Ana səhifə

Bee forage and district wise floral calender of west bengal introduction


Yüklə 331.65 Kb.
səhifə1/5
tarix26.06.2016
ölçüsü331.65 Kb.
  1   2   3   4   5

BEE FORAGE AND DISTRICT WISE FLORAL CALENDER OF WEST BENGAL


Introduction

West Bengal as the name implies, is the western part of a larger regional entity named Bengal. Lying entirely in the northern hemisphere, the state lies between 2138’ N and 2710’ N latitudes and 8550’ E and 89 50’ E longitudes. West Bengal covers an area of 87,616 square kilometers. It is bounded along the northern frontiers by the great Himalayas, stretches southwards beyond the tropic of cancer, broad down to the Bay of Bengal in the east. The West Bengal is pre-eminently a land of rivers. The Ganges river basin constitutes about 50 per cent of the state. Brahmaputra has the greatest volume of water of all the rivers. Mahanandi is an important river in Malda. West Bengal has 3 main land regions:



  1. The Himalayas in the north zone: The mountain area in the north, though small, is a part of the world’s loftiest mountains, the Himalayas, which rise to eternal snows in north or Darjeeling, dominated by Kanchanjanga and her five satellite peaks. The lofty range of Singalila rising along the Nepal Boarder to the west of the town is covered by Rhododendron forests, which provides good forage for honey bees during April and May

  2. The Plateau Fringe: This is a rolling upland, with small isolated standing here and there contains green forests of Sal, Mahua, Palash etc. provide good forage for honeybees during spring.

  3. The plains: The vast alluvial plains of the state spread from Jalpaiguri and Siliguri in the north to the Sunderban creeks and the Kanthi littoral in the south. The plains are Mahananda Corridor and Malda plains in the north; South western plains in Ganga banks; South western plains; Sunderbans and kanthi coastal strip.

Seasons and Climate

The climate of West Bengal is generally tropical, hot and humid, monsoon type, except the northern mountains , where the altitutde high. There are four well-defined seasons in West Bengal: the winter (December to February), the summer (March-May) advance of monsoon (June to August)Retreat of the monsoon (September to November).


Natural Vegetation


The natural Vegetation is almost disappeared from West Bengal. Yet forests of three distinct areas exist in the state. These are (i) the forests of the north, which include the mountain temperate forests and the tropical forests of the Duras, (ii) the deciduous forests of the plateau fringe and (iii) the mangrove forests of Sunderbans. The Sunderbans is a special type with predominant estuarial vegetation that is mainly of an evergreen type., Rhizophora conjugata, Soneratia apetala, Avicennia officinalis, Excoecaria agallocha, Sapium indicum, Casuarina equisetifolia, Nipa fruticans and Phoenix paludosa are dominant plants that provide bee forage. Sunderbans is thickly populated by the wild honey bee species, Apis dorsata, due to these sources and to good protection that is provided by thorny mangroves present in the swamps below.

Cultivated Vegetation


The intensity of agricultural cropping in the state is just the same as the average for India it is 16%. 70% percent of the total cultivated area occupies by paddy. Jute is the next important crop. Pulses including gram and peas cover hardly one-tenth of the cultivated land. Oil sedds occupies only trwo percent. Fruits of many types grown, in apples in Darjeeling, peach and pear in Kalimpong, Coconuts in 24, paraganas, Howrahand Midinapore; banana plantation in Singur and Chandernagore; Malda and Murshidabadare important producers of Mangoes; Litchi cultivated in 24, paraganos. Cultivation in Gangetic plains consists mainly of mustards, khesari, coriander, maize, orchards like coconuts, litchi, citrus, areca nut and rose-apple, provides good bee forage. plantations like Eucalyptus and Pongamia contribute to good honey production in this area. In addition, wild shrubs, herbs and vegetable crops (for seed production) provide forage that helps the development of beekeeping in the area.

Floral calendar

Efficiency of the bee-keeping Industry in any country primarily depends on proper utilization of the flora and its improvement so as to augment the component species providing bee-forage. This necessarily requires critical studies of the flora with emphasis on relative evaluation of the individual plant species as nectar or pollen sources. The breeding season of honeybees and honey flow season synchronizes with abundance of food sources in the form of nectar and pollen from profusion of flowering in the locality The field observations on the vegetation are important fore formulation of floral calendar to standardize management patterns of bee colonies. Of these observations most important are



  1. Flowering time and duration of bee forage plants.

  2. Relative importance and abundance of pollen and nectar

  3. Relative densities or area coverage.



Bee flora of West Bengal


Botanical name

Local name

Trade name

Flowering period

Pollen

Nectar

Acanthaceae

















Adhatoda vasica Nees

Basak

Vasaka

May - Jan

---

Minor

Hygrophila serpyllum (Nees) T. Anders

Kule Khara




Jul - Sep

---

Minor

Amaranthaceae

















Amaranthus spinosus Linn.

Kanta Notey

Prickly amaranthus

Jan - Feb

Minor

--

Anacardiaceae

















Spondias pinnata Kurtz.

Deshi Amrah

Hog-plum

Feb - Mar

---

Minor

Anacardium occidentale Linn.

Hijli Badam / Kaju

Cashew nut

Apl – May

Minor

Medium

Mangifera indica Linn.

Aam

Mango

Feb - Mar

Medium

Medium

Apiaceae

















Coriandrum sativam Linn.

Dhoney

Coriander

Jun - Feb

Major

Major

Daucas carota Linn

Gajar

Carrot

Mar - Apr

Minor

--

Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

Mouri

Fennel

Nov - Mar




Minor

Apocyanaceae

















Alstonia scholaris R.Br.

Chhatim

Dita Bark

Oct - Dec




Minor

Arecaceae
















Areca catechu Linn.

Supari

Betel nut

Mar - Apr

Minor

--

Borassus flabellifer Linn.

Taal

Palmyra

Feb - Mar

Minor

--

Cocos nucifera Linn.

Narikel

Coconut

Jan - Dec

Major

Minor

Phoenix paludosa Roxb.

Hintal

---

Dec - Jan

Major

--

Phoenix sylvestris Roxb.

Khejur

Wild dates

Feb - Mar

Major

--

Asteraceae

















Ageratum conyzoids Linn.

Uchunti

Goat weed

May - Oct

Minor

Minor

Carthamus tinctorius Linn..

Kusum Phool

Safflower

Apr - May

Minor

Minor

Helianthus annuus Linn.

Surajmukhi

Sunflower

Jan – Feb

Major

Major

Botanical name

Local name

Trade name

Flowering period

Pollen

Nectar

Mikania scandens Hook.

Taralata

---

Dec- Jan




Medium

Parthenium hysterophorus Linn.

Congress grass

Congress grass

Mar - Dec

Minor

--

Tagetes erecta Linn.

Ganda

Marigold

Almost

Minor

Minor

Tridax procumbens Linn.

Tridaksha




Apr – Aug

Minor

----

Vernonia cineria Less

Kukshim

Purple fleabane

Nov – Dec

Minor

Medium

Barringtoniaceae

















Barringtonia acutrangula Gaertn.

Hijal

--

Apr-May, Oct-Dec

Minor

Major

Bombacaceae

















Ceiba pentadra Linn.

Swet Simul

Silk cotton

Dec – Jan

Major

Medium

Bombax ceiba Linn.

Shimool

Red Silk cotton

Dec – Jan

Medium

Minor

Brassicaceae

















Brassica juncea Linn.

Rai Sarisha

Mustard

Dec – Feb

Major

Major

Brassica napus Linn.

Sarisha

Rape seed

Nov – Jan

Major

Major

Raphanus sativus Linn

Mula, Mulo

Radish

Feb – Mar

Minor

Minor

Caesalpiniaceae
















Bauhinia variegata Linn.

Raktakanchan

Kanchan

Mar-Apr

Minor

Minor

Cassia fistula Linn.

Bandar lathi Sonajuri

Indian Laburnum

May – Jun

Minor

Minor

Cassia tora Linn.

Kalkasunda

--

Sep – Oct

Minor

--

Delonix regia Rafin.

Krishana- chura

Gul Mohar Flame tree

Apr – Jan

Medium

Minor

Tamarindus indica Linn.

Tentul

Tamarind

May – Jun

Minor

Major

Cleomaceae

















Cleome iscose Linn.

Holdey hurhure

Cleome

May – Aug

Minor

--

Combretaceae

















Quisqualis indica Linn

Brahmalata

Rangoon creeper

May – Aug

Minor

Minor

Botanical name

Local name

Trade name

Flowering period

Pollen

Nectar

Terminalia arjuna Wt. &Arn.

Arjun

Arjun

May – Jun

Medium

Medium

Terminalia bellerica Roxb.

Bhairah

Belleric myrobalan

Mar-Apr

Minor

Medium

Terminalia cattappa Linn.

Deshi Badam

Indian almond

Apr – May

Minor

Minor

Terminelia chebula Retiz.

Haritaki

Chebula

Feb-Mar

Minor

Minor

Commelinaceae
















Commelina benghalensis Linn.

Kansira

Commelina

Jul – Oct

Minor

Major

Cyanotis sp.

___

Cyanotis

Jan – Sep

Minor

--

Cucurbitaceae
















Citrullus lanatus Linn.

Tarbuj

Water melon

Feb – May

Medium

Medium

Cucumis melo Linn.

Karbuz

Musk melon

Apr – Jun

Minor

Minor

Cucumis sativus Linn.

Sasha

Kakadi

Feb – Sep

Medium

Minor

Cucurbita maxima Duchesne

Mitha kumrah

Pumkin

Feb – Sep

Medium

Minor

Luffa acutangula Roxb.

Jhinga

Ribbed guard

Apr-Aug

Minor

Minor

Luffa cylendrica MJRoem.

Dhundul

Cylendrical guard

May-Jul

Minor

Minor

Momordica charantia Linn.

Karola

Bitter Guard

Mar – Oct

Minor

Minor

Sechium edulis Sw.

Squash

Chow-chow

Mar – May

Medium

Minor

Trichosanthes dioca Roxb.

Patol

Pointed gourd

Feb – Oct

Minor

----

Cyperaceae
















Cyperus rotundus Linn.

Mutha

Nut grass

Nov – Feb

Minor

---

Dilleniaceae
















Dillenia indica Linn.

Chalta

Dillenia

Jun – Jul

Major

Minor

Elaeocarpaceae
















Elaeocarpus lanceolatus Roxb.

Bhatrachhe

---

Dec-Jan

Minor

Medium

Elaeocarpus sikkimensis


Bhatrachhe

---

Dec-Jan

Minor

Medium
  1   2   3   4   5


Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©atelim.com 2016
rəhbərliyinə müraciət