|Which answer is the best and why? Remember these were written with open notes given about 6-7 minutes to write. Grade each answer on a 10-point scale.
1) Magna Carta was a document defining the rights and obligations of the nobles. This document, issued in 1215, implied that the king had to consult w/ barons about certain customs. The king wasn’t above the law. It also said that freemen in the land had certain customs & rights & that the king had to uphold these customs.
2) The Magna Carta was a declaration from the king. It was his rules and regulation. This was an order by which the common people were supposed to follow. This had a major impact on how the government was formed and how it was run.
3) The Magna Carta was a charter written for a broader group of people. It was a written set of rules that would govern over the people in the west. Almost like a bill of rights, it applied to everyone. It went along with the new ways that kings and their government were ruling each other in the sense that it was now becoming an organized, recorded government. Boundaries were being set up physically and politically that everyone was expected to follow. This did now, however hinder the chance to expand territories or eradicate other political powers that seemed threatening.
4) After losing the battle of Bouvines, which was king John’s (r. 1199-1216) fight to get northern French territories back, the English barons wrote up the Magna Carta. John had raised vassals scutages a lot to try and pay for his army. The Magna Carta specifically listed what the nobles’ rights and customary obligations were. The king could not change these rules without first checking with the barons. Freemen were also given rights and customs. This document essentially said that the king was not above the law. His power was not absolute. John had to agree with this because his power was weakened from losing the battle. Agreeing to these terms further weakened his power.
1) Frederick Barbarossa came to power as a compromise between the Welfs and Staufers. He began to hire accountants and hire administrators to keep track of taxes and analyze profit. He also sent knights to keep the peace and deal with criminals. Ruling became a difficult balancing act, he forced the nobles to be his vassels, but he had to give up power and let these nobals have a lot of power in their lands.
2) Frederick I Barbarossa was elected king by the 2 families Welfs and Staufers who were engaged in civil war. Barbarossa was the son of a Welf mother and a Staufer father. He was hoped to bring peace between the 2 families. He was able to unite the princes to have some power but ultimately they were his vassals. He married Beatrice of Burgundy and her vast estates gave him a good political and territorial base. Barbarossa and Pope Hadrian IV had disputes regarding Italy. The pope gave him many gifts and honors and tried to make him a vassal to the papacy. Barbarossa continued to control and show his power in Italy. In 1167 the northern Italian cities joined with Pope Alexander III to form the Lombard League.
3) Barbarossa was the name of Frederick king of Germany. The name barbarossa is what people called him because of his red and blond hair and beard. Frederick was admired and remembered for being a stern ruler. Crimes such as rape and stealing were seen as crimes against the king. Strict punishments were given out such as hangings. Frederick also led in the Third Crusades.
4) Barbarossa: King Frederick of Germany was made ruler in 1152 as a way to end the civil war between two powerful German families, the Staufers and the Welfs. Barbarossa was related to both and proved to be an excellent leader in arousing public (German) support, but not as good at dealing with the Roman pope. After several semi-battles with Pope Hadrian IV over the power of the pope, Frederick sacked Italy. He appointed magistrates (podesta) to collect unfair (to the Italians) taxes and was driven out of Italy by the Lombard League, composed of the pope’s allies and angry Italian citizens.