|《Haydock’s Catholic Bible Commentary – Psalms (Vol. 1)》(George L. Haydock)
George Leo Haydock (1774-1849), scion of an ancient English Catholic Recusant family, was a priest, pastor and Bible scholar. His edition of the Douay Bible with extended commentary, originally published in 1811, became the most popular English Catholic Bible of the 19th century on both sides of the Atlantic. It remains in print and is still regarded for its apologetic value.
His eventful early years included a narrow scrape with the French Revolution and a struggle to complete his priestly studies in the years before Catholic Emancipation. He would go on to serve poor Catholic missions in rural England.
Haydock's first assignment was at Ugthorpe, Yorkshire, a poor rural mission. While there, Father Haydock completed the work for which he would be best remembered: commentary for a new edition of the English Catholic Bible. That Bible was called the Douay Version (Douay-Rheims Bible), originally translated from the Latin Vulgate in the 16th century chiefly by Gregory Martin, one of the first professors at the English College, Douai (University of Douai). It was revised and newly annotated in the 18th century by Richard Challoner (1691-1781), a scholar at University of Douai and then Vicar Apostolic of the London District, and later by Father Bernard MacMahon (1736?-1816). Haydock took his text from the Challoner-MacMahon revision, but added a substantially extended commentary. This commentary was partly original and partly compiled from Patristic writings and the writings of later Bible scholars. The Bible had long been used to advance the Protestant cause. However, Catholics used it effectively in their counteroffensive. As Haydock states in his Preface, "To obviate the misinterpretations of the many heretical works which disgrace the Scripture, and deluge this unhappy country, has been one main design of the present undertaking."
2011 is the bicentennial anniversary of the Haydock Bible. Its substantial and continuing popularity is reflected in its long history of varied editions. It would remain continuously in print until at least 1910 with a long series of publishers in England and America, and would enjoy a renewal of interest at the end of the 20th century, spurring a new series of reprints and modern digital reproductions. Present day Traditional Roman Catholics who see uncertainty of purpose in the post-Conciliar Church have found inspiration in the English Catholic Recusant movement and in Father Haydock's confident expression of Faith.
THE BOOK OF PSALMS.
The Psalms are called by the Hebrew, Tehillim; that is, hymns of praise. The author, of a great part of them at least, was king David; but many are of opinion, that some of them were made by Asaph and others, whose names are prefixed in the titles. (Challoner) --- These, however, are not unquestionably of divine authority, though they deserve to be respected. (Calmet) --- St. Jerome (ad Cyprian) says: "Let us be convinced that those labour under a mistake, who suppose that David was the author of all the Psalms, and not those whose names appear in the titles." Paine is not, therefore, the first who has made this discovery. (Watson) (2 Paralipomenon xxix. 30.) --- Psalm lxxvi., compared with Psalms xxxviii., lxiv., lxx., cxi., cxxv., cxxxvi., and cxlv., seems favourable of this opinion, (Calmet; Tirinus; &c.) which is contrary to St. Ambrose, &c. The matter is not of great moment, as all confess that the 150 Psalms were dedicated by the Holy Ghost. (Du Hamel) --- St. Augustine (City of God xvii. 14.) attributes all the Psalms to David; and it seems best to adhere to this opinion, as it is most generally received. (Menochius) --- Our Saviour cites the cix. Psalm as belonging to David, (Matthew xxii. 44.) agreeably to the title; and the 2d Psalm is also attributed to him, by the apostles, (Acts iv. 25.) though it have no title at all, no more than the first. (Haydock) --- It has generally been asserted, that when a Psalm is in this position, it must be referred to the author who was mentioned last. But Bellarmine calls this in question: and the titles of themselves afford but a precarious argument, either to know the author or the real import of the Psalm. (Calmet) --- St. Jerome himself (ad Paulin.) seems to suppose that David was the writer of all the Psalms, (Worthington) and that he has left us compositions which may vie with those of the most celebrated pagan bards. In effect, nothing could excel the harmony of these divine hymns, to judge even from a translation. (Fleury.) --- What then would they be in the original? The difficulty of coming to a perfect knowledge of the author's meaning, arises chiefly from the variety of translations and commentaries, which have been more numerous on this work than any other. To examine all minutely, would require more volumes than our present limits will allow. The version which we have to explain, is not that which St. Jerome made from the Hebrew and which possesses the same intrinsic merit as the rest of his works: but the Church has declared authentic the holy doctor's corrected (Haydock) version from St. Lucian, (Bellarmine; Tirinus) or from the Septuagint as the people had been accustomed to sing the psalter in that manner; and it would have been difficult for them to learn another. (Calmet) --- A critical examination would show, that the Septuagint have not so often deviated from the original [Hebrew] as some would pretend. See Berthier, &c. Pellican extols the fidelity of our version on the Psalms, though he was a Protestant. (Ward. Err. p. 6.) --- When therefore we offer a different version, we would not insinuate that the Vulgate is therefore to be rejected. The copiousness of the Hebrew language, (Haydock) and on some occasions the uncertainty of its roots, or precise import, (Somon. Crit.) ought to make every one diffident in pronouncing peremptorily on such subjects. Let us rather adhere to the decision of the Church, when it is given on any particular text; and when she is silent, let us endeavour to draw the streams of life from our Saviour's fountains, and read for our improvement in virtue. (Haydock) --- No exhortations could be more cogent, than those which we may find in the Psalms. They contain the sum of all the other sacred books, as the Fathers agree. (St. Augustine; St. Basil; &c.) To understand them better, we must reflect upon what key or string they each play. Expositors discover ten such stings on this mysterious harp: 1. God; 2. his works; 3. Providence; 4. the peculiar people of the Jews; 5. Christ; 6. his Church; 7. true worship; 8. David; 9. the end of the world; 10. a future life. On some of these subjects the Psalm principally turns. The titles, composed by Esdras, or the Septuagint, (Worthington) or by some other, (Calmet) will often point out the subject; and if that be not the case, the context and other parts of Scripture will (Worthington) commonly (Haydock) do it. (Worthington) --- The greatest stress must be laid on these. (Calmet) --- An intimate acquaintance with the history of David, and with the Jewish and Christian religion, will also be of essential service to enable us to penetrate the hidden treasures contained in these most heavenly canticles. (Haydock) --- David excels all the pagans in point of antiquity, as he lived 100 years before Homer. His natural genius led him to follow the pursuits of poetry and music; (1 Kings xvi. 23.) and God inspired him to compose these poems, as works in metre are more easily remembered, and make a more pleasing impression upon the heart. Hence Moses and other prophets adopted the same plan, both in the Old and the New Testament. The pious king [David] not being permitted to build the temple, made nevertheless all necessary preparations for it; and among the rest, procured 288 masters of music to train up 4000 singers, 1 Paralipomenon xxiii. 25. He foresaw that these Psalms would be of service, not only on the Jewish festivals, but also in the Christian Church, (Psalm lvi., 10., &c.) gathered from all nations, (Worthington) among whom he sings by the mouths (Haydock) of the clergy, who are commanded daily to sing or recite some of these Psalms. (Worthington) --- The psalter takes its name from an instrument of ten strings, resembling the Greek [letter] Lamda, (Ven. Bede) and sounding from above, to insinuate that we may (Worthington) here learn to observe (Haydock) all the decalogue, and to aim at heaven. If difficulties present themselves in the perusal of these sacred writings, we must remember not to trust private interpretation, (2 Peter i.) but to the doctrine of the Church, (John xiv. 16., and 1 Corinthians xii.) which we may find in the works of the holy Fathers, (St. Augustine, Doct.[On Christian Doctrine?]) and exercise ourselves in humility, when any thing occurs above our comprehension. (St. Gregory xvii. in Ezechiel) (Worthington) --- We must pray with all earnestness to the Father of Lights, and surely no prayers can be more efficacious to obtain what we want, than those which he has here delivered. Whether just or sinners, whether in joy or sorrow, we may here find what may be suitable for us. (Haydock) --- In hoc libro spiritualis Bibliotheca instructa est. (Cassiodorus)
01 Psalm 1
Will. He is wholly occupied and delighted in keeping God's commandments. (Worthington) --- This distinguishes the saint from him who only refrains from sin through fear. (Calmet) --- Qui timet invitus observat. (St. Ambrose) --- Yet even servile fear is of some service, as it restrains exterior conduct, and may, in time, give place to filial reverence. (Haydock) --- Meditate, and put in practice. (Menochius) --- Night. The Jews studied the books of the law so earnestly from their childhood, that they could recite them as easily as they could tell their own names; (Josephus, contra Apion 2.; Deuteronomy vi. 6.) and is it not a shame that many Christians should be so negligent, that they have never so much as read the gospels! (Calmet) though they be eager enough after idle books. The sacred writings are the records of our inheritance. They shew us our true destination, and deserve to be most seriously considered from the beginning to the end. (Haydock)
Tree. Probably the palm-tree, the emblem of a long life, Job xxviii. 18. The tree of life is watered by the river of living waters, proceeding from the throne of God, who is the source of all grace, Apocalypse xxii. 1., Luke xxi. 33., and John iv. 14. (Calmet) --- Those who make good use of favours received, are continually supplied with fresh graces. (Worthington) --- And. In the office-book a new verse begins here, though not in Hebrew, which the Vulgate follows. They were not marked by the sacred penman. --- Prosper, and be rewarded hereafter, though the just man even among the Jews might be here afflicted. Prosperity was only promised to the nation, as long as it continued faithful. Individuals were in the same condition as Christians. They were to trust in the promises of futurity, though some have very erroneously asserted, that there is no mention of eternal felicity in thee holy canticles; (Berthier) Ferrand says, hardly in the Old Testament. (Calmet) --- All this verse might perhaps be better understood of the tree. "And its leaf....and whatever it shall produce," faciet (fructum). (Haydock) --- Some trees are always covered with leaves, like the palm-tree, &c. (Menochius)
Not so. Hebrew, "but are like the chaff which the wind driveth away." (Haydock) --- They are inconstant (St. Jerome) in the good resolutions which they sometimes form. (Haydock) (Job xxi. 18.) --- The good corn remains, but they are tossed about by every wind, and their memory perishes with all their children and effects. (Calmet) --- They yield to the slightest temptation. (Worthington)
Again. So as to gain their cause, (Amama) or to make opposition; as the Hebrew yakumu, "stand up," with defiance, intimates. (Haydock) --- They are already judged, (John iii. 18.) and can make no defence; they being separated from the just, like goats, Kimchi (though he is defended by Amama. Haydock) and some other Jews, falsely assert that the souls of the wicked will be annihilated, and that only the just Israelites will rise again. (Buxtorf, Syn. 1.) --- But this is very different from the belief of the ancient Jews, who clearly assert the truth respecting future rewards and punishments, 2 Machabees vii. 9, 14, 23, and 36., and Wisdom v. 1., or Josephus, or 4 Machabees x.) See Job, &c. --- The Fathers have adduced many such proofs from the other parts of Scripture, which they had read with as much attention as modern critics. (Calmet) --- Council, (Menochius) or rather "counsel," as the same word, Greek: Boule, is used by the Septuagint as [in] ver. 1., (Calmet) though the Hebrew hadath, here be different, and mean a council, or assembly. (Menochius) --- Septuagint and Vulgate may be understood in the same sense. (Haydock) --- Sinners shall be destitute of all hope at the resurrection, and shall be driven from the society of the blessed. (Worthington) --- They will not even be able to complain, since they had been so often admonished of their impending fate, (Berthier) and would not judge themselves in time. (St. Augustine; 1 Corinthians xi., and Acts xxiv. 15.) Protestants, "They shall not stand," &c. (Haydock)
Knoweth, with approbation. There is only one road which leads to heaven: but these men, having sown in the flesh, must reap corruption, Galatians vi. 8. (Berthier) --- God will reward or punish (Worthington) all according to their deserts. (Haydock) --- To some he will thunder out, I never knew you; while others shall hear, Come, &c., Matthew xxv. 34., &c. (Calmet) --- In this world, things seem to be in a sort of confusion, as the wicked prosper. But, at the hour of death, each will receive a final retribution. Temporal advantages have been dealt out to the wicked for the small and transitory acts of virtue, the afflictions of this world have served to purify the elect from venial faults. (Haydock)
PSALM I. (BEATUS VIR.)
The happiness of the just: and the evil state of the wicked.
Theodoret observes that this psalm has "no title in Hebrew;" and some have attributed it to Esdras, when he collected the psalms into one book. But the Complutensian Septuagint reads, "A psalm of David;" "without a title among the Hebrews." The Fathers attribute it to David, and suppose that he speaks particularly of Joseph of Arimathea, or of Jesus Christ; though the Jews refer this high encomium to Josias. Jeremias (xvii. 7.) has imitated this psalm, which may be considered as a preface to all the rest, and an abridgment of the whole duty of man. (Calmet) --- Blessed. Hebrew also, Manifold are (Haydock) "the blessings" (Pagnin) both for time (Haydock) and eternity. (Worthington) --- Ungodly, who mind no religion, or a false one. (Haydock) --- Hebrew, "inconstant." --- Sinners, who are still more obstinate. (Calmet) --- Pestilence. Hebrew, "scoffers," who are the most dangerous sort of people, boldly deriding all religion, and maintaining atheism. There is a beautiful gradation here observed, showing the fatal consequences of evil company. If the virtuous associate with one even of the least contagious, the infection presently catches him, and he is soon introduced among the more dissolute, where he stops with little remorse, till at last he even glories in his shame, and becomes a champion of impiety, 1 Corinthians xv. 33. (Haydock) --- These three sorts of wicked people may designate pagans, Jews, and heretics. (Clement of Alexandria, Strom. ii.; St. Jerome) (Calmet) --- He is on the road to heaven, who has not consented to evil suggestions, nor continued in sin, so as to die impenitent. (Worthington)
Virtus est vitium fugere, et sapientia prima. (Horace i. ep. 1.)
--- The suggestion, delight, and consent to sin, are here rejected, as well as every offence against God, ourselves, or our neighbours. (Hopper.)
02 Psalm 2
Raged. Hebrew, "come together with tumult," (Symmachus) "loud cries," like a furious army, composed of several nations. (Haydock) --- Why have the Philistines, &c., assembled to obstruct my reign? or (Calmet) "why will the Gentiles be troubled, and the tribes meditate vain things?" (St. Jerome) Pilate, Herod, and the chiefs of the Jews, met to destroy the Messias; though, on other occasions, they were at variance. (Haydock) --- Their attempts were fruitless. Their false witnesses could not agree. (Calmet) --- The priests had, in vain, meditated on the law, since they had not discovered Him who was the end of it. (St. Athanasius; &c.) --- People of Israel, Acts iv. 27. (Menochius)
Kings. Herod and Pilate, (Worthington) who acted for the Roman emperor. --- Princes, of the priests, (Haydock) Annas and Caiaphas. But all the rage of the Gentiles and Jews against Christ was fruitless, (Worthington) and wicked, (Haydock) as the attempt of the surrounding nations to dethrone David was, in contradiction to the divine appointment. He is sometimes styled the Christ, or "anointed of the Lord," Psalm xix. 7. But the Chaldean has, "to revolt from the Lord, and fight with his Messias." So that the ancient Jews agreed with us, (Calmet) and it would be "rash to abandon the interpretation given by St. Peter." (St. Jerome)
Us. Let us no longer be subject to the old law, which is abrogated, (St. Augustine) or the enemies of David, and of Christ, encourage one another (Calmet) to subvert their authority, before it be too well established. Protestants still seem to be actuated with the same phrensy; fearing nothing more than the restoration of the Catholic religion [in Great Britain]; and incessantly pouring in petitions to [the British] Parliament to withhold the common rights of subjects from people of that [Catholic] persuasion. (Haydock) --- "I fear there are more political than religious objectors to emancipation [of Catholics in Great Britain]." (Nightingale)
Them, who continue rebellious, Proverbs i. He speaks thus to shew that we deserve derision. (Haydock) --- Quod nos derisu digna faciamus. (St. Jerome) --- Yet he will convert many, (Worthington) even of those who, like St. Paul, were bent on persecuting the faithful. If they still resist, (Haydock) he will shew the futility of their plans, and triumph over all, as David did over his opponents, and Christ over those who wished to have obstructed his resurrection, and the propagation of his gospel. Thus Jesus has proved his divinity, and confirmed our hopes that he will still protect his Church; as he did when it seemed to be in the greatest danger. (Calmet) --- God can fear no opposition to his decrees. (Menochius) --- He is in Heaven, to whom we ought to address our prayers. The Lord seems to be here applicable to Christ. Chaldean, "the word of God." He has the title of the Creator, Adonai, as the Jews have marked it with a Kamets 134 times, when it is to be taken in that sense. (Berthier)
Rage. These, and similar expressions, when applied to the immutable Deity, only denote that men have deserved the worst of punishments. (Haydock) --- God had discomfited the enemies of David (2 Kings v. 20, 24.) by his thunder. But he still more confounded the devil, when Christ descended to take away his spoils; and he chastised the Jews by the ruin of their city, (Calmet) as he has or will do all persecutors of his Church. (Haydock) --- He will severely reprehend, and justly punish the obstinate. (Worthington)
PSALM II. (QUARE FREMUERUNT.)
The vain efforts of persecutors against Christ and his Church.
This psalm has no title, and therefore, St. Jerome, after the Jews, consider it as a part of the former. In Acts xiii. 33., some copies have, in the first, others in the second psalm; and Origen testifies that he saw a copy where this and the former psalm were joined together; and he says, the psalms were not distinguished by numbers or letters, as they have been since. We find in some Greek and Latin manuscripts, "a psalm of David." It is certain that he composed it, speaking of the Messias, (Acts iv. 25., and Hebrews i. 5.) though some passages may be applied to himself. The Rabbins would restrain it to him entirely; and some Christians have been so much off their guard, as to allow (Calmet) that it refers to David in the literal sense, and to Christ only in the spiritual; (Lyranus; Grotius) which would destroy the force of the prophecy. David takes occasion, (Calmet) from the opposition which was made by Saul, (Haydock) the Philistines, &c., (2 Kings v. 7; Josephus, [Antiquities?] vii. 4.) to his own exaltation, to foretell the similar rage with which many would resist the Messias. (Calmet) --- The Philistines, however, had no kings to oppose David, as Kimchi confesses; and we had better refer the whole psalm to Christ. (Berthier)
I am. Hebrew, "I have anointed....over Sion, my," &c. St. Jerome and others have read in the first person, what the Septuagint translate in the third. The sense is much the same. (Calmet) --- But the Vulgate seems to be better connected, and the same letters may have this sense, if we neglect the points, which were unknown to the Septuagint and of modern invention. These interpreters may also have read a v for i, as these letters are very similar. (Berthier) --- "But I am anointed king by him over Sion, his holy mountain." (Houbigant) --- Theodoret, observing that Christ is king not only over Sion, but also over all, alters the punctuation: On Sion....preaching, &c., which is very plausible, since Isaias (ix. 3.) says, the law shall come forth from Sion, (Berthier) and [Isaias] chap. xxxvii. 32., and salvation from Mount Sion. Hence Christ preached frequently in the temple. It is certain David was not anointed here, but at Hebron; and the temple was not built till the reign of Solomon. See Psalm cix. 2.
Thee. Chaldean weakens this text. (Haydock) --- "I love thee as my son, and look upon thee with the same affection, as if I had this day created thee;" which might be applied to David, now settled more firmly on the throne by his late victory. But it literally refers to Christ, either born in time, (ver. 1., St. Augustine; Calmet) or baptized; (St. Justin Martyr) or rather rising again, (Acts xiii. 33.) and born from all eternity, Hebrews i. 5. This shews him superior to the angels. The prophet had both these events in view. Eternity is always the same. (Berthier; Bossuet; Du Hamel) --- He to whom God may speak thus to-day, at all times, must be God also. (Robertson, Lexic.) (John v. 25.) --- To this Socinians can make no reply, without giving up the Epistle to the Hebrews or allowing that the apostle's arguments were inconclusive. (Berthier) --- The same text may thus have many literal senses. (Du Hamel) --- The eternal birth seems here to be the chief, as from that source the nativity, baptism, priesthood, (Hebrews xv. 5.) and miraculous resurrection of Christ, necessarily spring. (Haydock)
Ask. The Messias must be invested with human nature, and merit all graces for man. When did David ask for such an extensive dominion? (Berthier) --- But Christ's kingdom extends over the world. His Church cannot fail, as St. Augustine proved hence against the Donatists, and his arguments confute Protestants as well. (Worthington) --- Our doctors used to refer this psalm to the Messias, said R. Solomon; but it is better to apply it to David, on account of "Christians." (Du Hamel)
Rule, as a shepherd, (Greek: poimaneis) as it is cited [in] Apocalypse ii. 26. But he is speaking of vengeance taken on the rebellious; and we might translate, "Thou shalt break," &c. (Calmet) --- Yet this is not necessary, as a shepherd sometimes beats with severity, to prevent his sheep from straying. (Haydock) --- The Church guides also use coercion, but for the good of the flock. (Calmet) --- God brought the murderers of his Son to an evil end, and destroyed their city. (Haydock) --- He broke the Gentiles, to make them a more noble vessel, Jeremias xviii. 4. (St. Hilary) --- He will execute judgment at the last day, Apocalypse xix. 11. (Calmet) --- When the clay is still soft the vessel may easily be repaired; so the sinner may be reclaimed, when he has only just fallen . (St. Jerome) --- Even the most obdurate, are as clay in God's hands. (Worthington)
And. Here the prophet may address kings, unless the Father or the Messias continue to speak. It is evident these words are not to be understood of David's dominions alone. Fear and joy keep the Christian in proper order, Philippians ii. 12., and iii. 1. (Berthier) --- "The love of God pushes us forward, and the fear of God makes us take care where we walk." (St. Theresa [of Avila?]) --- The one guards us against despair, the other against presumption. Kings are here instructed to support the Church, for which some have been styled, "Most Christian," "Catholic," or "Defenders of the Faith." The Donatists falsely asserted, that they were ever found enemies to religion, because of Constantine, &c., attempted to repress their errors. But Julian favoured them, to increase dissensions. See St. Augustine, contra Pet. et contra Gaud. ii. 26. (Worthington)
Trembling, with reverential awe and humility, (1 Corinthians ii. 3.; Amama) as none is sure of salvation. (Bell.[Bellarmine?]) --- More are list by presumption than by trembling. (Amama)
Discipline. Chaldean, "doctrine." St. Jerome, "adore purely." Protestants, "kiss the Son, lest he be angry," &c. (Haydock) --- Houbigant, "adore the son, lest he be angry, and you perish. For he comes forward, and shortly his wrath will be enkindled." This version seems to be judicious: that of the Vulgate is less energetic, but come to the same end, as those who adore the Messias, must follow his doctrine. (Berthier) --- Lord and just is not in [the] Hebrew. (Haydock) --- The way or projects of sinners will perish; (Psalm i. 6.) they will be hurried before the tribunal, as soon as they are dead; (St. Hilary) and when they least expect it, 1 Thessalonians v. 2. (Calmet) --- Some fall from salvation, and God will bring them to judgment at the end of this short life. (Worthington) --- Hebrew, "Kiss purely." Kissing is often used in Scripture to express submission, love, and adoration. (St. Jerome, contra Ruf. i.) (Genesis xli. 40.) (Calmet) --- We testify our respect for God, by kissing the Bible, &c. (Haydock) --- But it cannot be shewn that bar means "a son," in Hebrew. (Calmet) --- Amama blames the Vulgate for withdrawing a text in favour of Christ's divinity. We must, however, submit to the law and faith of Christ with confidence and live, if we desire to escape his indignation and enter heaven, Acts iv. 12. Mr. Nightingale (Portrait of Cath. 1812. p. 117 and 332) may represent this doctrine as uncharitable and groundless, though he allows it has been maintained by most (p. 473) who have professed to be the true disciples of Christ, whether Catholics or Protestants. The principle is good, though some apply it wrong. If he and Lord Milton, (speech. 1812. to whom we must express our manifest obligations) had contented themselves with saying that they believed our doctrine was "unscriptural," &c., (p. 18) we should not have much wondered; as they could not consistently have said less, and remained out of the Catholic Church. But for any man who has read the Bible, to persuade himself that it is not necessary to profess the one only true religion, wherever it may be, after Christ has plainly declared, He that believeth not is already judged, and shall be condemned; (John iii. 18., and Mark xvi. 16.) and after the apostle has delivered over to satan those who only asserted that the resurrection was past, (2 Timothy ii. 17.) this fills us with astonishment. Not a single text can be produced in favour of the contrary system leading to indifference about religion; which, if true, would shew the preaching of the prophets and apostles was nugatory, and their blood shed in vain. All the "Scriptures" proclaim the necessity of faith and good works. We may observe, that the doctrine of the blessed Trinity seems to be no less objectionable to Mr. N. than the rest of our faith, p. 117, &c. Yet (Haydock) we must not refuse him the praise of liberality. (Catholic Review, &c., Jan. 1813.) (Haydock)
Trust for salvation through Christ, (Du Hamel) acting as he has directed, so that our hope may be well founded. (Menochius) --- This psalm is quoted six times in the New Testament, [Acts iv. 25., and xiii. 33., Hebrews i. 5., and v. 5., and Apocalypse ii. 27., and xix. 15.] which shews the concord of Scripture, and that the prophets saw the promises at a distance, following the law of love, which is as ancient as the world. (Berthier)