Ad Hoc Apple CGC Meeting
July 26, 2010
PGRU, Geneva, NY
Apple CGC Business Session
Attendees: Herb Aldwinckle (chair), Angela Baldo, Carole Bassett, Susan Brown, Gennaro Fazio, Phil Forsline, Cameron Peace, Kanin Routson, Gayle Volk, Kenong Xu Via Phone: Charlie Embree, Jay Norelli, Mike Wisniewski
Herb Aldwinckle explained that this ad hoc meeting of the Apple CGC was held since several out-of-state members were in town for the CGC Chairs and PGOC meetings.
Retirement: Phil Forsline, former Apple curator retired on Jan. 1. 2010.
Acting Curator Report: Gennaro Fazio (Acting Curator) explained that the Curator position had been advertised for 6 weeks, with 2 more weeks until closing. The position is advertised as a GS11/12 Category 4, Research Horticulturist. The selecting official is the Research Leader Dr. Gan-Yuan Zhong. The search committee will be assembled in August or September and will have representatives from both industry and the Apple CGC.
Fazio reported that the apple collection has high quality technical support. Two weeks previously, trees were severely sunburned, so sunburn evaluation data will be collected on the west side row of individuals. Both severity and proportion of burned apples per tree will be recorded. After completion, the student will return to entering disease resistance data into GRIN.
Seedlings from the controlled crosses of core collection Malus sieversii individuals from sites 6 and 9 were harvested in the fall of 2009. Seedlings were imaged for root and scion architecture to determine heritability of growth shape. Data collected include: length and number of points and branches and tree size (using WinRhizome). One pollen pool had significant effects on tree architecture. Data for scab and 7 SSRs were collected for each individual. Data will be posted on GRIN associated with the mother tree accession information. Trees were then shipped to Cameron Peace for planting in Pullman, Washington for use in a student-led breeding program.
There is a need for coordinating genotype data across programs. In the future, SNPs may be useful for some accessions. Current cost is $70/3000 SNPs/sample obtained using Illumina technologist.
Chuck Simon has been in and out of the hospital and will probably not be back to work in the near future.
PGRU SSR data must be calibrated to that of other datasets to make information sharing possible among Brogdale, Italy, Dresden, China, Belgium, French, and Danish genebanks. With only 50 accessions per year accepting by APHIS, duplicates and gaps among collections need to be assessed. Some material of interest: Old Italian varieties, Vavilov materials.
Zhong may receive funds from the NE Area Office to perform phenolics work in apple in collaboration with Lailiang Cheng at Cornell University. Cheng already has an SCA for Vitis phenolics research using HPLC and GC measurements. The CGC committee had questions about this project regarding skin vs flesh measurements, value and usefulness. It was concluded that the committee should write a priority list for evaluation traits if/when funds become available. A letter will be sent by CGC and industry regarding apple priorities. Previously, a survey was conducted and titratable acidity was the highest breeder priority. Susan Brown will revisit/revise survey.
The NPGS was targeted in the President’s budget for an FY2011 increase. Not approved by congress yet.
NGRL Report: Submitted as attachment.
New Candidates for CGC Membership: none suggested
Current Status of Apple Research Programs:
PGRU Collection: Fazio suggested considering alternative rootstocks with fewer suckers for future collection replanting efforts.
Sieversii and orientalis core collections are being propagated for addition to the main collection.
APHIS report: (Litcha) had some conditional releases this spring. See written report.
Norelli report: WTFRC funding to identify fireblight resistance in Malus sieversii for use in scion breeding. Identifying QTL for fireblight and scab in Gala x GMAL4593 populations. Wisniewski is developing a molecular map for this population. A replicate planting of this population was established in 2008 in Kearneysville. Geneva fireblight and Kearneysville fireblight data are not necessarily correlated. This could be due to the use of different strains.
Bassett report: See written report.
Routson presentation: Historical apples from the Southwestern United States from his Masters thesis. He also passed out a list of apples from Gary Nabhan proposing 100 historic American apple varieties for a National Agricultural Library project.
Volk report: Developing a summer bud method for cryopreservation of apple species not amenable to the dormant bud method. Using chloroplast markers as markers for identification of Chinese apple species (2010 CGC proposal funding). Will use these data as part of a larger framework developed using 7 chloroplast markers for more than 150 NPGS Maloideae species. Performing diversity analyses on the Chinese diploid individuals. Has data for 20 SSRs for wild species and cider apple types to evaluate progenitors of domestication. Other projects of interest include cryotherapy and standardization of phenotypic data. Volk has been invited to China (Shaanxi Province) for a trip in late June/early July 2011. She will work with Chinese collaborators and the Plant Exchange office to try and export seeds from Chinese apple species through the Chinese Forestry Ministry.
Baldo report: RGA research continues in collaboration with IASMA. AFLP fireblight paper was published in the spring of 2010.
Peace report: NRI texture functional gene markers are being run for 70 ancestors/founders and 90 seedlings from populations. DNA genotyping performed for ACS PG, and ACO. Replicated the apple core collection at the Sunrise orchard in Wenatchee, 220 accessions. Planted Gala x 4593 in Sunrise Orchard on Bud9. Evaluation data will concentrate on fruit quality traits. In Pullman, 400 trees representing the Core collection (up to 4 trees each) were planted and 170 trees flowered. Establishing a planting of apple species arranged in a pattern that is spatially related to their country of origin using 22 apple species. Pullman materials will be used in a student-led fruit breeding program.
Xu report: Developing a genetic frame map using EST-SSR markers. Submitted a paper to TGG for scab markers. Key traits of interest for mapping include: biennial bearing, juvenility, and acidity.