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Bios 314 Some suggestions for learning assessment exercise #1 Lecture 02 Terminology, Evolution and Systematics

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BIOS 314

Some suggestions for learning assessment exercise #1
Lecture 02 Terminology, Evolution and Systematics


Generalized, Specialized, Simple, Vestigial, Dorsal - ventral, Anterior – posterior, Superior - inferior, Cranial - caudal, Medial - lateral, Proximal - distal, Superficial - deep

Transverse, Frontal, Sagittal, Parasagittal, Constraints (in regards to evolution), Adaptation, Preadaptation, Homology (homologous), Analogy (analogous), Phylogeny, Cladistics or Phylogenetic Systematics, synapomorphy, plesiomorphy, Derived trait

What is a monophyletic clade? paraphyletic?

How is a data matrix useful for creating cladograms?

Lecture 03 Phylogeny of chordates and craniates

Liem, Fig 3-1
Recognize some characteristics, and the synapomorphies that define the following:

Chordata, tunicates (identify incurrent siphon, endostyle, excurrent siphon. notochord, dorsal, hollow nerve cord), cephalochordates, amphioxus, Branchiostoma, craniates, Somitichordates

Lecture 04, 05 Phylogenies of vertebrates

Urochordata Life Cycle


know what taxa make the following clades, some examples of animals within, and the synapomorphies that define them:

Craniata, Vertebrata Myxiniformes, Cephalaspidomorphi.(Petromyzontiformes), Gnathostomata, Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii, Holocephali, Actinopterygii, Chondrostei, Lepisosteiformes, Polypteriformes (Amiiformes), Actinistia, Dipnoi, Lissamphibia, Amniota, Testudines, Lepidosauria, Archosauria, Crocodylia, Aves, Mammalia, Monotremata, Theria, Metatheria, Eutheria

Lecture 06 Brief overview of chordate embryology

Define the following terms and explain their usefulness in comparative anatomy:

Ontogeny, Heterochrony, Paedomorphosis, Peramorphosis
Define the following terms and explain their role in fertilization and development:

gametes, Gametogenesis, Fertilization, zygote, cleavage, blastula, blastomeres,

Microlecithal (Oligolecithal), Mesolecithal, Macrolecithal, Holoblastic, Meroblastic,

Discoidal, Gastrulation, germ layers, endoderm, ectoderm, neural crest ,mesoderm

Lecture 07 basic principles of animal design

  • How does surfacearea and volume change as an animal changes size?

  • What do think was meant by the quote from J.B.S. Haldane: "Comparative anatomy is the story of the struggle to increase surface area in proportion to volume".

  • Define allometry and isometry

  • How is vector analysis useful in understanding biological systems?

  • In a simple first order lever system, how do we maximize strength? speed?

  • How does the position of the limbs affect an animals ability to move?

Lecture 08 structural materials

  • Define: stresses, strain, compression, tension, shear, torsion, turbulence,

  • As an animal changes in size, how does the above affect it?

  • What is 'Wolfe's Law' and what does it tell us about bone growth

  • What are the functions of a skeletal system

  • How does a bone get longer?

  • Define the following and their role in structural design:

Bone, periosteum, endosteum.(Osteon), Compact Bone, osteoblasts, periosteum, Spongy bone, Haversian systems, trabeculae, endosteum, acellular bone, endochondral bone, osteoblasts, osteoid, diaphysis, epiphysis, epiphyseal plate, diaphysis, hyaline cartilage, Fibrocartilage, Calcified cartilage, chondroitin sulfate, chondrocytes

Lecture 09 integument

  • What is the function of the integument?

  • Define the following terms: Epidermis, Stratum germinativum, Stratum corneum, Dermis, stratum spongiosum, stratum compactum, Homeotherms, Heterotherms, Chromatophores (Melanophores), Iridophores, Lipophores (carotenoids), Enamel, Ganoine, Dentine, Dermal Bones, Osteoderms (of reptiles)

  • What is the difference in development between a Rhinoceros horn, Giraffe horn, Antlers, Pronghorns,True horns

Lecture 10 intro to muscles

  • How can we classify muscles by function? What are the advantages/disadvantages to the different categories?

  • Understand the basics of muscle contraction to the detail we discussed it in class

  • What is the function of the sarcomere?

  • What is a length/tension curve?

  • How do we increase strength in the short term? Long term? Phylogenetically?

  • What is muscle power?

  • what is the difference in anatomy and function of a parallel vs pinnate muscle?

  • Define the following terms: flexion, extension, abduction, adduction levators, depressors, supinators, pronators, constrictors (sphincters), dilators

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