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Amal J. Fatani, Amany A. E. Ahmed, Rabab M. Abdel-Halim, Nozha A. Abdoon, Amal Q


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Title

Comparative study between the protective effects of Saudi and Egyptian antivenoms, alone or in combination with ion channel modulators, against deleterious actions of Leiurus quinquestriatus scorpion venom

Author-s

Amal J. Fatani , Amany A.E. Ahmed, Rabab M. Abdel-Halim, Nozha A. Abdoon,

Amal Q. Darweesh



Contact lnfo

aaldarweesh@ksu.edu.sa, mobile: 0567202156

Department

Optometry

Major

Pharmacology

citation

Toxicon 55 (2010) 773–786

Year of Publication

2010

Publisher

Toxicon

Sponsor

Elsevier Ltd

Type of Publication

Article in Scientific Periodical Specialized Journal

ISSN

0041-0101

URI/DOI

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0041010109005297

Full Text (Yes,No)

Yes

Key words

Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus; scorpion venom; Saudi and Egyptian scorpion antivenoms; Lidocaine; Nimodipine; Amiodarone

Abstract


This study compared efficacy of two polyvalent antivenoms (Saudi Arabian and Egyptian),

against lethality and pathophysiological changes of Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus

(LQQ) scorpion venom in mice. Additionally, the study examined whether treatment with selected ion channel modulators, lidocaine, nimodipine or amiodarone would be effective,

alone or combined with the antivenoms. The protein concentration of the Saudi antivenom was 1/3 of Egyptian, indicating lesser immunogenicity, while both preservative contents were within limits. In immunodiffusion experiments, both exhibited prominent precipitin bands indicating high concentrations of specific antibodies. Neutralizing capacities (60–70 LD50) stated on labels were confirmed. Both antivenoms significantly (P < 0.001) prolonged survival time (from 26.9 _ 1.18 min, 100% dead with venom to 224–300 min, 0–30% dead) of envenomed mice, whether injected iv before or 5 min after venom. Injection of either antivenom plus ion channel modulators, gave comparable results to that observed in mice treated with antivenoms alone. The Naþ channel blocker lidocaine and the Ca2þ channel blocker nimodipine on their own significantly protected the animals (P < 0.05), but to a lesser extent. The two antivenoms, significantly ameliorated the venom-evoked changes in serum LDH (P < 0.001) and CKMB (P < 0.01) plus cardiac TNFa and nitrate/nitrite levels (P < 0.001). When combined with lidocaine or nimodipine, the effects were not greater than antivenom alone. Moreover, the antivenoms ameliorated characteristic venom-evoked changes in the isolated perfused Langendorff hearts. Lidocaine and amiodarone were more effective than nimodipine. In Conclusion both Saudi and Egyptian antivenoms protected mice from the pathological and lethal effects of LQQ scorpion. Sodium and calcium channel blockers, lidocaine and nimodipine, may be useful when antivenoms are not available.




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