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Conversion and Cleanup Tasks: Status Report

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Library of Congress

Pinyin Conversion Project
Conversion and Cleanup Tasks: Status Report

February 1, 2005


1. Review of files of converted authority records
While converting authority records, OCLC created a number of files containing certain kinds of records for review. For more than five months in late 2000 and early 2001, LC catalogers painstakingly reviewed the thousands of converted authority records in these files and made corrections where warranted.
2. Authority records for undifferentiated personal names
The conversion program did not convert authority records that were coded as undifferentiated personal names. With the able and generous assistance of a dozen cooperating libraries, more than 8400 of these records were evaluated and converted manually. In the process, several thousand new unique and non-unique authority records were created.
3. Double conversion
These two headings were checked to make sure that they did not “double-convert”:
P‘i-hsien (Kiangsu Province, China) converted to Pi Xian (Jiangsu Sheng, China)

T‘eng-hsien (Shantung Province, China) converted to Teng Xian (Shandong Sheng, China)
4. Subject headings and subject subdivisions for regions in China
Some of the subject headings for regions in China converted correctly, but others did not. Therefore, all headings on bib records for regions in China were located, evaluated, and corrected when necessary.

651 -0 $a Canton Region (China)… [changed manually to Guangzhou Region (China)]

651 -0 $a Taiyuan Shi Region (China) [changed manually to Taiyuan Region (Shanxi Sheng, China)]

650 -0 … $z Sinkiang Uighur Autonomous Region [changed manually to Xinjiang Uygur Zizhiqu]

650 -0 … $z Tangshan (Hebei Sheng) Region [changed manually to Tangshan Region (Hebei Sheng)]

650 -0 … $z Luoyang (Henan Sheng) Region [changed manually to Luoyang Region (Henan Sheng)]

5. Multi-syllable terms for Chinese jurisdictions
Ten multi-syllable terms for Chinese jurisdictions were to have been joined together by the conversion program when they were identified as being part of a proper name. Some, however, were joined together in other situations. Also, some of the correctly converted terms had to be changed. (For example, T‘ai-wan ti ch‘ü converted to Taiwan Diqu; this string had to be changed to Taiwan di qu, because the term di qu (地区) in this instance refers to the Taiwan region in general, and not specifically named location.) We scrutinized each bib record on which these ten terms appeared; many records were corrected.
Term Hits Needed Correction
diqu 1670 ca. 1100

tequ 88 ca. 55

xingzhengqu 75 ca. 40

zhuanqu 11 2

dujiaqu 1 0

ziran 33 0

zizhiqi 1300 0

zizhiqu 11 0

zizhixian 253 0

zizhizhou 356 0
6. Bogus multi-syllable terms
On Chinese bib records converted in RLIN, the conversion program incorrectly created several multi-syllable generic terms. These are the terms that have been identified and corrected:
Wade-Giles syllables Converted to Should be
ti ch‘üan diquan di quan
ti ch‘üeh diqueh di que
tu chia ch‘ü dujiaqu du jia qu
min tsu minzu min zu
te ch‘üan tequan te quan
hsing cheng ch‘üan xingzhengquan xing zheng quan
tzu chih ch‘üan zizhiquan zi zhi quan
chuan ch‘üan zhuanquan zhuan quan
7. Guangzhouese
On Chinese bib records converted in RLIN, the word Cantonese was converted to Guangzhouese when it appeared in subject headings. This term has been manually corrected on all LC records.
650 -0 $a Guangzhouese dialects [changed manually to Cantonese dialects]
650 -0 $a Cookery, Chinese $x Guangzhouese style [changed manually to Cookery, Chinese $x Cantonese style]
8. Chinese monograph records that were marked for review in the 987 field
Records on which access points required change have been converted or corrected. The term [access not affected] has been added in the 987 $f subfield of the remaining bib records; those records have been set aside.
9. Chinese serial records that were marked for review in the 987 field
The 900 remaining serial records that were marked for review have been converted.
10. Unconverted IBC serial records
The 516 brief Chinese acquisition records in the LC database have been reviewed and converted.
11. Personal names with religious titles
To the extent possible, authority records and headings for personal names that included religious titles (such as fa shi 法师, da shi 大师, chan shi 禅师) have been identified and converted.
12. Subject headings that were not converted by machine
Working from the four lists of Chinese subject headings that appear on the pinyin home page, CPSO converted subject headings that were not converted by machine, on all but premarc bib records.
13. Syllable sweep for bib records for instrumental music
Unique Wade-Giles syllables were searched in music records in the LC database. All records that appeared to include romanized Chinese were printed out, reviewed, and converted where appropriate. In all, about 1500 records were converted.
14. Syllable sweep for bib records for motion pictures
Unique Wade-Giles syllables were searched in motion picture records in the LC database. All records that appeared to include romanized Chinese were printed out, reviewed, and converted where appropriate. 3000 records were reviewed, and 90 were converted. Since much of the data on these records that appears to be romanized has, in fact, been transcribed from copyright applications, titles proper on motion picture records were almost never converted. In most instances, the pinyin form of a romanized title was given in a 246 field.
15. Names of geographical features (rivers, mountains, deserts, etc.):
The conversion program connected certain generic terms for geographic features (primarily the terms for rivers) for geographic features to the names that preceded them. These generic terms will be identified and separated on authority and bib records, to conform to the romanization guidelines.
pre-conversion WG form machine converted to: change to:
Chang-chiang Changjiang Chang Jiang

Huang-ho Huanghe Huang He

Chu-chiang Zhujiang Zhu Jiang
At the same time, some 20 multi-syllable generic terms which are used in proper names were not connected by the conversion program. They will be identified and joined together when appropriate.
pre-conversion WG form machine converted to: change to:
Huang-t‘u kao yüan Huangtu gao yuan Huangtu Gaoyuan

Ch‘ing Tsang kao yüan Qing Zang gao yuan Qing Zang Gaoyuan

San-chiang p‘ing yüan Sanjiang ping yuan Sanjiang Pingyuan

T‘a-k‘e-la-ma-kan sha mo Takelamagan sha mo Takelamagan


Ch‘ai-ta-mu pen di Chaidamu pen di Chaidamu Pendi

Su-i-shih yün ho Suyishi yun he Suyishi Yunhe

Pa-na-ma yün ho Banama yun he Banama Yunhe
16. ”Most frequently used” headings
Lily Kecskes systematically converted the [164] “most frequently used” headings on more than 17,000 bib records in the LC database that were not converted by machine. The task took more than 18 months to accomplish. Lily converted each heading on bib records one by one. In the course of her work, she added more than 50 headings to the list that was originally supplied by OCLC at the beginning of the conversion project. A list of the most-used headings that have been converted may be found at the end of this document.
17. Mongolian records
Shi Deng of the University of California-San Diego converted romanized Chinese text in some 80 LC Mongolian records. Most of the changes involved Chinese title added entries.
18. Tibetan language bib records
More than 1000 bib records that are coded Tibetan have been reviewed and converted. Most of the changes involved Chinese title added entries, and were located with the Voyager search gkey Chinese not k987 pinyin, limited to Tibetan language records.
19. ”Title in Chinese”
A search for the phrase “title in Chinese” retrieved 875 unconverted bib records in the LC database. Most of these records were non-Chinese records that include romanized title added entries. They have been reviewed and converted.
20. Potential problem records identified by OCLC
As part of its pinyin cleanup project, OCLC identified 1460 LC records that had been marked for review. About 500 of these records have been converted.
21. Chronological subdivisions
Chronological subdivisions have been converted in subject headings in all but certain PREMARC records. A list of the subdivisions that were converted by machine appears in the conversion specifications for Chinese bibliographic records on the pinyin home page.
22. Headings for Well-known Authors Found Specifically on PREMARC Records / February 1, 2005
The Library of Congress’ PREMARC records were not converted to pinyin by machine. At LC, headings on PREMARC records have been identified and converted manually.
Jim Cheng of the University of California - San Diego recently began converting PREMARC headings as a cleanup project in the Roger database. He sent a list of headings for well-known Chinese-American authors who publish in both English and Chinese that he found on PREMARC Chinese records (shown below). These headings are representative of what one may encounter in any file of these records: some headings that have not been converted; some that have been; some that are now established with or without the dates that appear on the PREMARC records; some that were excluded from conversion; some that are not romanized in Wade-Giles or pinyin form; and some that cannot be found in the authority file today. Of course, headings on PREMARC records in databases other than Roger, the UCSD database, may vary.
The list has been annotated with the AACR2 form of headings for the names in the list in BOLD TYPE, and a brief notation of the current status of the heading vis-à-vis the PREMARC form.
Headings for well-known authors can safely be identified, and then converted or changed to match the current heading in the National Authority File. Some suggestions and reminders:

- if possible, search thoroughly for headings for individuals in your PREMARC file in Wade-Giles form, other forms found in the PREMARC file, and pinyin form to be sure that you have found all of the headings for a given person;

- then search for the AACR2 form of headings in the National Authority File;
- if the heading has been excluded from conversion (fixed field 008/07=n), do not convert it;
- remember that only Wade-Giles headings were converted to pinyin form;

- then follow your local procedures for updating PREMARC headings.
Because author statements are almost invariably missing from PREMARC Chinese records, it is sometimes difficult to identify the individuals who are represented by headings on those records. For that reason, one should be cautious to change PREMARC headings for lesser-known people. They can often only be safely identified, and distinguished from other people with the same or similar names, with reference to the 3x5 card from which the PREMARC record was made, or to the item that the record describes.
East Asian Librarians are encouraged to add to this list of headings! Please send unconverted or questionable premarc Chinese headings for well-known authors to Phil Melzer at, and they will be added to the list.


Chang, Hao, 1937- Excluded from conversion; do not covert – see Exclusion list

HREF=",-1,0,E/2browse" MACROBUTTON HtmlResAnchor Chang, Hsin-pao, 1922- Excluded from conversion; do not convert – see Exclusion list

Chiang, Wên-han Coverted to Jiang, Wenhan
HREF=",-1,0,E/2browse" MACROBUTTON HtmlResAnchor Ding, Li Converted from Ting, Li (undifferentiated heading)
Ch‘ien, Tuan-shêng Converted from Ch‘ien, Tuan-sheng, 1900- to Qian, Duansheng, 1900-
HREF=",-1,0,E/2browse" MACROBUTTON HtmlResAnchor Jiang, Xiangze Converted from Chiang, Hsiang-tse
Han, Suyin, pseud. Heading changed to Han, Suyin, 1917- on 2/8/02
HREF=",-1,0,E/2browse" MACROBUTTON HtmlResAnchor Han, Yu-shan, 1899- Not converted; do not convert
HREF=",-1,0,E/2browse" MACROBUTTON HtmlResAnchor Hao, Yen-p‘ing, 1934- Excluded from conversion; do not convert – see Exclusion list

He, Bingdi Converted from Ho, Ping-ti

HREF=",-1,0,E/2browse" MACROBUTTON HtmlResAnchor Huang, Han-liang, 1893- Heading appears not to have been established

Lee, Leo Ou-fan Heading not converted because it is not Wade-Giles
Li, Ji, 1896-1979 Converted from Li, Chi, 1896-1979
HREF=",-1,0,E/2browse" MACROBUTTON HtmlResAnchor Liang, Jingchun, 1890-1984 Converted from Liang, Ching-ch‘un, 1890-1984
Lin, Yaohua, 1910- Converted from Lin, Yao-hua, 1910-

Lin, Yutang, 1895-1976 Heading not converted because it is not Wade-Giles

Ling, Nai-min Heading appears not to have been established

HREF=",-1,0,E/2browse" MACROBUTTON HtmlResAnchor Liu, Kwang-Ching, 1921- Heading not converted because it is not Wade-Giles
HREF=",-1,0,E/2browse" MACROBUTTON HtmlResAnchor Pian, Rulan Chao Heading not converted because it is not Wade-Giles
Qu, Tongzu Converted from Ch‘ü, T‘ung-tsu
HREF=",-1,0,E/2browse" MACROBUTTON HtmlResAnchor Shih, Ch‘êng-chih Converted from Shih, Ch‘eng-chih, 19th cent. to Shi, Chengzhi, 19th cent.
HREF=",-1,0,E/2browse" MACROBUTTON HtmlResAnchor Song, Yingxing, b. 1587 Converted from Sung, Ying-hsing, b. 1587
HREF=",-1,0,E/2browse" MACROBUTTON HtmlResAnchor Sun, E-tu Zen, 1921- Heading not converted because it is not Wade-Giles
HREF=",-1,0,E/2browse" MACROBUTTON HtmlResAnchor Sun, Yat-sen, 1866-1925 Heading not converted because it is not Wade-Giles
HREF=",-1,0,E/2browse" MACROBUTTON HtmlResAnchor Têng, Ssu-yü, 1906- The heading Teng, Ssu-yü, 1906- was excluded from conversion; do not convert – see Exclusion list
Wang Yeh-chien Excluded from conversion; do not convert – see Exclusion list
HREF=",-1,0,E/2browse" MACROBUTTON HtmlResAnchor Xue, Jundu, 1922- Converted from Hsüeh, Chün-tu, 1922-
HREF=",-1,0,E/2browse" MACROBUTTON HtmlResAnchor Yang, Liansheng, 1914- Converted from Yang, Lien-sheng, 1914-
Yip, Wai-lim Heading not converted because it is not Wade-Giles
HREF=",-1,0,E/2browse" MACROBUTTON HtmlResAnchor Yu, Yingshi Converted from Yü, Ying-shih
HREF=",-1,0,E/2browse" MACROBUTTON HtmlResAnchor Zhang, Tianze Converted from Chang, T‘ien-tse

Zhang, Zhongli Probably refers to Zhang, Zhongli, 1920-, author of Chinese gentry and several other books in English and Chinese

Zhou, Cezong, 1916- Converted from Chou, Ts‘e-tsung, 1916-

HREF=",-1,0,E/2browse" MACROBUTTON HtmlResAnchor Zhou, Xiangguang Converted from Zhou, Hsiang-kuang


1. Headings for Chinese jurisdictions; conventional place names
Almost all authority records and headings for Chinese jurisdictions on Chinese bib records were correctly converted by the machine program. Most of the headings on Korean and Japanese records on RLIN have also been converted. Headings for conventional names of provinces have been changed on non-Chinese and PREMARC records. However, because of the many recent changes to the names and boundaries of Chinese cities and counties, a comprehensive review of these headings is being conducted, and headings for Chinese jurisdictions are constantly being updated.
This is complex and time-consuming work that will doubtless take years to accomplish. When the name of one jurisdiction is changed, it is frequently the case that many related authority and bib records then also have to be updated.
The CPSO page on Headings for Chinese Jurisdictions will be updated periodically to reflect heading changes.
2. Wade-Giles headings on bib records, identified by $wnne and $wnnea references
Work has begun to extract from files of converted name authority records the former headings, which are coded either $wnne or $wnnea, and then run them against bib records in the LC database to identify headings that need to be converted. To date, several dozen headings have been converted on several hundred bib records.
3. Systematic 041 and 043 searches on Voyager (ca. 2500 records)
A series of searches of the 041 and 043 fields will be conducted to identify records that contain unconverted romanized Chinese strings or headings.
4. min guo  Minguo
When the syllables min guo together are used to mean the Republic of China, they must be capitalized and connected. The decision to connect these syllables was made after the machine conversion. There are perhaps 500 authority records and many hundreds of bib records that need to be changed.
pre-conversion WG form machine converted to: need change to:
Chung-hua min kuo Zhonghua min guo Zhonghua Minguo
5. Unconverted access points on non-Chinese serial records
Serial records needing changes to access points will be identified in the course of performing other cleanup tasks, and sent to serials catalogers for correction.
6. Li, Po
The heading Li, Po, 701-762 converted by machine to Li, Bo, 701-762 in the autumn of 2000. The heading on authority records was changed back to Li, Po, 701-762 in March 2003. Corresponding headings on many bib records will also have to also be changed back.


1. Capitalization of generic terms for place names
The conversion program did not capitalize generic terms for place names, as

called for by the romanization guidelines. This problem does not affect filing or access. These terms are now being capitalized on an as-encountered basis.
2. di / de
The conversion program automatically converted the syllable ti to di. The

romanization of the character , therefore, converted to di rather than de. This syllable is now being changed on an as-encountered basis.
3. Bib records marked [access not affected]
Bib records that were marked for review by the conversion program have been reviewed. The many records only needing conversion of a non-access point have been marked [access not affected] in the 987 field, and have been set aside.
4. 880 fields
Portions of 880 fields sometimes did not convert, or converted differently

from their parallel roman fields. Some of the reasons for this occurrence are explained in the section of the home page that describes the conversion of

bibliographic records. These inconsistencies will probably be corrected on an as-encountered basis.



Ai, Ch’ing, 1910-

Chang, Ch’ien, 1853-1926

Ch’ang-ch’un shih ti fang chih pien tsuan wei yüan hui

Chang, Hen-shui, 1895-

Chang, T’ien-i, 1906-

Chao, Kang, 1929-

Chao, Shu-li

Ch’en, Ying-chen

Ch’en, Yün, 1905-

Cheng, Chen-to, 1898-1958

Ch’eng-tu ti t’u ch’u pan she

Chia, P’ing-wa

Chiang, Ping-chih, 1904-

Ch’ien-lung, Emperor of China, 1711-1799

Chin, Sheng-t’an. 1608-1661

Chin tai Chung-kuo shih liao ts’ung k’an

China (Republic : 1949-). Chu chi ch’u

China (Republic : 1949-). Nei cheng pu

China. Ti chih k’uang ch’an pu. Shu k’an pien chi shih

Ch’ing tai chuan chi ts’ung kan

Ching wei wen hua t’u shu ch’u pan she. Pien chi pu

Chou, En-lai, 1898-1976

Chou, Tso-jen, 1885-1967

Chou, Yang, 1908-

Chou li

Chu, Hsi, 1130-1200

Ch’ü, Yüan, ca. 343-ca. 277 B.C.

Ch’ü, Pao-k’uei


Chuang-tzu. Nan-hua ching

Chung-hua ching chi yen chiu yüan ching chi chuan lun

Chung-hua wen hua fu hsing yün tung t’ui hsing wei yüan hui

Chung-hua wen hua ts’ung shu

Chung-hua jen min kung ho kuo ti fang chih ts’ung shu

Chung i ku chi cheng li ts’ung shu

Chung-kuo fang chih ts’ung shu

Chung-kuo fang chih ts’ung shu. Hua chung ti fang

Chung-kuo i hsüeh pai k’o ch’üan shu

Chung-kuo kung ch’an tang

Chung-kuo kuo ch’ing ts’ung shu

“Chung-kuo kuo ch’ing ts’ung shu—Pai hsien shih ching chi she hui tiao

ch’a” pien chi wei yüan hui

Chung-kuo ku tien wen hsüeh tso p’in hsüan tu

Chung-kuo shao shu min tsu she hui li shih tiao ch’a tzu liao ts’ung k’an

Chung-kuo tang tai wen hsüeh yen chiu tzu liao

Chung-kuo ti 2 li shih tang an kuan

Chung-kuo ti t’u ch’u pan she

Chung-kuo wen hua shih chih shih ts’ung shu (Taipei, Taiwan)

Chung yang yen chiu yüan

Chung yang yen chiu yüan. Chin tai shih yen chiu so

Chung yung

Fan, Wen-lan, 1891-1969

Feng, Chi-ts’ai

Feng, Meng-lung

Feng, T’ien-yu, 1942-

Feng, Yü-hsiang, 1882-1945

Feng, Yu-lan, 1895-

Fu, Pao-shih, 1904-1965

Han, Fei, d. 233 B.C.

Han, Fei, d. 233 B.C. Han Fei-tzu

Hao-jan, 1932-

Heng-t’ang-t’ui-shih, 1711-1778

Hsi yu chi

Hsia, Yen, 1900-

Hsiao, Hung, 1911-1942

Hsiao ching


Hsiao-hsiao-sheng. Chin P’ing Mei tz’u hua

Hsiao hsüeh sheng wen k’u

Hsieh, Ling-yün, 385-433

Hsieh, Wan-ying, 1902-

Hsing cheng yüan wen hua chien she wei yüan hui (China)

Hsing cheng yüan yen chiu fa chan k’ao ho wei yüan hui (China)

Hsüan-tsang, ca. 596-664

Hsün-tzu, 340-245 B.C.

Hu, Shih, 1891-1962

Huang kuan ts’ung shu

Hui-neng, 638-713

Hung lou meng

I ching

I li

K’ang, Yu-wei, 1858-1927

Kao, Yü-jen

“Ku pen hsiao shuo chi ch’eng” pien wei hui

Ku tai wen shih ming chu hsüan i ts’ung shu

Kuan, Chung, d. 645 B.C.

Kuan, Shan-yüeh, 1912-

Kuang-tung sheng ti t’u ch’u pan she

Kung-sun, Yang, d. 338 B.C.

Kuo hsüeh chen chi hui pien

Kuo hsüeh ming chu chen pen hui k’an

Kuo li chung yang t’u shu kuan (China)

Kuo li ku kung po wu yüan

Kuo li ku kung po wu yüan. Pien chi wei yüan hui

Kuo li pien i kuan

Kuo, Mo-jo, 1892-1978

Lao, She, 1899-1966


Lao-tzu. Tao te ching

Li, Ch’ing-chao, 1081-ca. 1141

Li, Fei-kan, 1905-

Li, Hung-chang, 1823-1901

Li chi

Li shih hsiao ku shih ts’ung shu

Li, Tse-hou

Li, Yu, d. 804

Liang, Ch’i-ch’ao, 1873-1929

Lien ho pao ts’ung shu

Lin, Piao, 1908-1971

Liu, Hai-su, 1896-1994

Liu, I-sheng, fl. 1963-

Liu, Shao-ch’i, 1898-1969

Lu, Chiu-yüan, 1139-1193

Lu, Hsün, 1881-1936

Mao hsieh ts’ung k’an. Shih ch’ang yen hsi lieh

Mao, Tse-tung, 1893-1976

Mencius. Meng-tzu

Mo, Ti, fl. 400 B.C.

Mo, Ti, fl. 400 B.C. Mo-tzu

Nan Hua ch’u pan she

Ni, K’uang

Nieh, Jung-chen, 1899-

Ou-yang, Hsiu, 1007-1072

Ou-yang, Hsün, 557-641

Ou-yang … (Other persons with this surname)

Pa, Chin, 1905-

Pai, Chü-i, 772-846

Pai, Hua

Pan, Ku, 32-92

Ping, Hsin, 1907-1966

Po-yang, 1920-

Pu-i, 1906-1967

San min chu i li lun ts’ung shu

Shan hai ching

Shen, Yen-ping, 1896-

Shih ching

Shih san ching

Shu ching

Shu, Ch’ing-ch’un, 1898-1966

Shui ching chu

Shui hu chuan

Ssu k’u ch’üan shu … (any headings after these first 4 words)

Ssu-ma, Ch’ien, ca. 145-ca. 86 B.C.

Ssu-ma, Kuang, 1019-1086

Ssu shu

Sun-tzu, 6th cent. B.C.

Sun-tzu, 6th cent. B.C. Sun-tzu ping fa

Ta hsüeh

T’an, Ssu-t’ung, 1865-1898

Tang tai Chung-kuo ts’ung shu

Tang tai Chung-kuo ts’ung shu pien chi pu

T’ao, Hsing-chih, 1891-1946

T’ao, Pai-ch’uan, 1903-

Teng, Hsiao-p’ing, 1904-

Ti t’u ch’u pan she

T’ien, Han, 1898-1968

Ting, Ling, 1904-

Ts’ai, Tun-ming, 1868-1940

Ts’ai, Yüan-p’ei

Ts’ang hai ts’ung kan

Ts’ao, Hsüeh-ch’in, ca. 1717-1763

Ts’ao, Hsüeh-ch’in, ca. 1717-1763. Hung lou meng

Ts’ao, Yü

Ts’en, K’ai-lun

Tseng, Kuo-fan, 1811-1872

Tso, Tsung-t’ang, 1812-1885

Tso-ch’iu, Ming. Tso chuan

Tsu kuo ts’ung shu

Tu, Fu, 712-770

Tun-huang manuscripts

Tz’u (subject hdg)

Tzu chih t’ung chien

Wang, Shou-jen, 1472-1529

Wang, Yang-ming, 1472-1529

Wen, T’ien-hsiang, 1236-1283

Wen shih che hsüeh chi ch’eng

Wu, Ching-tzu, 1701-1754

Wu chiu pei chai I ching chi ch’eng

Wu, P’ei-fu, 1874-1939

Yeh, Sheng-t’ao, 1893-

Yeh, Yung-lieh

Yen, Hsi-shan, 1883-1960

Yin te

Yü, Fei-an

Yü, Kuang-yüan

Yü, Yu-jen, 1878-1964

Yung-cheng, Emperor of China, 1677-1735

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