D. Act as a primitive eye
15. What type of compounds have a multitude of different functions in Loriciferans including providing structural support within cells and catalyzing chemical reactions and facilitating diffusion through the plasma membrane and allowing cell recognition through its unique structure? A. mitochondria B. proteins
C. ribosomes D. cells
16. In the Loriciferans ecosystem energy flows from producers to primary consumers to Loriciferans. More energy flows from producers to primary consumers in the Loriciferans ecosystem than in a forest thick with trees. Why is this?
A Forest plants receive more sunlight than aquatic photosynthetic organisms.
B Plants in forests put more energy into wood and other hard-to-digest biomass.
C Animals in oceans perform less cellular respiration than animals in forests.
D Producers are always more able to harvest the light energy in forests than in oceans.
1. C. Longest option is the correct answer. Many test wise students will choose the longest or most complex “scientific” sounding answer.
B. Since A and B are opposites the answer is most likely A or B. A student might reason that since C is correct in the 1stquestion, “single celled” cannot be correct in this item because it is an option in question #1. Therefore B must be correct. The question also lacks focus, i.e., there are far too many possible ways to fill in this blank. This is very difficult for ESL students and lots of kids who tend to over-think the test.
B. The first question gives the answer to question #3. Small type is a problem for far sighted students. Unlike nearsighted students, these students tend to avoid wearing their glasses. In universal design, the test should be designed to be fair to the most students possible, simply changing this to a large font would solve this problem.
D. The first answer subsumes the next two, leaving only two viable answers, the odd answer or the one that subsumes the other two. Since only one answer can be correct D is the most likely choice. D is also more grammatically complex making it appealing option to good test takers.
No answer is correct. This is a tricky item since no one invented loriciferans. They were discovered them or the phylum was named by someone. D or A could be intended. Since option D subsumes the others it must be a correct answer even if answer A is intended. This type of error leaves the test maker in the awkward position of having to justify one answer as “better” than another, when two answers are clearly possible.
C is the only option that fits grammatically. Question 4 also clues the answer. There is also a change in the format that may confuse some students. D, while incorrect, is clued by capping of D. Students may miss the item for the wrong reason.
B. Distracters are not plausible. The correct answer sounds more “scientific” than the others. These options are not parallel. Stacking is different than in previous items. All formats should be the same. Item stem should be in same column as the options.
All answers are justifiable. The answer depends on what is meant by “most important” and to whom. Option A might be correct since these are the most abundant multicellular organisms. Option B is correct if one considers that this is all about this phylum. Option C is correct for people who consider humans as most important. Option D sticks out as being longer, and not ending in “a.” Option D can be justified if one happens to study this phylum.
B. The grain of sand is a clue to the answer for question 4. C is not plausible or you would not have asked the question. Option D is the same thing as A so D and A are eliminated. A linear scale should be included in the art to eliminate the depth perception problem or any answer could be correct. The slightly offset B clues the intended answer.
B. The use of negatives in stem and options make this item difficult to understand even though the question is simple. Double negatives make this item far more difficult than it needs to be.
B. Misnumbering throws students off if an answer sheet is used. Fauna in stem clues answer. Testing the same thing as item 7. “Appealing” is anthropomorphic term. Change in format of options confusing.
B or D. No introduction to art, it just suddenly appears. Art is way to complex for partially sighted (enlargement would not help) or blind (too difficult to Braille). Distractors A and C not plausible because they are not easily arrived at with the numbers given in the problem. All options should be reasonable. All should have a rationale. Item stem is not clear, should the animals be place along their long or short axis. Answer could be B or D depending on how the animals are arranged. Art not useful if the answer is B. Options not in logical order, generally ascending order for numeric options. Under what circumstances would anyone line up these animals?
A or D Only the balance and graduated cylinder are in more than one option, cluing balance and graduated cylinder as very likely the correct answer. More than two piece of equipment can be used change “required” to “could be used.” “D.” is out of alignment. The use of you encourages arguments from students. “I can choose anything I want to, it may not be correct but it is my choice.”
B Options do not grammatically answer the question. This test question is probably way below intended grade level for this test.
B Went from ridiculously simple to very specific trivial question. Options A and D do not parallel to others and do not grammatically answer the question. Sloppy editing. The “to” is supposed to be understood, but is not understood by all students.
Question asks for a compound type only one compound given. Stem very long and confusing. Could have used a table or bullets. Example: Some Functions of a Type of Compound
Or shorten stem to one or two functions and perhaps two sentences. One type of compound found in cells provides structural support and catalyzes chemical reactions. What type of compound serves these two functions?
Avoid – What type of compound serves these functions. The referent is clear for good readers by not poor readers.Pronouns are very difficult for ESL students and poor readers.
16. B. The keyed correct answer has hyphenated word. What is “this” in the question referring to? This ambiguity allows A to also be a correct response. The item stem is unnecessarily long and convoluted. Options not parallel. Note option B: subject forest. Option C: subject is ocean. Very difficult for some students to switch subjects. Item concept is easy the reading is what makes this item difficult not the science. Option D has a specific determiner.