Jasmine,
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