p. 3 Old Adam – Adam of Genesis; the first man God creates.
p. 4 Machiavelli –an Italian political philosopher, historian, musician, poet, and comedic playwright. As a theorist, Machiavelli was the key figure in realist political theory, crucial to European statecraft during the Renaissance.
p. 4 Cambridge – a university in England
p. 7 Aristotle – an ancient Greek philosopher who wrote many books on many subjects
p. 12 Tudors – the family name of Henry VII and Henry VIII
p. 13 Yorkist Wars – also known as the Wars of the Roses; wars between two families, the house of York and the house of Lancaster, for the claim to the throne
p. 17 heretic – a person who holds controversial opinions, especially one who publicly dissents from the officially accepted dogma of the Roman Catholic Church.
p. 18 Dr. Luther – Martin Luther, who publicly criticized the practices of the Catholic Church
p. 20 the Tower – The Tower of London is the official royal palace and fortress, although the last ruler to reside in it as a palace was King James I (1566-1625).
p. 20 Lord Chancellor – The Lord Chancellor was the chief royal chaplain and advisor
p. 24 “No man can serve two masters” – reference to Christ’s teaching that no man can serve two masters (God and money)
p. 23 Lent – The 40 days before Easter when meat, fish, eggs and milk products were strictly forbidden and only one meal was taken each day.
p. 26 vespers – a church service held in the late afternoon or evening
p. 28 seven sacraments of the Church – baptism, communion, marriage, holy orders, confirmation, penance and reconciliation, anointing of the sick
p. 31 Leviticus – a book of law in the Old Testament of the Bible. Also, Lev. 20:21-- If a man marries his brother's wife, [. . .] he has dishonored his brother. They will be childless.
p. 31 Deuteronomy – referring to Deuteronomy 25:5 -- If brothers are living together and one of them dies without a son, his widow must not marry outside the family. Her husband's brother shall take her and marry her and fulfill the duty of a brother-in-law to her.
p. 31 Holy See – The Pope
p. 32 the jackal and the lion –reference to a story about a manipulative jackal who befriends a lion and then deceives him
p. 33 King of Spain – Queen Catherine’s nephew
p. 34 Lady Anne – Anne Boleyn, the King’s mistress
p. 34 Joshua’s trumpet – reference to the Biblical Joshua who marched around the walls of Jericho seven times, blew his trumpet, and the walls fell
p. 35 money-changers in the temple– reference to the corrupt money-changers in the Jewish temple who were supposed to be honest men of the church
p. 38 golden calf – a false idol that the people of Israel create. God gets mad.
p. 38 Moloch – a god who demanded human sacrifice
p. 43 litigant – a party engaged in a lawsuit
p. 48 Convocation – the meeting of a special group of people, in this case, the bishops
p. 48 Act of Supremacy – an Act of Parliament under King Henry VIII of England that declared that he was 'the only supreme head in earth of the Church in England'
p. 49 Socrates/hemlock – reference to Socrates’ choice to drink hemlock, a poison, rather than be exiled from Athens for questioning the gods
p. 51 St. Paul – reference to the prominent Christian Paul’s statement in Ephesians 6:11 Put on the full armor of God so that you can take your stand against the devil's schemes.
p. 52 the connection with Rome – they decided that Rome/the Pope will no longer control the English church
p. 54 Old church – the Catholic church
p. 54 Old Alliance – the alliance between Spain and England through Henry and Catherine’s marriage will be called into question once he divorces her
p. 63 bracken – fuel for the fire
p. 71 Thomas Aquinas – considered by the Catholic church to be one of the greatest theologians ever
p. 74 Archbishop of Canterbury – the senior clergyman of the established Church of England
p. 82 “has Eve run out of apples” – referring to when Eve at the apple in Eden after she had been ordered not to by God; More is asking his daughter if she has any other ways to betray or hurt him;
p. 92 Magna Carta – an English 1215 charter which limited the power of English Monarchs, specifically King John, from absolute rule
p. 93 “My master had easel and gall” – referring to the fact that Jesus was given vinegar to drink while he hung on the cross, which increased his thirst