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Eliza-a computer Program for the Study of Natural Language Communication between Man and Machine. Communications of the acm, 9 (1): 36-45,1965 [5]


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CIS 718X

Assignment # 1
Project Name: Leaders in diverse discipline in AI: past, present, future (AI@50)

Natural Language Processing

John McCarthy :(born September 4, 1927, in Boston, Massachusetts, sometimes known affectionately as Uncle John McCarthy), is a prominent computer scientist who received the Turing Award in 1971 for his major contributions to the field of Artificial Intelligence. McCarthy invented the Lisp programming language In fact, he was responsible for the coining of the term "Artificial Intelligence". [6].

Weizenbaum, J.: Joseph Weizenbaum (born January 8, 1923), ELIZA--A Computer Program for the Study of Natural Language Communication between Man and Machine. Communications of the ACM, 9 (1): 36-45,1965 [5].


Paul Jacobs:President of AnswerLogic, is focused on developing natural language products to meet the increasing demands of conducting business on the Web. He has a Ph.D. in Computer Science from UC-Berkeley, and an M.S. and a B.A. in Applied Mathematics from Harvard University [2].

Roger Schank: Roger Schank, is currently Distinguished Career Professor at the School of Computer Science, Carnegie-Mellon University, and Chief Education Officer, Carnegie Mellon West. Roger Schank has dedicated his life on Natural Language and Cognitive Science .[4]


More information online at---

1.http://www.generation5.org/articles.asp?Action=List&Topic=Natural+Language+Processing

2. http://www.serverworldmagazine.com/sunserver/2001/02/nlp.shtml

3.http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/csbib/Ai/nlg

4. http://www.edge.org/3rd_culture/bios/schank.html

5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Weizenbaum

6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_McCarthy_%28computer_scientist%29

Knowledge Representation
Marvin Minsky : Marvin Minsky (born August 9, 1927, New York), sometimes affectionately known as "Old Man Minsky", is an American scientist in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), co-founder of MIT's AI laboratory, and author of several texts on AI and philosophy.In 1959 John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky start the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) [8].

S. Fuller: Born 12 July 1959, New York City. He has many research paper.He works on “Strategies of Knowledge Integration [7].

More information online at---

1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knowledge_representation#History

2. http://www.bookrags.com/sciences/computerscience/knowledge-representation-wcs.html

3.http://www.aaai.org/AITopics/html/natlang.html#web

4.http://csdl2.computer.org/persagen/DLAbsToc.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/mags/ex/&toc=comp/mags/ex/2004/01/x1toc.xml&DOI=10.1109/MIS.2004.1265889

5.http://informationr.net/ir/6-2/KReditor62.html

6. http://www.engines4ed.org/hyperbook/misc/rcs.html

7. http://www.warwick.ac.uk/~sysdt/cv.html

8. http://web.media.mit.edu/~minsky/minsky.html




Expert Systems
Donald Michie: Donald Michie was born on 11 November 1923. He has received honorary degrees from the UK's National Council of Academic Awards, from Salford University, Aberdeen University, the University of York and the University of Stirling. Donald Michie’s one of the best publication is the Machine acquisition of concepts from sample data. In Intelligent Tutoring Systems, (ed. D. Kopec), Ellis Horwood, pp. 1-27 (with M. Bain), 1992. [7].
Edward Shortliffe:Mycin was an expert system developed in the 1970s at the Stanford University, written in Lisp, by Edward Shortliffe under Bruce Buchanan and others. The system was designed to diagnose infectious blood diseases and recommend antibiotics, with the dosage adjusted for patient's body weight.[5]
McDermott, J. : McDermott research on A Rule-Based Configurer of Computer Systems. Artificial Intelligence 19 (1): 39-88, 1982. [9].

Hayes-Roth :1994. The State of Knowledge-Based Systems. Communications of the ACM 37 (3): 27-39 [8].

Durkin., John: Professor of University of Akron, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engr., Akron, OH. Durkin, J. works on Surface Vertical Magnetic Field Produced by a Finite Loop Buried in an Earth Containing a Thin Conducting Sheet, Radio Science, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 19-23, Jan./Feb., 1997 [4].

More information online at---

1.http://www.aaai.org/AITopics/html/expert.html 2.http://www.bcsnsg.org.uk/itin08/darling.htm 3. http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/far/ch9_b3.html 4. http://coel.ecgf.uakron.edu/durkin/resume1/resume.htm 5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycin 6. http://www.wargaming.net/Programming/113/Expert_Systems_index.htm 7. http://www.aiai.ed.ac.uk/~dm/dm.html 8. http://www.informatik.uni-trier.de/~ley/db/indices/a-tree/h/Hayes=Roth:Frederick.html 9. http://www.informatik.uni-trier.de/~ley/db/indices/a-tree/m/McDermott:John_P=.html

Genetic Programming or Evolutionary Design
John Holland: Dr. Holland (born February 2, 1929) is known as the father of genetic algorithms.Genetic algorithms were formally introduced in the United States in the 1970s by John Holland at University of Michigan [5].
Ingo Rechenberg: Ingo Rechenberg (born 1934), Technical University of Berlin, introduced a technique he called evolution strategy in 1965[7].

Coello, Carlos: Carlos research on "An updated survey of GA-based multiobjective optimization techniques." ACM Computing Surveys, vol.32, no.2, p.109-143 (June 2000).[11]

Patch, Kimberly: He works on "Algorithm evolves more efficient engine." Technology Research News, June/July 2000 [12].


John R.Koza: Consulting Professor. Genetic Programming IV: Routine Human-Competitive Machine Intelligence. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. [10]
Soule, T.: He works on "Does Genetic Programming Adopt Structured Design Techniques” Genetic Programming Theory and Practice II, 2004.University of Idaho [13].

More information online at ---1.http://www.generation5.org/articles.asp?Action=List&Topic=Genetic+Algorithms 2.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_algorithm 3. http://www.aaai.org/AITopics/html/genalg.html

4. http://www.pcai.com/web/ai_info/genetic_algorithms.html

5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Henry_Holland

6. http://www.pcai.com/web/ai_info/genetic_algorithms.html

7. http://www.bionik.tu-berlin.de/user/rechenb/rechenb.html

8. http://www.estec.esa.nl/outreach/gatutor/history_of_ga.htm

9.http://www.jair.org/

10. http://www.genetic-programming.com/johnkoza.html

11. http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/genalg/genalg.html#history

12. http://www.trnmag.com/Stories/062800/Genetically_Enhanced_Engine_062800.html

13. http://www.cs.uidaho.edu/~tsoule/research/papers.html



Game Playing
Neumann: Born 28 December 1903 in Budapest, Hungary. Game theory was developed by von Neumann in 1944 as a tool to model and study the economic environment. Even in this early work, they considered a simplified version of poker as a means to test their methods. [10]

Alan Turing: Born 1912 in London. The great British mathematician Alan Turing (who headed the group that cracked the Wehrmacht 'Enigma' code during World War II) invented the first true chess machine, which was later called the 'paper machine.[9]

Samuel, Arthur L: In 1967, Some studies in Machine Learning Using the Game of checkers II. In Computer Games I, ed. Levy, David L., 366-400 [7].



Jonathan Schaeffer: A Gamut of Games, By Jonathan Schaeffer. AI Magazine (Fall 2001), 22(3): 29-46.. Chinook, a program designed principally by Dr. Jonathan Schaeffer of the University of Alberta. Rated at 2814 in 1996 [3].

Chellapilla :One of the most novel and compelling demonstrations of the power of genetic algorithms was presented by Chellapilla and Fogel 2001, who used a GA to evolve neural networks that could play the game of checkers[8].



David Fogel.: "Evolving an expert checkers playing program without using human expertise." IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, vol.5, no.4, p.422-428 (August 2001) [11]

More information online at---

1.http://www.generation5.org/articles.asp?Action=List&Topic=Gaming

2.http://www.aaai.org/AITopics/html/games.html

3. http://www.informatik.uni-trier.de/~ley/db/indices/a-tree/s/Schaeffer:Jonathan.html

4. http://www.aaai.org/AITopics/html/games.html#readon

5. http://www.aaai.org/AITopics/html/checkers.html

6.http://www.aaai.org/AITopics/newstopics/games.html

7. http://www-db.stanford.edu/pub/voy/museum/samuel.html

8. http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/genalg/genalg.html#chellapilla2001#chellapilla2001

9. http://www.turing.org.uk/turing/

10. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_von_Neumann

11. http://www.natural-selection.com/NSIPublicationsOnline.htm

Machine Vision

H. Freeman : Machine Vision for Inspection and Measurement, Academic Press (1989) [4].

R.M. Haralick: Computer and Robot Vision: Volumes I and II, Addison Wesley (1992) [4].

C. Torras: Computer Vision, Theory and Industrial Applications, Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1992) [4].

H. Bassman :His research on Digital Image Processing, International Thomson Publishing (1995) [4].

B.G. Batchelor: Selected Papers on Industrial Machine Vision Systems, SPIE Milestone Series MS 97, SPIE Optical Engineering Press, (1994) [4].

E.R. Davies: Machine Vision: Theory, Algorithms, Practicalities (2nd Edition), Academic Press (1996) [4].

Robert Alcock :Completed a PhD in Machine Vision at Cardiff University in 1996.  Subsequently, he worked as a Senior Research Associate at the Cardiff Manufacturing Engineering Centre Since 2000; he worked on Machine Vision projects in the USA and Europe. He is co-author of the book ‘‘Smart Inspection Systems: Techniques and Applications of Intelligent Vision’‘published by Elsevier Science[2].

More information online at---

1.http://www.generation5.org/articles.asp?Action=List&Topic=Genetic+Algorithms

2. http://www.machinevisiononline.org/public/articles/archivedetails.cfm?id=2068

3. http://www.aaai.org/Library/Magazine/Vol16/16-01/vol16-01.html

4. http://www.eeng.dcu.ie/~whelanp/resources/r_references.html



Neural Networks

Bernard Widrow and Marcian Hoff: In 1959, Bernard Widrow and Marcian Hoff of Stanford developed models they called ADALINE and MADALINE. These models were named for their use of Multiple ADAptive LINear Elements. MADALINE was the first neural network to be applied to a real world problem [4].

Kohonen and Anderson: In 1972, Kohonen and Anderson developed a similar network independently of one another. They both used matrix mathematics to describe their ideas but did not realize that what they were doing was creating an array of analog ADALINE circuits [4]

Paul Werbos:In 1974 developed and used the back-propagation learning method was popularized.

John Hopfield:A Hopfield net is a form of recurrent neural network invented by John Hopfield. He is currently a professor in the department of Molecular Biology at Princeton University A professor is a senior teacher and researcher, usually in a college or university. ... .[7]

Geoffrey Hinton: British computer scientist most noted for his work on the mathematics and applications of neural networks, and their relationship to information theory.[8]

More information online at---

1.http://www.generation5.org/articles.asp?Action=List&Topic=Neural+Networks

2.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neural_networks

3. http://www.dacs.dtic.mil/techs/neural/neural4.html

4. http://www-cse.stanford.edu/classes/sophomore-college/projects-00/neural-networks/History/history1.html

5. http://www.doc.ic.ac.uk/~nd/surprise_96/journal/vol1/cs11/article1.html

6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neural_network#History_of_the_neural_network_analogy

7. http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Hopfield-net

8. http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Geoff-Hinton


Speech Recognition
Lenny Baum: Early 1970's The Hidden Markov Modeling (HMM) approach to speech recognition was invented by Lenny Baum of Princeton University [1]
Janet Baker: In1982, Dragon systems was founded in 1982 by speech industry pioneers Janet Baker. Dr. Janet M. Baker is co-founder of Dragon Systems and has been active in the speech industry for over 30 years [3]
More information online at---

1. http://www.netbytel.com/literature/e-gram/technical3.htm

2. http://shakti.trincoll.edu/~asulliv2/project.html

3. http://www.speechtechmag.com/issues/8_2/cover/1760-1.html



Fuzzy Logic
Lotfi Asker Zadeh: Born February 4, 1921 in Baku, Azerbaijan .He created fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic in 1965. Zadeh is Professor in the Graduate School at the University of California - Berkeley. [1]
Bart Kosko:He is the professor of Electrical Engineering,University of California,Irvine.Mr.Bart Kosko did lot of work on fuzzy logic[2].

More information online at---



  1. http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~zadeh/

  2. http://sipi.usc.edu/~kosko/


Robotics

Alan Turing : Born 1912 in London .In 1950 Alan Turing publishes Computing Machinery and Intelligence in which he proposes a test to determine whether or not a machine has gained the power to think for itself. It becomes known as the "Turing Test" [3].

Alan Newell: Born 1927 in San Francisco. In 1956 Alan Newell create the Logic Theorist, the first "expert system". It is used to help solve difficult math problems. [7].


Joseph Weizenbaum: Joseph Weizenbaum (born January 8, 1923) is a professor emeritus of computer science at MIT.1966 an artificial intelligence program named ELIZA is created at MIT by Joseph Weizenbaum. ELIZA functions as a computer psychologist. [3].

Victor Scheinman :In1969 Victor Scheinman, a Mechanical Engineering student working in the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL) creates the Stanford Arm. The arm's design becomes a standard and is still influencing the design of robot arms today.1974 Victor Scheinman forms his own company and starts marketing the Silver Arm. It is capable of assembling small parts together using touch sensors [3].

Shigeo Hirose :1976 Shigeo Hirose designs the Soft Gripper at the Tokyo Institute of Technology. It is designed to wrap around an object in snake like fashion. [3].

Dr. John Adler :1992 ,Dr. John Adler came up with the concept of the CyberKnife a robot that images the patient with x-rays to look for a tumor and delivering a pre-planned dose of radiationto the tumor when found. [3].

David Barrett :1996 A RoboTuna is designed and built by David Barrett for his doctoral thesis at MIT. It is used to study the way fish swim [3].
Raymond Goertz : 1951 in France, Raymond Goertz designs the first teleoperated articulated arm for the Atomic Energy Commission.  The design is based entirely on mechanical coupling between the master and slave arms (using steel cables and pulleys).  Derivatives of this design are still seen in places where handling of small nuclear samples is required.  This is generally regarded as the major milestone in force feedback technology [8]. 

More information online at---

1.http://www.generation5.org/articles.asp?Action=List&Topic=Robotics

2.http://www.open2.net/nextbigthing/ai/story_so_far/story_so_far.htm

3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Weizenbaum

4. http://www.rurobots.co.uk/roboticssixtieshistory.html

5. http://cogsci.ucsd.edu/~asaygin/tt/ttest.html

6. http://web.media.mit.edu/~minsky/minsky.html

7. http://diva.library.cmu.edu/Newell/biography.html

8. http://trueforce.com/Articles/Robot_History.htm




Intelligent Tutoring System
Dr.Danny Kopec: Danny Kopec (born February 28, 1954 ) .Dr.D.Kopec now professor of Department of Computer Information System,and Deputy Graduate Chairperson of Brooklyn College,New York.Dr.Kopec is dedicated researcher and published lot of papers on AI field.Dr.Kopec got Ph.D.in Machine Intelligence from University of Edinburg.Thesis title “ Human and Machine Representation of Knowledge”.[8]
Pamela J. Woods:He work On Rapid Prototyping of an Intelligent Tutorial System.

Advanced Computing Research Centre. University of South Australiapam. [2]


Maria Virvou: Student Modelling in an IntelligentTutoring System for the Passive Voice of English Language, Department of Informatics, University of  Piraeus, Greece [3] .



Morschel, I: He works on SmallTutor --- An Intelligent Tutoring System for Object-Oriented-Programming. pp. 19-25.1993[5]
Etienne Wenger: Artificial Intelligence and Tutoring Systems. Morgan Kaufmann, Los Altos, CA, 1987 [6]
Reva Freedman: Guest editor Professor Reva Freedman of Northern Illinois University. Professor Freedman’s research is in reactive planning and theories of discourse and dialogue processing with the goal of building better intelligent tutoring systems. Published in Intelligence 11(3): 15–16 (Fall 2000) [7]

More information online at---

1.http://www.informatik.uni-rostock.de/~martens/Papers/Ma_iccm03.pdf

2.http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/melbourne95/smtu/papers/woods.pdf

3.http://ifets.ieee.org/periodical/vol_4_2000/virvou.html

4.http://www.lsal.cmu.edu/lsal/expertise/projects/compio/compio2001finalreport/intell_tutors/history_it.html

5.http://wundt.kfunigraz.ac.at/hockemeyer/its-bib.html#gi-itls:93

6.http://tecfa.unige.ch/staf/staf-d/krige/staf11/buggy.html



7.http://www.cs.niu.edu/~freedman/papers/link2000.pdf

8.http://www.sci.brooklyn.cuny.edu/~kopec/


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