Ana səhifə

Espp90j: Environmental Crises and Population Flight


Yüklə 34.52 Kb.
tarix27.06.2016
ölçüsü34.52 Kb.


ESPP90j: Environmental Crises and Population Flight

Fall 2009 Syllabus


Tuesday afternoons, 2:00 – 4:00 pm

HUCE, Geological Museum 310, 24 Oxford Street


Professor Jennifer Leaning, MD, SMH Teaching Fellow: Mey Akashah, SM

Harvard School of Public Health Harvard School of Public Health

Email: jleaning@hsph.harvard.edu Email: makashah@post.harvard.edu

Office: 617-384-5661 Phone: 617-230-6004



Guest Lecturers: Jason Tauches, Captain, USMC

Richard Cash, MD, MPH, HSPH

Saad Akashah, PhD


Course Description
War, disaster, drought and famine force people to flee their land. The humanitarian consequences of this loss of place and livelihood are filled with complexity, relating to the extent and permanence of environmental destruction wrought by these crises, people's attachment to their homes and ecosystems, the circumstances of departure, the destinations of refuge, and the possibilities for return. These issues will be examined through case studies and review of literature on forced migration and calamity.

Class Overview
1 9/8 Introduction: Frameworks, sources, and methods;

2 9/15 Demography and forced migration (refugees and internally displaced peoples)

3 9/22 Resource scarcity, conflict, and forced migration

4 9/29 Climate change, water, and population response

5 10/6 Human security, livelihoods, and forced migration

6 10/13 Drought, famine, and forced migration: Ethiopia and Niger

7 10/20 Environmental impact of war

(Guest lecture by Jason Tauches)

8 10/27 Hurricanes, floods, and forced migration: Bangladesh

(Guest lecture by Richard Cash)

9 11/3 Student presentations

10 11/10 Environmental impact of forced migration (refugee camps, urbanization)

11 11/17 The First Gulf War: Occupation and environmental warfare in Kuwait

(Guest lecture by Saad Akashah)

--- 11/24 THANKSGIVING: NO CLASS

12 12/1 Crisis mapping and GIS: How it was used to map change in Darfur


Final Papers Due Tuesday, December 11 by 12 noon


Course Requirements
1) Every week by noon on the Monday before the Tuesday class, students will be expected to submit by email to the teaching fellow a very short set of questions (two questions only) that arise from the readings for that upcoming Tuesday class. These questions will not be graded but will be used by the instructor to inform and guide the class discussion.
2) Two formal written papers will be expected, the first one short (5 pages) and the second longer
(20 pages).

a. The first and shorter one will present a review of the literature and abstract of the main


idea that will serve as the basis for the second and larger paper. Oral presentations will be given in the 7th session of class (10/20) and should be 5 minutes in length; the paper should be 5 pages single or 1.5 spacing.
b. The second will explore in depth an issue of relevance related to the themes and
problems identified in the course. Topics for each of these papers should be discussed with the teaching fellow and reviewed by the course director in advance. (Due: Friday, December 11th, by 12:00 pm noon)
Final grade will be determined by class participation, presentations, and the two written papers.

Readings
All readings are available at the course website http://my.harvard.edu/icb/icb.do?keyword=myharvard&subkeyword=k38810&tabgroupid=icb.k38810.tabgroup.top , with the exception of Arundhati Roy’s The Cost of Living, which can be purchased at the Harvard Coop.
Required Texts
Roy, Arundhati. The cost of living. Modern Library. New York, 1999:7-90.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, The Working Group II contribution to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. Available online at the course website and at: www.ipcc-wg2.org

Diamond J. Collapse: How societies choose to fail or succeed. Penguin. New York, 2005: 486-525.


Useful websites
Inventory of Conflict and Environment (ICE)

www.american.edu/TED/ice/ice.htm
Humanitarian News and Analysis, UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs

www.irinnews.org/
Humanitarian Information Unit (US government)

http://hiu.state.gov

http://hiu.state.gov/index.cfm?fuseaction=public.display&shortcut=JF4R
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

http://www.ifrc.org
Forced Migration Review

http://www.fmreview.org
Forced Migration Online (FMO)

http://www.forcedmigration.org
New England Complex Systems Institute

http://necsi.org/community/CXlink.html
Natural Hazards Center

http://www.colorado.edu/hazards
Relief Web (UN OCHA)

http://www.reliefweb.int

Class Schedule and Readings
Class 1: Introduction: Frameworks, sources, and methods (9/8)
In-class assignment: Draw a one-page flow chart depicting your understanding of the connections between environmental crises and population flight.
Class 2: Demography and forced migration (refugees and internally displaced peoples) (9/15)
Brauch HG. Securitizing Global Environmental Change. In Brauch HG et al., eds. Facing Global Environmental Change: Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health and Water Security Concepts Series. Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace, Vol. 4, Springer Press. Berlin, 2009: 65-102.
Wolfgang Lutz. Changing Population Size and Distribution as a Security Concern. In Brauch HG et al., eds. Facing Global Environmental Change: Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health and Water Security Concepts Series. Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace, Vol. 4, Springer Press. Berlin, 2009: 203-213.
Keely CB, Reed HE, Waldman RJ. Understanding mortality patterns in complex humanitarian emergencies. In Reed HE, Keely CB, eds. Forced migration and mortality. National Research Council. National Academy Press. Washington, D.C., 2001:1-35.
Goldstone J. Demography, environment, and security: An overview. In Weiner M and Russell SS, eds. Demography and national security. Berghahn Books. New York, 2006: 38-61.
Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC), Internal Displacement: Global Overview of Trends and Developments in 2008, April 2009

http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/49fe9a952.html 


UNHCR. The state of the world’s refugees 2006: Human displacement in the new millennium.

http://www.unhcr.org/4a4dc1a89.html

Read: Introduction, Chapter 1: 1-29 and notes 190-191.


UNHCR. 2008 Global Trends: Refugees, Asylum-seekers, Returnees, Internally Displaced and Stateless Persons.

http://www.unhcr.org/4a375c426.html Read pp. 1-9.
Class 3: Resource scarcity, conflict, and forced migration (9/22)
Homer-Dixon T, Deligiannis T. Environmental Scarcities and Civil Violence. In Brauch HG et al., eds. Facing Global Environmental Change: Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health and Water Security Concepts Series. Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace, Vol. 4, Springer Press. Berlin, 2009: 309-323.
Spring Ú O. Food as a New Human and Livelihood Security Challenge. In Brauch HG et al., eds. Facing Global Environmental Change: Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health and Water Security Concepts Series. Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace, Vol. 4, Springer Press. Berlin, 2009: 471-500.
Homer-Dixon TF. On the threshold: Environmental changes as causes of acute conflict. International Security 1991:19:5-40.
Gleditsch NP. Armed conflict and the environment: A critique of the literature. Journal of Peace Research Vol. 35, no. 3, 1998: 381-400.

http://www.prio.no/sptrans/-415309721/1998NPG001.pdf
Schwartz D, Deligiannis T, Homer-Dixon,T. The environment and violent conflict: A response to Gleditsch's critique and suggestions for future research," Environmental Change & Security Project Report, Issue 6 (Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center, Summer 2000):77-93. http://www.homerdixon.com/download/Response_to_Gleditsch.pdf
Collier P, Hoeffler A. Greed and grievance in civil wars. Working paper series 2002-01. Centre for the Study of African Economies. Oxford, 2002.
Dabelko G. Population and conflict: Exploring the links. Woodrow Wilson School. Program on Environmental Change and Security Policy, No. 11, 2005.


Class 4: Climate change, water, and population response (9/29)
Tony Allan. Global Trade: Balancing Existing and Future Regional Water Resource Deficits. In Brauch HG et al., eds. Facing Global Environmental Change: Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health and Water Security Concepts Series. Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace, Vol. 4, Springer Press. Berlin, 2009: 575-587.
Jan Selby. ‘New Security Thinking’ in Israeli-Palestinian Water Relations. In Brauch HG et al., eds. Facing Global Environmental Change: Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health and Water Security Concepts Series. Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace, Vol. 4, Springer Press. Berlin, 2009: 623-631.
Shiva V. Water Wars in India. In Brauch HG et al., eds. Facing Global Environmental Change: Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health and Water Security Concepts Series. Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace, Vol. 4, Springer Press. Berlin, 2009: 589-592.
Raleigh C, Jordan L, Salehyan I. Assessing the impact of climate change on migration and conflict. Social dimensions of climate change. The Social Development Department, World Bank.
Conca K. The new face of water conflict. Woodrow Wilson School. Program on Environmental Change and Security Policy. November 2006. No. 3. pages:
UNDP. Beyond scarcity: Power, poverty and the global water crisis. Human Development Report 2006. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR06-complete.pdf

Read pp. 1-25


Lonergan S. Water and War. UNEP. 2003. http://www.unep.org/OurPlanet/imgversn/154/lonergan.html
UNEP. Freshwater stress and scarcity in Africa by 2025. 2002.

http://www.unep.org/dewa/assessments/ecosystems/water/vitalwater/21.htm
Class 5: Human security, livelihoods, and forced migration (10/6)
Leaning J. Health and Human Security in the 21st Century. In Brauch HG et al., eds. Facing Global Environmental Change: Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health and Water Security Concepts Series. Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace, Vol. 4, Springer Press. Berlin, 2009: 541-551.
Ahmed I. Environmental Refugees and Environmental Distress Migration as a Security Challenge for India and Bangladesh. In Brauch HG et al., eds. Facing Global Environmental Change: Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health and Water Security Concepts Series. Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace, Vol. 4, Springer Press. Berlin, 2009: 295-308.
Leaning J, Arie S, Stites E. Human security in crisis and transition. Praxis: The Fletcher Journal of International Development 2004; XIX: 5-30.
Stites E, Mazurana D, Carlson K. Movement on the Margins--Livelihoods and Security in Kitgum District, Northern Uganda. Feinstein International Center. 2006.

https://wikis.uit.tufts.edu/confluence/download/attachments/14553602/LivelihoodsandSecurityinKitgumFINAL.pdf?version=1 Read pp. 1-17, 57-62.
Hammill A. Forests, natural disasters, and human security. International Institute for Sustainable Development.
Class 6: Drought, famine, and forced migration: Ethiopia and Niger (10/13)
Rechkemmer A. Societal Impacts of Desertification: Migration and Environmental Refugees? In Brauch HG et al., eds. Facing Global Environmental Change: Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health and Water Security Concepts Series. Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace, Vol. 4, Springer Press. Berlin, 2009: 151-158.
Borghese M. The Centrality of Water Regime Formation for Water Security in West Africa: An Analysis of the Volta Basin. In Brauch HG et al., eds. Facing Global Environmental Change: Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health and Water Security Concepts Series. Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace, Vol. 4, Springer Press. Berlin, 2009: 685-698.
Greenough PG, Kirsch TD. Public health response - assessing needs. N Engl J Med 2005; 353:1544-1546.
Van Aalst MK. The impacts of climate change on the risk of natural disasters. Disasters 2006; 30:5-18.
Seaman J. Famine mortality in Africa. IDS Bulletin 1993; 4:27-32.
Dyson T. Demographic responses to famine in South Asia. IDS Bulletin 1993;4:17-26.
De Freita CR. The hazard potential of drought for the population of the Sahel. In Clarke JI, Curson P, Kayastha SL, Nag P, eds. Population and disaster. Blackwell. London, 1989:98-113.
Adugna A. The 1984 drought and settler migration in Ethiopia. In Clarke et al, eds, 1989:114-127.
Class 7: Environmental impact of war (10/20)
Guest Lecturer: Capt. Jason Tauches, USMC
Wisner, B. Interactions between Conflict and Natural Hazards: Swords, Ploughshares, Earthquakes, Floods and Storms. In Brauch HG et al., eds. Facing Global Environmental Change: Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health and Water Security Concepts Series. Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace, Vol. 4, Springer Press. Berlin, 2009: 245-256.
Rawcliff J, et al. Operational Law Handbook. International and Operational Law Department, Virginia, 2006. Read Chapter 10. Environmental law in operations
Leaning J. Tracking the four horsemen: The public health approach to the impact of war and war-induced environmental destruction. In Austin J, Bruch C, eds. The environmental consequences of war. Oxford University Press. Cambridge, 2000:384-401.
Schmitt MN. War and the environment: Fault lines in the prescriptive landscape. In Austin and Bruch, 2000:87-146.
Westing A. Warfare in a fragile world: Military impact on the human environment. Stockholm International Peace and Research Institute. Taylor & Francis. London, 1980:44-70. Read Chapter 2: Temperate Climates
Class 8: Hurricanes, floods, and forced migration: Bangladesh (10/27)

(Guest lecture by Richard Cash)


Bern C, et al. Risk factors for mortality in the Bangladesh cyclone of 1991. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1993; 71:73-88.
Lein H. 2000. “Hazards and ‘forced’ migration in Bangladesh.” Norwegian Journal of Geography. 54:122-127.
Zaman MQ. The displaced poor and resettlement policies in Bangladesh. Asian Survey. July 1996; 36(7): 691-703.
World Disasters Report 1999. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom, 1999.

Read Chapter 9: 9-52.


Class 9: Student presentations (11/3)
Each student will present a short paper (approx. 5 pages) that contains an abstract and review of the literature relating to the main idea of the longer paper that will be submitted at the end of the semester. Students should give a five-minute oral presentation, based on this short paper, during this class session. At the end of the session, the short paper is due.
Class 10: Environmental impact of forced migration (refugee camps, IDP settlements, urbanization) (11/10)
Kibreab G. Environmental causes and impact of refugee movements: A critique of the current debate. Disasters 1997; 21:20-38.
Environmentally-induced population displacements and environmental impacts resulting from mass migrations. International symposium. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, International Organization for Migration, and Refugee Policy Group. Geneva, 21-24 April 1996.
UNHCR. Refugee operations and environmental management: Key principles for decision-making. Engineering and Environmental Services Section. 1998. Read pp. 5-46, 69-75.
Esser D. The city as arena, hub and prey patterns of violence in Kabul and Karachi. Environment and Urbanization 2004; 16:31-38.
Packer G. The megacity. The New Yorker. November 13, 2006:62-75.
Class 11: The First Gulf War: Occupation and Environmental Warfare in Kuwait (11/17)

(Guest lecture by Saad Akashah)


Readings to be provided
11/24 THANKSGIVING NO CLASS
Class 12: Crisis mapping and GIS: Case examples (12/1)
Readings to be provided
FINAL PAPERS DUE FRIDAY, DECEMBER 11, 12 NOON

Final Papers:

Please turn in 2 hard copies of your final paper on or before Friday, January 2nd, at 12:00 pm noon. Also please email a copy to Dr. Leaning at jleaning@hsph.harvard.edu. Drop off the hard copies at Harvard Humanitarian Initiative at 14 Story Street (off of Brattle St. near the Crate and Barrel), 2nd floor. Thank you.






Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©atelim.com 2016
rəhbərliyinə müraciət