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Commonsense Bibliography

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Commonsense Bibliography
Collected by Push Singh

Contributions from: Leiguang Gong, Stefan Marti and Erik Mueller

Last updated: 29 January 2002
Table of contents

1 Recent overviews of the common sense problem

2 Classics

3 Cyc

3.1 Cyc overview

3.2 Cyc criticisms and evaluations

4 Cognitive architectures

4.1 Emotions

4.2 Heterogenous architectures

4.3 Blackboard systems

4.4 Human-level AI

4.5 Soar

4.6 Case-based reasoning

4.7 Belief-desire-intention architectures

5 Acquiring common sense

5.1 Distributed human projects

5.2 Acquisition through sketching

5.3 Learning structural representations

5.4 Sensory-grounded learning

6 Common sense reasoning

6.1 Issues in common sense inference

6.2 Default reasoning

6.3 Reflection

6.4 Problem reformulation

6.5 Analogical reasoning

6.6 Embodiment and metaphor

7 Logical formalisms

7.1 Situation calculus

7.2 Event calculus

7.3 Causal theories

7.4 Features and fluents

8 Contexts and organizing commonsense knowledge

9 Representations for commonsense knowledge

9.1 Overviews

9.2 Commonsense ontologies

9.3 Representing causality

9.4 Representing time

9.5 Story representations

9.6 Connectionist representations

10 Applications of common sense knowledge

10.1 Context-aware agents

10.2  The Semantic Web

11 Robots and common sense

11.1 Cognitive robotics

11.2 Natural language interfaces to robots

12 Natural language

12.1 Frame semantics

12.2 Lexical semantics

13 Realms of thinking

13.1 Spatial reasoning

13.2 Physical reasoning

13.3 Social reasoning

13.4 Story understanding

13.5 Visual reasoning

14 Psychology

14.1 Cognitive psychology

14.2 Psychology of memory

14.3 Psychology of story understanding

14.4 Psychology of inference

15 Criticisms

16 Web resources


1Recent overviews of the common sense problem

Minsky, Marvin. (2000). Commonsense-Based Interfaces. Communications of the ACM 43(8):67-73.
Minsky, Marvin. (Forthcoming). The Emotion Machine (draft chapter on commonsense)
Singh, Push. (2002). The Open Mind Common Sense Project.
Davis, E. (1998). The Naive Physics Perplex. AI Magazine, Winter 1998, Vol. 19. No. 4. pp. 51-79.


McCarthy, John. (1959). Programs with Common Sense. In Mechanisation of Thought Processes, Proceedings of the Symposium of the National Physics Laboratory, London, U.K.: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, pp. 77-84.
Minsky, Marvin. (1968). Introduction. In Marvin L. Minsky (Ed.), Semantic information processing (pp. 1-32). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.


Minsky, Marvin. (1974). A framework for representing knowledge (AI Memo 306). Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Minsky, Marvin (1986). The society of mind. New York: Simon and Schuster.


3.1Cyc overview

Lenat, Douglas, & Guha, Ramanathan. (1990). Building large knowledge-based systems. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Lenat, Douglas, & Guha, Ramanathan. (1990). Cyc: A Mid Term Report. AI Magazine, 11(3):32-59.
Lenat, Douglas. (1995). CYC: A large-scale investment in knowledge infrastructure. Communications of the ACM, 38(11).
Guha, Ramanathan, & Lenat, Douglas. (1994). Enabling agents to work together. Communications of the ACM, 37(7):127-142.

3.2Cyc criticisms and evaluations

Locke, Christopher. Common Knowledge or Superior Ignorance?
Pratt, Vaughan. Cyc report.

Mahesh, Kavi, Nirenburg, Sergei, Cowie, Jim, & Farwell, David (1996). An assessment of Cyc for natural language processing (Technical Report MCCS 96-302). Computing Research Laboratory, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
Mark J. Stefik and Stephen W. Smoliar (1993). The Commonsense Reviews – Eight reviews of: Douglas Lenat and Ramanathan V. Guha (1990) Building Large Knowledge-Based Systems: Representations and Inference in the CYC Project, Addison-Wesley, and Ernest Davis, Representations of Commonsense Knowledge, Morgan Kaufmann 1990. Artificial Intelligence, 61:37-179.
Guha, Ramanathan, & Lenat, Douglas. (1993). Re: CycLing paper reviews, Artificial Intelligence, 61(1):149-174.

4Cognitive architectures


Sloman, Aaron. (2001). Beyond shallow models of emotion. Cognitive Processing, 1(1).

Chapters from:

Minsky, Marvin. (Forthcoming). The Emotion Machine.

4.2Heterogenous architectures

Minsky, Marvin. (1991). Logical versus analogical or symbolic versus connectionist or neat versus scruffy. AI Magazine, Summer 1991.

Mueller, Erik T. (1998). Natural language processing with ThoughtTreasure. New York: Signiform.
Mueller, Erik T. (1990). Daydreaming in humans and machines: A computer model of the stream of thought. Norwood, NJ: Ablex/Intellect.

Singh, Push. (1999). Big list of mental agents for common sense thinking.

4.3Blackboard systems

Hayes-Roth, B. A blackboard architecture for control. Artificial Intelligence, 1985. 26: p. 251-321.

Nii, H. P. (1986). Blackboard Systems: The Blackboard Model of Problem Solving and the Evolution of Blackboard Architectures. AI Magazine, 7(2):38-53.
Engelmore, R. and Morgan, T. (1988). Blackboard systems. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachuset.
Carver, N., & Lesser, V. (1994). Evolution of blackboard control architectures. Expert Systems with Applications 7, 1-30.

4.4Human-level AI

McCarthy, John. The well-designed child.
McCarthy, John. (1996). From here to human-level AI.


Newell A., & Simon, H. A. (1963). GPS, a program that simulates human thought. In E. A. Feigenbaum and J. Feldman, editors, Computers and Thought, pages 279--293. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Lehman, J.F., Laird, J.E., & Rosenbloom, P.S. (1996) A gentle introduction to Soar, an architecture for human cognition. In S. Sternberg & D. Scarborough (eds.) Invitation to Cognitive Science, Volume 4.
Rosenbloom, P.S., Laird, J.E. & Newell, A. (1993) The Soar Papers: Readings on Integrated Intelligence. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Laird, J.E., & Rosenbloom, P.S. (1996) The evolution of the Soar cognitive architecture. In T. Mitchell (ed.) Mind Matters.
Newell, A. (1990). Unified Theories of Cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard.

4.6Case-based reasoning

Carbonell, J. (1986). Derivational analogy: a theory of reconstructive problem solving and expertise acquisition, in: R.S. Michalski et al. (eds.), Machine Intelligence; an AI approach, 2:371—392.

Hammond, C. (1989). Case-Based Planning: Viewing Planning as a Memory Task. Academic Press, San Diego.
K.J. Hammond. Explaining and Repairing Plans that Fail. Artificial Intelligence, 45(3):173--228, 1990.
Kolodner, J. (1992). An introduction to case-based reasoning. Artificial Intelligence Review, 6:3—34..
Kolodner, J. (1993). Case-Based Reasoning. Morgan Kaufman, San Mateo, CA.
Veloso, M. M., & Carbonell, J. G. (1993). Derivational analogy in Prodigy: Automating case acquisition, storage, and utilization. Machine Learning , 10 , 249--278.

4.7Belief-desire-intention architectures

Fagin, Halpern, Moses, and Vardi. (1995). Reasoning About Knowledge. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Cohen, Philip R., and Levesque, Hector J. (1990). Intention is choice with commitment. Artificial Intelligence, 42, 213-261.
M. E. Bratman, D. J. Isreal, and M. E. Pollack. Plans and resource-bounded practical reasoning. Computational Intelligence, 4(4), 1988.
A.S. Rao and M.P. Georgeff. Modeling rational agents within a BDI-architecture. In J. Allen, R. Fikes, and E. Sandewall, editors, Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (KR'91), pages 473-484. Morgan Kaufmann, 1991.
Halpern, J. and Moses, Y. 1984. Knowledge and common knowledge in a distributed environment, Proc. 3rd ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, New York: ACM, pp. 50-61.
Lakemeyer, G. and Levesque, H. J., AOL: a logic of acting, sensing, knowing, and only knowing, Proc. of the 6th International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (KR'98), Morgan Kaufmann, 1998.

5Acquiring common sense

5.1Distributed human projects

Stork, David. (1999). The OpenMind Initiative. IEEE Intelligent Systems & their applications, 14(3):19-20.

Singh, Push, et al. (In submission). Open Mind Common Sense: knowledge acquisition from the general public.

5.2Acquisition through sketching

Forbus, K. D., Ferguson, R. W., & Usher, J. M. (2000). Towards a computational model of sketching, Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces . Sante Fe, New Mexico.

5.3Learning structural representations

Pazzani, M., & Kibler, D. (1992). The Utility of Knowledge in Inductive Learning, Machine Learning, 9:57—94.

Quinlan, J. R., & Cameron-Jones, R. M. (1993). FOIL: A midterm report. In Pavel B. Brazdil, editor, Machine Learning: ECML-93, Vienna, Austria.
Quinlan, J. R., & Cameron-Jones, R. M. (1995). Induction of logic programs: FOIL and related systems. New Generation Computing, 13:287-312.

5.4Sensory-grounded learning

Deb Roy. (In press). Learning Visually Grounded Words and Syntax of Natural Spoken Language. Evolution of Communication.

Sarah Finney, Natalia Gardiol Hernandez, Tim Oates, and Leslie Pack Kaelbling, "Learning in Worlds with Objects," Working Notes of the AAAI Stanford Spring Symposium on Learning Grounded Representations, 2001.
Cohen, Paul R; Atkin, Marc S.; Oates, Tim; and Beal, Carole R. Neo: Learning Conceptual Knowledge by Sensorimotor Interaction with an Environment. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Autonomous Agents, pages 170 - 177, 1997.
Schmill, Matthew D.; Oates, Tim; and Cohen, Paul R. Learning Planning Operators in Real-World, Partially Observable Environments. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Planning and Scheduling, pages 246-253, 2000.

6Common sense reasoning

6.1Issues in common sense inference

Minsky, Marvin. (1981). Jokes and their relation to the cognitive unconscious. In Vaina and Hintikka (eds.), Cognitive Constraints on Communication. Reidel.

Minsky, Marvin. (1994). Negative expertise, International Journal of Expert Systems, 7(1):13-19.

6.2Default reasoning

McDermott, D., & Doyle. J. (1980). Non-Monotonic Logic I. Artificial Intelligence 13:41--72.

de Kleer, J. (1986). An Assumption Based Truth Maintenance System. Artificial Intelligence, 28:127-162.
Doyle, J. (1979). A truth maintenance system. Artificial Intelligence, 12:231—272.
Reiter, R. (1980). A logic for default reasoning. Artificial Intelligence 13:81--132.


Smith, B. (1982). Reflection and semantics in a procedural language (Technical Report 272). Cambridge, MA: MIT, Laboratory for Computer Science.

Doyle, J. (1980). A model for deliberation, action, and introspection (Technical Report 581). Cambridge, MA: MIT, AI Laboratory.

McCarthy, John. (1995), Making robots conscious of their mental states, in AAAI Spring Symposium on Representing Mental States and Mechanisms.

E. Stroulia and A. Goel. Functional Representation and Reasoning in Reflective Systems. To appear in Journal of Applied Intelligence, Special Issue on Functional Reasoning, 9(1), January 1995.

6.4Problem reformulation

Amarel, Saul. (1968). On representations of problems of reasoning about actions. In Michie, editor, Machine Intelligence 3, pages 131--171. Edinburgh University Press, 1968.

McCarthy, John. Elaboration tolerance.

6.5Analogical reasoning

Falkenhainer, B., Forbus, K.D. and Gentner, D. (1990). The structure-mapping engine: algorithm and examples, Artificial Intelligence, 41:1-63.
Davis, E. (1991). Lucid representations. NYU Computer Science Dept. Tech Report 565.  

Gentner, D. (2001). Spatial metaphors in temporal reasoning. In M. Gattis (Ed.), Spatial schemas in abstract thought (pp. 203-222). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Gentner, D., Bowdle, B., Wolff, P., & Boronat, C. (2001). Metaphor is like analogy. In D. Gentner, K. J. Holyoak, & B. N. Kokinov (Eds.), (2001). The analogical mind: Perspectives from cognitive science (pp. 199-253). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Forbus, K. D., Gentner, D., Markman, A. B., & Ferguson, R. W. (1998). Analogy just looks like high-level perception: Why a domain-general approach to analogical mapping is right. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence, 10(2), 231-257.

6.6Embodiment and metaphor

Lakoff G. & Johnson M. (1990) Metaphors we live by. The University of Chicago Press.

Narayanan, S. (1997). Talking the Talk is Like Walking the Walk . (Also in Proceedings of CogSci97, Stanford, August 1997).
Siskind, Jeffrey M. (1994). Grounding language in perception. Artificial Intelligence Review, 8:371—391.
Siskind, Jeffrey M. (2001). Grounding the Lexical Semantics of Verbs in Visual Perception Using Force Dynamics and Event Logic. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, volume 15, pp. 31-90, August 2001.

7Logical formalisms

7.1Situation calculus

McCarthy, John, & Hayes, Patrick J. (1969). Some philosophical problems from the standpoint of artificial intelligence. In D. Michie & B. Meltzer (Eds.), Machine intelligence 4. Edinburgh, Scotland: Edinburgh University Press.

McCarthy, John (1990). Formalizing common sense. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
McCarthy, John. (1980). Circumscription -- a form of non-monotonic reasoning. Journal of Artificial Intelligence, 13:27—39.
McCarthy, John. (1968). Programs with common sense. In: M. Minsky, (Ed.), Semantic Information Processing, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pages 403—418.
Reiter, Raymond (2001), Knowledge in Action: Logical Foundations for Specifying and Implementing Dynamical Systems. MIT Press.

7.2Event calculus

R. Kowalski, & M. J. Sergot. (1986). A Logic-Based Calculus of Events. New Generation Computing, Vol. 4, Springer Verlag, pp. 67--95.

Shanahan, Murray (1997). Solving the frame problem. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

7.3Causal theories

N. McCain and H. Turner. (1997). Causal theories of action and change. In Proceedings AAAI-97.

N. McCain and H. Turner. (1995). A causal theory of ramifications and qualifications. In Proceedings IJCAI-95.
Lifschitz, Vladimir. (2000). Missionaries and cannibals in the causal calculator. In Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning: Proceedings of Seventh International Conference. To appear.
Lee, Joohyung, Lifschitz, Vladimir, & Turner, Hudson. (2001). A representation of the zoo world in the language of the causal calculator. Unpublished draft.

7.4Features and fluents

Sandewall, Erik. (1994). Features and Fluents. The Representation of Knowledge about Dynamical Systems. Volume I. Oxford University Press.

8Contexts and organizing commonsense knowledge

Lenat, D. (1998) The dimensions of context-space, Cycorp technical report,

McCarthy, John. (1993). Notes on formalizing context. In Proceedings of the thirteenth international joint conference on artificial intelligence.

9Representations for commonsense knowledge


R. Davis, H. Shrobe, and P. Szolovits. What is a Knowledge Representation? AI Magazine, pages 17--33, Spring 1993.

Selected chapters from Ernest Davis (1990). Representations of Commonsense Knowledge. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc. (book, 544 pages)

“A central goal of artificial intelligence is to give a computer program commonsense understanding of basic domains such as time, space, simple laws of nature, and simple facts about human minds. Many different systems of representation and inference have been developed for expressing such knowledge and reasoning with it. Representations of Commonsense Knowledge is the first thorough study of these techniques.”

9.2Commonsense ontologies

Lenat, Douglas. Cyc Upper Ontology, See

Lenat, Douglas, & Guha, Ramanathan. (1991). The Evolution of CycL, The Cyc Representation Language. SIGART Bulletin, 2(3): 84-87, June 1991.
Hayes, P. J. (1985). The Second Naive Physics Manifesto. In Formal Theories of the Commonsense World, 1-36, eds. J.R. Hobbs & R.C. Moore. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corp. Also reprinted in Brachman & Levesque 1985, 468-485.
Hayes, P. J. (1985). Naive Physics I: Ontology for liquids. In Formal theories of the common sense world, ed. J.
Allen, J. F. and Hayes, P. J. (1985). A common-sense theory of time, Proceedings of the 9th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pp. 528--531.
Hayes, P. J. (1979). Naive physics manifesto. Expert Systems in the Microelectronic Age. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

9.3Representing causality

Pearl, J. (2000). Causality: Models, Reasoning and Inference. Cambridge University Press.

9.4Representing time

Allen, J. F. (1991). Time and time again: The many ways to represent time. International Journal of Intelligent Systems 6(4):341-356, July 1991.

Allen, J. F. Planning as temporal reasoning. (1991). In Proceedings of 2nd Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, Morgan Kaufmann.
Allen, J. F. (1983). Maintaining knowledge about temporal intervals. Communications of the ACM, 26(11):832-843, November 1983.
Allen, J. F. (1984). Towards a general theory of action and time, Artificial Intelligence 23:123—154.

9.5Story representations

Schank, Roger. (1972). Conceptual dependency: a theory of natural language understanding. Cognitive Psychology 3, 552--631.

Schank, R.C., & Rieger, C.J. (1974). Inference and the Computer Understanding of Natural Language. Artificial Intelligence, 5:373—412.
Mueller, Erik T. (1999). A database and lexicon of scripts for ThoughtTreasure.
Mueller, Erik T. (1999): Prospects for in-depth story understanding by computer (unpublished paper, 23 pages)
Mueller, Erik T. (2002). Story understanding. In Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. London: Nature Publishing Group.

9.6Connectionist representations

Marvin Minsky, and Seymour Papert. Perceptrons (expanded edition), MIT Press,1988.

Dyer …

10Applications of common sense knowledge

10.1Context-aware agents

Mueller, Erik T. (2000). A calendar with common sense. Proceedings of the 2000 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces (pp. 198-201). New York: Association for Computing Machinery.

Singh, Push. (2002). The public acquisition of commonsense knowledge. In Proceedings of AAAI Spring Symposium: Acquiring (and Using) Linguistic (and World) Knowledge for Information Access. Palo Alto, CA, AAAI.
McCarthy, John., "Some Expert Systems Need Commonsense, " in Lifschitz, V. (ed.), Formalizing Common Sense: Papers by John McCarthy, pp. 189-197, Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1990.
Lenat, Douglas, & Guha, Ramanathan. (1994). Ideas for Applying CYC. Cyc technical report,

Available at

Lieberman, Henry, & Selker, Ted. (2000). Out of context: Computer systems that adapt to, and learn from, context. IBM Systems Journal, 39(3,4):617-632.

10.2 The Semantic Web

Berners-Lee, Tim., Hendler, James, & Lassila, Ora. (2001). The Semantic Web. Scientific American Volume 284, Number 5, May 2001, pp. 34-43.


Berners-Lee, Tim. (1998). Semantic Web Road map.


Berners-Lee, Tim. (1998). What the Semantic Web can represent.

11Robots and common sense

Shapiro, Stuart C., Amir, Eyal, Grosskreutz, Henrik, Randell, David, & Soutchanski, Mikhail. (2001). Commonsense and Embodied Agents: A Panel Discussion. Common Sense 2001: 5th Symposium on Logical Formalizations of Commonsense Reasoning, May 20-22, 2001.

11.1Cognitive robotics

Amir, Eyal, & Maynard-Reid Pedrito II. (2001). LiSA: A Robot Driven by Logical Subsumption. Common Sense 2001: 5th Symposium on Logical Formalizations of Commonsense Reasoning, May 20-22, 2001.

11.2Natural language interfaces to robots

Eva Stopp, Klaus-Peter Gapp, Gerd Herzog, Thomas Längle, and Tim C. Lüth (1994). Utilizing Spatial Relations for Natural Language Access to an Autonomous Mobile Robot. Unpublished paper (paper, 16 pages)
Thomas Längle, Tim C. Lüth, Eva Stopp, Gerd Herzog, and Gjertrud Kamstrup (1995). KANTRA A Natural Language Interface for Intelligent Robots. International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems, Karlsruhe, Germany, March. In Rembold et al. (eds.), Intelligent Autonomous Systems, IOS Press, pp. 357-364 (paper, 8 pages)

12Natural language

12.1Frame semantics

Fillmore, C. (1968). The case for Case. Universals in Linguistic Theory. E. Bach and R. Harms. New York, Holt, Reinhart and Winston.

12.2Lexical semantics

Jackendoff, R. (1983). Semantics and cognition. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.

Pustejovsky, J. (1991). The generative lexicon. Computational linguistics 17: 409-441.

13Realms of thinking

13.1Spatial reasoning

Amitabha Mukerjee, Neat vs Scruffy: A survey of Computational Models for Spatial Expressions
This is from a book called Representation and Processing of Spatial Expressions, Erlbaum.

Davis, E. Representing and Acquiring Geographic Knowledge. Morgan Kauffman, California.

Kuipers, B. J. (1978). Modeling spatial knowledge. Cognitive Science, 2:129—153.
Kuipers, B. J. (2000). The spatial semantic hierarchy. Artificial Intelligence, 119:191—233.

13.2Physical reasoning

Rieger, C., & Grinberg, M. (1977). The Causal Representation and Simulation of Physical Mechanisms. Technical Report TR-495, Dept. of Computer Science, University of Maryland.

13.3Social reasoning

Lehnert, W. G. (1981). Plot Units and Narrative Summarization. Cognitive Science, 4:293—331.

Carbonell, J. (1980). Towards a process model of human personality traits. Artificial Intelligence, 15, 49-74.

Hendler, J. (1988). Integrating Marker-Passing and Problem-Solving.


13.4Story understanding

Ram, Ashwin. (1987). AQUA: asking questions and understanding answers. In Proceedings of the Sixth Annual National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pp. 312--316 Seattle, WA.

13.5Visual reasoning

L. Stark and K. Bowyer. ``Functional context in vision''. In Workshop on Context-based Vision. IEEE Press, 1995.

T.M. Strat and M.A. Fischler. ``The role of context in computer vision''. In Workshop on Context-based Vision. IEEE Press, 1995.

R.K. Srihari. ``Linguistic context in vision''. In Workshop on Context-based Vision. IEEE Press, 1995.

H. Buxton and S. Gong. ``Visual surveillance in a dynamic and uncertain world''. Artificial Intelligence, 78:371--405, 1995.

Smith, Barry, "Formal Ontology, Common Sense, and Cognitive Science", International Journal of Human- Computer Studies, 43 (1995).

Gong, L., Kulikowski, C., Composition of Image Analysis Processes through Object-Centered Hierarchical Planning, IEEE TRANS on Pattern Recognition and Machine Intelligence (PAMI), 1995; 17(10):997-1009.

T.M. Strat and M.A. Fischler. ``Context-based vision: Recognising objects using both 2D and 3D imagery''. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 13:1050--1065, 1991.

D. Rosenthal and R. Bajscy, ``Visual and conceptual hierarchy: a paradigm for studies of automated generation of recognition strategies'', IEEE Trans. PAMI-6, 3: pp. 319-324, 1984.

P. Selfridge,  ``Reasoning about success and failure in aerial image understanding'', PhD Thesis, University of Rochester, 1981.

D. Garvey, "Perceptual strategies for purposive vision'', Technical note 117, AI Center, SRI International, 1976.

M. Minsky, ``A Framework for representing knowledge'', in The Psychology of Computer Vision. P.Winston (ed.), New York, McGraw-Hill 1975.

Roberto Casati and Achille C. Varzi. Holes and Other Superficialities, Cambridge, MA, and London: MIT Press [Bradford Books], 1994.

J.L. Crowley and H. Christensen. Vision as Process. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993.

J. Aloimonos, Integration of Visual Modules. San Diego, Academic Press, Inc., 1989.

Steven Pinker. Editor. Visual Cognition, The MIT Press, 1988.

Waltz, David L., & Boggess, Lois (1979). Visual analog representations for natural language understanding. Proceedings of the 1979 International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence.

D. Marr. Vision, San Francisco, W.H. Freeman, 1982.

Rudolf Arnheim. Visual Thinking, University of California Press, Ltd.,

Gong, L., Image Analysis as Context-Based Reasoning, In Proc. of ISCA 10th International conference on Intelligent Systems. Virginia, p130-34, 2001. Ahmed E. Ibrahim An Intelligent Framework for Image Understanding

Roger C. Schank, Andrew E. Fano: Memory and Expectations in Learning, Language, and Visual Understanding. 261-271.

R. Collins, A. Lipton, T. Kanade, H. Fujiyoshi, D. Duggins, Y. Tsin, D. Tolliver, N. Enomoto, and O. Hasegawa tech. report CMU-RI-TR-00-12, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, May, 2000.

Nuria Oliver. "Towards Perceptual Intelligence: Statistical Modeling of Human Individual and Interactive Behaviors", PhD thesis, MIT Media Lab, 2000.

Milan Sonka, Vaclav Hlavac, and Roger Boyle. Image Processing, Analysis, and Machine Vision, Pacific Grove, CA : PWS Pub. c1999.

Joachim M. Buhmann, Jitendra Malik and Pietro Perona. Image Recognition: Visual Grouping, Recognition and Learning. in: Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, Vol. 96, No 25, pp. 14203-14204, Dec. 7, 1999.

By Christopher O. Jaynes. Seeing is Believing: Computer Vision and Artificial Intelligence.  ACM Crossroads (the student magazine of the Association for Computing Machinery), 1996.

H. Buxton and R. Howarth. ``Watching behaviour: The role of context and learning''. In International Conference on Image Processing, Lausanne, Switzerland, 1996.

G. Socher, G. Sagerer, F. Kummert and T. Fuhr. ``Talking about 3D scenes: Integration of image and speech understanding in a hybrid distributed system''. In International Conference on Image Processing, Lausanne, Switzerland, 1996.

Bobick, Aaron, and Pinhanez, Claudio. "Using Approximate Models as Source of Contextual Information for Vision Processing." Proceedings of the Workshop on Context-Based Vision, ICCV'95, Cambridge, Massachusetts, pp.13-21. June 1995.

Bobick, Aaron, and S. Intille. "Exploiting Contextual Information for Tracking by Using Closed-Worlds." Proceedings
of the Workshop on Context-Based Vision, Cambridge, Massachusetts, pp.87-98. June 1995.

Cassell, Justine. "Speech, Action and Gestures as Context for Ongoing Task-Oriented Talk." Proceedings of AAAI Fall Symposium on Embodied Language and Action, pp. 20-25. November 1995.


14.1Cognitive psychology

Clark, Herbert H.  (1977). Bridging. In Thinking: Readings in Cognitive Science.

Graesser, Arthur C., Singer, Murray, and Trabasso, Tom (1994). Constructing inferences during narrative text comprehension. Psychological Review. 101(3):371-395.

McKoon, Gail, & Ratcliff, Roger (1992). Inference during reading. Psychological Review. 99(3):440-466.

McKoon, Gail, & Ratcliff, Roger (1986). Inferences about predictable events. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 12(1):82-91.

Beeman, Mark. (1998). Coarse semantic coding and discourse comprehension. In Right hemisphere language comprehension. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Heider, Fritz (1958). The psychology of interpersonal relations. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Smedslund, Jan (1997). The structure of psychological common sense. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

14.2Psychology of memory

Landauer, Thomas K. (1986). How much do people remember? Some estimates of the quantity of learned information in long-term memory. Cognitive Science, 10:477-493.

14.3Psychology of story understanding

Goldman, Susan R., Graesser, Arthur C., & van den Broek, Paul (1999). Narrative comprehension, causality, and conherence. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

14.4Psychology of inference

St. George, Marie, Mannes, Suzanne, and Hoffman, James E. (1997). Individual differences in inference generation: An ERP analysis. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 9(6):776-787.

Van Petten, Cyma, & Kutas, Marta (1990). Interactions between sentence context and word frequency in event-related brain potentials. Memory & Cognition, 18(4):380-393.

Tanenhaus, Michael K., Spivey-Knowlton, Michael J., Eberhard, Kathleen M., & Sedivy, Julie C. (1995). Integration of visual and linguistic information in spoken language comprehension. Science, 268, 1632-1634.

Burgess, Curt, & Simpson, Greg B. (1988). Cerebral hemispheric mechanisms in the retrieval of ambiguous word meanings. Brain and Language, 33:86-103.

Caramazza, Alfonso (1998). The interpretation of semantic category-specific deficits: What do they reveal about the organization of conceptual knowledge in the brain? Neurocase, 4:265-272.


McDermott, D. (1987). A critique of pure reason. Computational Intelligence, 3:151—160.

16Web resources

Commonsense problem page
Open Mind Common Sense




Wilensky, R., 1983. Planning and Understanding: A Computational Approach to Human Reasoning. Reading, MA:Addison--Wesley.

Various papers by Doug Lenat

(e.g. Common Sense and the Mind of HAL by Doug Lenat)

Minsky, M. More Turing Option chapters (on common sense bugs)
Paper on the IEEE Standard Upper Level ?
Selected papers from the Common Sense 2001: 5th Symposium on Logical Formalizations of Commonsense Reasoning. May 20-22, 2001
Jon Barwise and John Perry: Situations and Attitudes

Lucy Suchman: Situated Systems

More on conceptual primitives?

Should anything from
be incorporated?
Modeling personality:

Don't forget Dyer's In-Depth Understanding and Lehnert's book on question answering and work on plot units.

Logical approaches to reasoning about action and change (I think you've tracked most of these down already):
Situation calculus
      McCarthy and Hayes, Some Philosophical Problems ...
      Reiter, Knowledge in Action
Event calculus
      Kowalski and Sergot
      Shanahan, Solving the Frame Problem
Features and fluents
      Temporal Action Logics: Patrick Doherty (this is an important derivative of Features and Fluents with an implementation as the program VITAL)
Causal theories
      McCain and Turner (papers attached)
(See attached file: attached file:
(See attached file:

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