Ana səhifə

Biology 110 Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 5

Yüklə 42.5 Kb.
ölçüsü42.5 Kb.

Biology 110 Exam 2 Study Guide

Chapter 5

  1. Be sure to recognize integumentary system, cutaneous membrane, and skin.

  2. What are the two main layers of the skin?

  3. What are the differences between them?

  4. What are the layers of the epidermis?

  5. Where is the stratum lucidum found?

  6. How are the keratinocytes in the stratum corneum different from those in the stratum basale?

  7. How does the skin renew (reproduce) itself?

  8. What is the function of Langerhans cells?

  9. What is the function of melanocytes?

  10. What is the major component of the dermis?

  11. What is the difference in the function of collagen fibers and elastin fibers?

  12. What other structures are found in the dermis?

  13. What do dermal papillae do for you (what are they and what is their function)?

  14. What does adipose tissue in the hypodermis (subcutaneous layer) do for you?

  15. Where are hair follicles located?

  16. What do hair follicles contain?

  17. What is the portion of the hair that extends beyond the skin called?

  18. Are hairs alive or dead? Both? Ok, then, which part is alive and which part is dead?

  19. What is the major protein found in hair?

  20. What is the arrector pili muscle and what does it do?

  21. What are nails?

  22. What protein do they contain?

  23. Where do they grow from?

  24. What is the cuticle?

  25. What is the lunula and why is it white?

  26. What are suderiferous glands?

  27. Where do their ducts empty?

  28. What is the difference between eccrine and apocrine suderiferous glands?

  29. What is a sebaceous gland?

  30. Where do the ducts of most sebaceous glands empty?

  31. What do sebaceous glands secrete? Sebum? What is sebum?

  32. What are mammary glands?

  33. What do they produce?

  34. What are athlete’s foot, impetigo, eczema, dandruff, and urticaria and what causes them?

  35. What are the three types of skin cancer?

  36. Which type is the most dangerous?

  37. What is the ABCDE rule?

  38. What is the single most important thing you can do to avoid skin cancer?

  39. What is scar tissue and how is it different from wound healing in which the epidermal cells reproduce?

  40. What things can cause burns?

  41. What is the difference between 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th degree burns?

  42. What does the rule of nines tell us? Why is it important?

  43. What is the difference between classifying burns by the rule of nines and by degree?

  44. What are the effects of aging on the skin?

  45. List six functions of the skin and try to list all of the parts of the integumentary system that contribute to each function.

  46. What is hyperthermia?

  47. What is hypothermia?

Chapter 6

  1. Name 5 functions of the skeleton.

  2. What are 5 shapes by which bones are classified?

  3. Describe the anatomy of a long bone - include the following in your description:

    1. epiphysis

    2. diaphysis

    3. medullary cavity

    4. yellow bone marrow

    5. periosteum

    6. endosteum

    7. articular cartilage

    8. compact bone vs. spongy bone – where is each type found in a long bone?

  1. What is the difference between spongy bone and compact bone?

  2. What is a Haversian system? What type of bone is it found in?

  3. What are two major ways bones are formed? (Endochondral ossification and intramembranous ossification)

  4. What is the difference between endochondral ossification and intramembranous ossification?

  5. What is the difference between osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts?

  6. What is a lacuna?

  7. Where does hematopoiesis (blood cell formation) occur?

  8. What is remodeling? How do osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes fit in to remodeling? Does remodeling occur in adults? Can adult bones get thicker and thinner?

  9. Describe the 4 steps in repair of a fracture.

  10. What bones are found in the axial skeleton?

  11. What bones are found in the appendicular skeleton?

  12. Where did you say the pelvic bones are found? Axial or appendicular?

  13. What are two functions of sinuses?

  14. What are sutures?

  15. What are fontanels?

  16. Know the following surface features of bones and what their function is: head, tuberosity, foramen, and sinus.

  17. Know how many vertebrae there are in each section of the spine (as well as where each section of the spine is): SeVen CerVical, Twelve Thoracic, five lumbar, five fused in saccral, three to five fused in coccyx.

  18. Define kyphosis, lordosis, and scoliosis.

  19. Identify the first two cervical vertebrae by name. (The atlas holds up the head and pivots on the axis)

  20. Be able to identify the following bones from the diagrams in your book.

    1. frontal

    2. parietal

    3. temporal

    4. occipital

    5. zygomatic

    6. maxilla

    7. mandible

    8. nasal

    9. clavicle

    10. scapula

    11. sternum

    12. ribs: true, false

    13. vertebral column and regions, including sacrum and coccyx

    14. humerus

    15. radius (Radius At DIstance – further from the body than the ulna)

    16. ulna (in the anatomical position the ulna is on the inside – get it? ulna –inside kind of sounds the same)

    17. carpals

    18. metacarpals

    19. phalanges

    20. femur

    21. tibia (Tibia is Thicker)

    22. fibula (Fibula is Finer)

    23. tarsals

    24. metatarsals

    25. again with the phalanges

  1. What are articulations? So what are articulating surfaces on bones and why is articular cartilage called articular cartilage?

  2. How are joints classified by amount of movement? In other words, define synarthroses, amphiartroses, and diarthroses.

  3. Describe a synovial joint - include the following in your description:

    1. joint capsule

    2. synovial membrane

    3. synovial fluid

    4. tendons

    5. ligaments

    6. menisci

    7. articular cartilages

  1. What are bursae? What is bursitis?

  2. Define the following movements: flexion, extension, rotation, adduction, abduction, supination, pronation, inversion, and eversion.

  3. What is osteoporosis?

  4. What is the difference between osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis?

Chapter 7

  1. Describe three types of muscles.

  2. Which are striated?

  3. Which are voluntary?

  4. What are four functions of muscles?

  5. Describe the anatomy of a muscle: what are the subdivisions, what are the connective tissue coverings?

  6. What is a tendon?

  7. What is a skeletal muscle fiber?

  8. Describe the structure of a skeletal muscle fiber.

  9. What is the sarcolemma?

  10. What is the sarcoplasmic reticulum?

  11. What are T-tubules?

  12. What is the contractile unit of a muscle fiber?

  13. What kinds of myofilaments are found in a myofibril?

  14. What is a sarcomere?

  15. What is a motor unit?

  16. What is a neuromuscular junction?

  17. How does a muscle fiber contract?

  18. What does calcium have to do with muscle contraction?

  19. Define muscle twitch, summation, and tetanus.

  20. What is muscle fatigue?

  21. Is ATP required for muscle contraction?

  22. What are 3 ways ATP is made available to the cell?

  23. Define origin, insertion, prime mover, synergist, and antagonist.

  24. What is the difference between isotonic and isometric contraction?

  25. What special sense receptors maintain muscle tone?

  26. What will forceful muscular activity over a prolonged period of time cause a muscle to do?

  27. What happens to muscles when they are not used or used very little?

  28. List 6 ways muscles are named and give an example of each

  29. Muscles to know for the test:

  1. Orbicularis oculi

  2. Zygomaticus

  3. Masseter

  4. Orbicularis oris

  5. Trapezius

  6. Latissimus dorsi

  7. Deltoid

  8. Pectoralis major

  9. Rectus abdominis

  10. Biceps brachii

  11. Triceps brachii

  12. Extensor carpi and flexor carpi (what they do)

  13. Extensor digitorum and flexor digitorum (what they do)

  14. Gluteus maximus

  15. Quadriceps femoris group

  16. Hamstring group

  17. Gastrocnemius

Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur © 2016
rəhbərliyinə müraciət