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Unit 1

Task 1

Прочитайте текст про Гаррі Поттера. Потім прочитайте твердження 1-5 після тексту та визначте, чи вони вірні (T) або хибні (F) відповідно до змісту тексу. Приклад (0) вже виконано для вас.

Harry Potter

Harry is famous in the wizarding world for his encounter with the evil Lord Voldemort, one of the most powerful sorcerers of all time and the primary antagonist villain in the series, when he was just a year old. Voldemort mysteriously lost his powers in the encounter and was severely crippled, although he survived.

James and Lily Potter were killed in this incident in 1981 while protecting baby Harry from Voldemort's attack. James died first, and Lily's dying act - sacrificing herself to save her infant son - placed Harry under a spell of love and protection. Subsequently, Harry survived the Avada Kedavra or 'killing curse' which was cast against him by Voldemort. Due to a spell of love and protection attributed to Harry after his mother's act of sacrifice, Voldemort's attempt to kill Harry backfired; resulting in the loss of his po­wers, as well as exile and eventual decline from a position of power and fear in the wizarding world. This event led to Harry being heralded as a celebrity - "The boy who lived"; due to him being the only person to ever survive the Avada Kedavra curse - a lightning shaped scar being the sole remnant of the incident.

Despite the fact that Harry survived Voldemort's attempted murder, he still has no recollection as to why Voldemort lost his powers. In "Harry Potter and The Chamber of Secrets", Harry confirms this fact when he questions Voldemort.

After the death of his parents, Harry was left with the only family he had left - his mother's sister and her husband Petunia and Vernon Dursley in a small town in Surrey, England, called Little Whinging. They neglected him in favour of their own son and in their attempt to remove all traces of his magical self to make him 'normal', kept him fully isolated from the wizarding world.

  1. Harry's parents were killed by the evil Lord Voldemort.

  2. James and Lily Potter couldn't help their son to survive 'killing curse" which was cast on him by Voldemort.

  3. Voldemort lost his powers because of Harry's mother placed her son under a spell of love and protection.

  4. Harry had a lightning shaped scar, the reminder of the Avada Kedavra curse sur­vival.

  5. Harry Potter lived a happy life at his mother's sister.

  6. His aunt and uncle wanted Harry to keep away from the wizarding world.

Task 2

Прочитайте текст про статую Зевса в Олімпії. Для запитань (1-5) виберіть відповідь (A, B, C, або D), яка на вашу думку найкраще підходить відповідно до змісту тексту. Приклад (0) вже виконано для вас.

The Statue of Zeus at Olympia is one of the classical Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

That was the statue of god in whose honour the Ancient Olympic Games were held. It was located on the land that gave its very name to the Olympics. The ancient Greek calen­dar started in 776 BC, for the Olympic Games started that year. The Temple of Zeus was designed by the architect Libon and was built around 450 BC. Under the growing power of Ancient Greece, the simple temple seemed too dull and modifications were needed. The solution: a majestic statue. The Athenian sculptor Pheidias was assigned for the 'sacred' task.

The seated statue occupied the whole width of the temple where it was housed and was 40 feet (12 metres) tall. Zeus was a sculpture, made of ivory and accented with gold plat­ing. He was seated on a magnificent throne of cedar wood, inlaid with ivory, gold, ebony, and precious stones. In Zeus' right hand there was a small statue of Nike, the goddess of victory, and in his left hand, a shining sceptre on which an eagle perched.

The circumstances of its eventual destruction are a source of debate: some scholars argue that it perished with the temple in the 5th century AD, others argue that it was car­ried to Constantinople, where it was destroyed by a severe fire.

Today nothing remains at the site of the old temple except rocks and debris, the foun­dation of the building, and fallen columns.

0. The ancient Olympic Games were held to honour C .

A the ancient Greek calendar

B the growing power of Greece

C God Zeus

D victory

  1. The Statue of Zeus was built _____.

A at the same time with the temple of Zeus

B earlier than the temple

C later than the temple

D not for the temple

  1. Zeus was a sculpture made of_____.

A ivory covered with gold

B gold

C ebony and precious stones

D ivory, gold, ebony, and precious stones

  1. He carried _____ in his hands.

A a statue of Nike

B a statue of the goddess of victory and a sceptre

C a shining sceptre

D an eagle

  1. The temple was destroyed by_____.

A the earthquake

B flood
C volcano

D a severe fire

  1. The temple of Zeus was built to_____.

A show the power of ancient Greece

B celebrate the beginning of the Olympic Games

C to honour Zeus

D worship gods
Task 3

Прочитайте текст про нове диво. Підберіть заголовки (A-F) до абзаців (1-5). Один заголовок зайвий.
A The Largest Art Deco Statue in the World

B The Design Process

C A Symbol of the Faith and Hospitality

D The Search of Wonders Continues

E Material for the Monument

F Honouring the Independence of Brazil

o. D

Wonders differ. Some remind us of the greatest historical events, some of the greatest people who have left their mark on the map of mankind. The search for the new wonders of the world continues. The Statue of Christ the Redeemer in Rio de Janeiro is in the list of the 21 finalists of the New Seven Wonders International contest.


All-embracing Christ stands on the top of a hill as the Redeemer, and His sight encompass­es the world. Although this could be a vision out of the book of Revelation, it is actually a description of the Christo Redentor monument overseeing the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.


In 1921, to celebrate the centennial of Brazilian independence, the city decided to erect a monument to Christ. Sketches were done and rejected; sites were studied and debated, until the statue that we see today was approved and designed by an engineer Heitor da Silva Costa with the help of a sculptor Carlos Oswald. Next, because it is the highest point of the hills in Rio, and because a train line ran to its top, Corcovado Hill (710 m) was final­ly chosen as the site. All that remained was to build the monument.


This turned to be quite an engineering challenge. The design fit the height and the width of the statue into an imaginary square space 30 metres from side to side. The stress of the arms is enormous, and at the time, technology to build the statue did not exist in Brazil. Drawings were sent to France, where a Polish sculptor Paul Landowski (whose statue of David had won the Prix de Rome in 1900) produced the final design and arranged to have the arms, hands and face of Christ made in Paris. The statue was then assembled in Rio, standing on an eight-metre granite pedestal representing the globe. The statue's head weighs 35.6 tons and each outstretched arm of Christ weighs 57 tons.


The material chosen for the monument was soapstone, a rock that can withstand the ele­ments and, since it is very hard to crack or to deform, resist the geological instability of Corcovado. However, soapstone is also very easy to scratch, even with fingernail, so there was a concern from the very beginning how to protect the statue from vandalism.


The monument was opened on October 12, 1911. Since the original installation, which took five years, the statue of Christ the Redeemer has remained remarkably unchanged. Its surroundings, however, have been improved with new electrical illumination, a mo­dern railroad to reach the monument and lifts and escalators to spare the visitor the 220-step climb to the belvedere. Today, Cristo Redentor is visited by more tourists each year than any other attraction in Rio and stands as a symbol of the faith of its citizens and their warm hospitality.

Task 4

Прочитайте текст про повінь та розташуйте події (A-F) у правильному порядку. Пронумеруйте їх від 1 до 5.

Flood is a body of water that covers normally dry land. Most floods are harmful. They may destroy homes and other property and even carry off the topsoil, leaving the land bar­ren. Sudden and violent floods, which leave people little time to prepare, may bring huge losses. Rivers, lakes, or seas may flood the land. River floods are more common, though lake and seacoast floods can be more serious.

However, sometimes floods may be helpful. For example, the yearly floods of the Nile River built up the plains of Egypt and made the Nile Valley one of the most fertile regions in the world. These floods brought fertile soil from lands far to the south and deposited the soil on the Egyptian plains.

Most rivers overflow their normal channels about once every two years. When a river overflows land where people live, it causes a flood. Common causes of river floods include two much rain at one time and sudden melting of snow and ice.

Under such conditions, rivers may receive more than 10 times as much water as their beds can hold. Heavy rains, sometimes from thunderstorms, can produce flash floods if small rivers or streams rise suddenly and overflow. Flash floods occur chiefly in moun­tainous areas and do not allow much time for people to be warned of danger.

A flash flood at Rapid City, South Dakota, in 1972 killed 238 people along the Rapid Creek. Minor causes of flooding include bridges, piers, filled land, sand bars, and other obstacles to river waters.

In 1993 heavy rains in Midwest for about two months resulted in flooding along the upper Mississippi and the Missouri river system. The flood caused about 15 billion USD worth of damage and forced about 75,000 people from their homes.

The Huang He (Yellow River) in China is known for its tendency to overflow its banks. The river has been called 'China's sorrow' because its floods cause such a great destruc­tion. The worst Huang He flood ever recorded occurred in 1887. Nearly a million of people died in China after the river overflowed its banks.

A Flash floods occur chiefly in mountainous areas and do not allow much time for people to be warned of danger.

B The yearly floods of the Nile River made the Nile Valley one of the most fertile regions in the world.

C Flood is water that covers dry land.

D The Huang He in China overflows its banks causing a great destruction.

E Much rain and sudden melting of snow and ice cause river floods.

F Heavy rain for about two months in Midwest resulted in flooding and 15 billion USD worth of damage.










Іменники в англійській мові поділяються на злічувані (countable nouns) і незлічувані (uncountable nouns).

Злічувані іменники означають предмети, які можна полічи­ти: a chair стілець, an engineer інженер, a question запитання.

Незлічувані іменники — це назви речовин і багатьох абстрактних понять, які не піддаються лічбі: water вода, milk толоко, freedom свобода, friendship дружба та ін.

Злічувані іменники вживаються в однині (the singular) і множині (the plural). Незлічувані іменники множини не мають.

Більшість іменників у англійській мові утворюють множину додаванням до форми однини закінчення -(e)s.

a worker робітник – workers робітники

На письмі більшість іменників мають у множині закінчення -s. Закінчення -es додається, якщо:

а) іменник в однині закінчується на -s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -tch, -x:

a bus автобус — buses a lunch сніданок — lunches

a class клас — classes a watch годинник — watches

a bush кущ — bushes a box ящик — boxes

б) іменник в однині закінчується на -у з попередньою приголосною; при цьому у змінюється на і:

a story оповідання — stories

a fly муха — flies

в) іменник в однині закінчується на з попередньою приголосною:

a hero герой — heroes

a tomato помідор — tomatoes

Винятки: a piano рояль — pianos

a photo фото — photos


У деяких іменниках, що в однині закінчуються на -f або -fe, у множині f змінюється на v з додаванням закінчення -(e)s; буквосполучення -ves вимовляється [vz]:

a wife дружина — wives a leaf лист — leaves

a shelf полиця — shelves a calf теля — calves

a wolf вовк — wolves a knife ніж — knives

a half половина — halves a life життя — lives

Ці форми множини треба запам'ятати, тому що у багатьох іменниках цього ж типу множина утворюється за загальним правилом—додаванням закінчення -s без зміни f на v, наприклад:

a roof дах — roofs a kerchief хустка — kerchiefs

a chief ватажок — chiefs a safe сейф — safes

Множина деяких іменників утворюється зміною кореневого голосного (без додавання закінчення):

a man (чоловік) — men

a woman (жінка) — women

a foot (нога) — feet

a tooth (зуб) — teeth

a goose (гуска) — geese

a mouse (миша) — mice

Іменник child (діти) у множині має форму children. Множина іменника ох (бик)утворюється за допомогою закінчення -en — oxen.

Іменники sheep вівця, deer олень, swine свиня, fish ри­та та назви деяких порід риб мають однакову форму в однині множині:

So much snow had fallen that it killed half the sheep and even many of the deer.

Не caught a lot of fish.

Випало так багато снігу, що загинуло половина овець і навіть багато оленів.

Він спіймав багато риби.

Примітка. Форма fishes та вживається, коли йдеться про різні види риб.
Деякі іменники латинського і грецького походження зберігають форми множини, які вони мали в цих мовах:

a phenomenon(явище) — phenomena

a crisis (криза)— crises

a radius (радіус) — radii

У складних іменниках форму множини приймає лише головний іменник:

a daughter-in-law невістка — daughters-in-law

a school-mate шкільний товариш — school-mates

Якщо ж складний іменник утворений з інших частин мови, то закінчення множини додається в кінці слова:

forget-me-not незабудка—forget-me-nots

merry-go-round карусель — merry-go-rounds

В англійській мові, як і в українській, є іменники, зо вживаються тільки в однині або тільки в множиш.

Так, назви речовин, а також багато іменників, що виража­ють абстрактні поняття, вживаються тільки в однині: chalk крейда, silver срібло, peace мир, courage відвага та ін.

Деякі іменники в англійській мові вживаються тільки з однині, а відповідні їм іменники в українській мові мають форми однини й множини або навіть тільки множини, наприклад: advice порада, поради; knowledge знання; infor­mation інформація, відомості; news новина, новини; progress успіх, успіхи; money гроші.

До іменників, які в англійській мові вживаються лише в множині, належать, як і в українській мові, назви предметів, що складаються з двох рівних або подібних частин, наприклад: tongs обценьки, spectacles окуляри, trousers штани, scissors но­жиці та ін.

Тільки форму множини мають і деякі інші іменники, українські відповідники яких можуть вживатися в однині і множині, а деякі навіть тільки в однині, наприклад goods товар товари, clothes одяг, contents зміст, wages зарплата тощо.
Відмінок — це форма іменника, що виражає зв'язок цього іменника з іншими словами в реченні.

Присвійний відмінок відповідає на запитання whose? (чий?, чия?, чиє?, чиї?).

Присвійний відмінок однини утворюється додаванням до іменника апострофа і закінчення –s.fs] — після глухих приголосних, крім [s], [}], [tf]:

Jack's friends

друзі Джека

Kate's bag

сумка Kami

Olga's brother

брат Ольги

Якщо іменник в однині закінчується на -s, -ss, -x, то на пись­мі в присвійному відмінку додається здебільшого тільки апостроф, хоча звичайне позначення -'s також можливе; в обох випадках закінчення вимовляється [iz]:

James' (або James's) coat

пальто Джеймса

Karl Marx' (або Marx's) life

життя Карла Маркса

Якщо іменник у множині не закінчується на -s, то присвійному відмінку множини до нього додається лише апостроф:

the student— the students' meeting

Якщо іменник у множині не закінчується на -s, то його присвійний відмінок утворюється так само, як і в однині, тобто додаванням -'s: children's shoes.

Іменник у присвійному відмінку, як правило, стоїть перед іншим іменником і є означенням до нього. На українську мову він перекладається родовим відмінком іменника або присвійним прикметником: Peter's note-book зошит Петра, Петрів зошит.

У присвійному відмінку вживаються в основною іменники, що означають назви істот:

my friend's mother

мати мого друга

the hawk's nest

гніздо яструба

Крім назв істот, у присвійному відмінку вживаються: а) іменники, що означають час і відстань:

last week's salary

зарплата за минулий тиждень

two year's absence

дворічна відсутність

at a mile's distance

на відстані в одну милю

б) назви країн, міст, а також слова country країна; town, city місто; world світ; ocean океан; river річка:

Kyiv's parks

парки Києва

England's foreign trade

зовнішня торгівля Англії

the river's banks

береги річки

в) назви планет: the sun сонце, the moon місяць, the earth земля:

the sun's rays

промені сонця

the moon's surface

поверхня місяця

г) збірні іменники типу government уряд; party партія; army змія; crew команда, екіпаж; family сім'я; society суспільство, товариство:

the government's proposals

пропозиції уряду

the Society's members

члени товариства

Присвійний відмінок трапляється також у стійких сло­восполученнях, наприклад: a stone's throw незначна відстань, to one's heart's content досхочу.

Закінчення -'s додається не тільки до іменників, а й до займенників somebody, someone хтось; anybody, anyone хто-небудь; other, another інший; each other, one another один одного та до неозначено-особового займенника one (див. §350): someone's book чиясь книжка.

Закінчення -'s вживається також із словами today сьогодні; yesterday вчора; tomorrow завтра: yesterday's excursion вчо­рашня екскурсія.

Закінчення -'s може стосуватися також цілих словосполучень: Ann and Kate's room кімната Ані й Kami, Foreign Minister of Poland's speech промова міністра закордонних справ Польщі.

У таких випадках закінчення присвійного відмінка до­лається тільки до останнього слова (звичайно іменника).


Заповніть пропуски, використовуючи правильний варіант відповіді A, B, C, або D

Test 1

1. When I came into____ cottage, the family____ sitting round the table playing draughts. Draughts ____ their favourite game. They like to play ____ in the evenings.

A the Holley's, were, are, it

B Holleys, was, are, them

C the Holleys', were, is, it

D Holleys's, was, is, them

2. When he was going through a narrow passage between two ____, he heard ____, These were his neighbours, two____ girls.

A merrys-go-round, laugh, twenty-years old

B merry-go-rounds, a laugh, twenty-year old

C merry-goes-round, laughter, twenty-years old

D merry-goes-rounds, a laughter, twenty-year old

3. They decided to open a season. Though it was a fash­ionable party and the walls were decorated with ____ and ____, the majority of the guests____ wearing jeans and T-shirts.

A lilies-of-the-valley, forget-me-nots, were

B lily-of-the-valleys, forget-me-nots, were

C lilies-of-the-valley, forgets-me-not, was

D lilies-of-the-valleys, forgets-me-nots, was

4. The____ wife was wearing a plain white dress with a string of pearls that cost more than my____ salary.

A governor's-general, two years'

B governor-general's, two years'

C governor-general, two years

D governor's-general's, two-year

5. He pulled off his gloves and put onto the dressing table. She noticed that____ brand new. So ____ was his hat.

A it, it was

B it, they were

C them, it was

D them, they were

6. He conducted a lot of____ into____ but____ a failure.

A researches, hay fevers, they were

B research, hay fever, it was

C researches, hay fever, it was .

D research, hay fevers, they were

7. The proceeds of the campaign____ been spent on the construction of the Children's Care Centre. Roadworks ____ being held there to build a new ____ crossing.

A has, are, pedestrian's

B have, are, pedestrian

C has, is, pedestrians

D have, is, pedestrians'

8. Look, Mary is playing with the scissors! Take____ away from her, ____ may cut into her fingers.

A it, it

B them, it

C it, they

D them, they

9. Here ____ the pocket money my uncle has sent me today. ____ will be enough to settle all my debts.

A are, It

B is, They

C is, It

D are, They

10. The criteria____ too vague. If there were a sharper ____ to make our choice, I would be happy.

A is, criterion

B are, criterion

C is, criteria

D are, criteria

11. The latest news from the Middle East countries ____ disturbing. A close-up camera showed a man run­ning somewhere. His face was bruised and his clothes____ torn.

A was, was

B were, were

C was, were

D were, was

12. The premises ____ big enough, but the inspection tookthem a lot of____, and they had to drive home at ____.

A was, time, dusks

B were, times, a dusk

C was, times, dusk

D were, time, dusk

13. The price for____ has increased by ten____ in the last quarter. Lodgings____ very expensive nowadays.

A an accommodation, per cent, is

B accommodation, per cent, are

C accommodations, per cents, is

D accommodation, per cents, are

14. That species of birds____ migrant and ____ found in Africa in winter. Our surroundings ____ too severe for such birds and they leave____ early in September.

A is, is, are, them

B are, are, are, them

C is, is, is, it

D are, are, is, it

15. The crossroads at our supermarket ____ a dangerous place. The traffic lights will help both pedestrians and drivers to avoid accidents. The police____ to set ____ here.

A are, needs, them

B is, need, them

C are, needs, it
D is, need, it

16. Measles____ a dangerous disease and a lot of children catch____ at an early age.

A is, them C are, them

B is, it D arc, it

17. This____ the most effective means of production and ____ can be adjusted to your business in ____ time.

A is, it, two month's

B are, they, a two-months

C is, they, two-month

D is, it, two months'

18. The Azores____ are dark blue species that require ____ cultivation in temperate regions.

A forget-me-nots, greenhouse

B forgets-me-nots, greenhouse's

C forget-me-not, greenhouse

D forgets-me-not, greenhouse's

19. Reliable ____ about everyday clothing from the past ____ hard to obtain.

A evidences, are

B evidence, is

C evidences, is

D evidence, are

20. These species____ protected in national parks and____.

A is, game reserves

B are, game's reserves

C are, game reserves

D is, games reserves

Test 2

1. ____ depths are usually much greater than____ depths because of____ low density.

A Snow, rain, snow

B Snow's, rain's, snow's

C Snow, rain, snow's

D Snow's, rain, snow's

2. ____ are tiny white bells hanging from a single erect stem about 30 cm tall with the____ as a red berry.

A Lilies-of-the-valley, fruit

B Lilies-of-the-valley, fruits

C Lily-of-the-valleys, fruit

D Lily-of-the-valleys, fruits

3. There ____ a lot of machinery in the shop and skilled workers operated ____.

A was, them

B were, them

C were, it

D was, it

4. The____ was shaky and he decided to go to the sec­ondhand ____ store.

A leg's table, furniture's

B leg of the table, furniture's

C leg of the table, furniture

D leg's table, furniture

5. One hundred pounds ____ a large sum for her and she decided to put the money on her____ account.

A was, savings

B was, saving's

C were, savings

D were, saving's

6. Where____ Nick's pyjamas? ____ on the bed.

A is, It is

B are, They are

C is, They are

D are, It is

7. Bread and cheese____ his usual meal and he has been living on____ for two months.

A was, them

B are, it

C is, it

D is, them

8. His____ decreased because his salary was cut by 7____.

A earnings, per cent

B earnings, per cents

C earning, per cents

D earning, percentage

9. The producer presented his new film. The ____ show took____ time.

A two-series, three hour's

B two-serial, three hours

C two-series, three hours'

D two-series', three hour's

10. The story of the magnificent castle the guide told ____ us about was exciting.

A five-centuries-old

B five-century's-old

C five-century-old

D five-century-old's

11. This is the____ cloakroom, and that one is for____.

A ladies', gentlemen's

B lady's, gentlemen's

C ladies', gentlemen

D lady, gentlemen

12. The____ at the____ talks made a deep influence on everybody.

A Minister of Foreign Trade's speech, peace's

B Minister's of Foreign Trade' speech, peace

C Minister of Foreign Trade's speech, peaceful

D Minister of Foreign Trade's speech, peace

13. The official____ is a table containing the holy days, ____, and festivals of the church.

A Christian church calendar, saints' days

B Christian's church calendar, saint days

C Christian church's calendar, saint's days

D Christian's church's calendar, saints' days

14. The most beautiful ____ of carved jade in the form of ornamental pieces, such as vases, bowls, tablets, and statues, many of which are now____, were made in China.

A specimen, museum pieces

B specimens, museum pieces

C specimen, museum's pieces

D specimens, museum's pieces

15. Various____ of the____ are cereals, cultivated for their____, which is used as food.

A species, grass family, seed

B speci, grass family, seeds

C species, grass's family, seed

D speci, grass's family, seeds

16. The stone identified as a____ was the first step in opening the____ fields of that region, which have be­come the greatest in the world.

A 21-carats diamond, diamonds

B 21-carat diamond, diamonds

C 21-carat diamond's, diamond's

D 21-carat diamond, diamond

17. She was well aware of her extraordinary good looks, and was perfectly prepared to discuss____, just as a man seven____ high might talk of advantages and in­ conveniences of being tall.

A them, foot

B it, foot

C them, feet

D it, feet

18. There____ enough____ to suggest that job stress may increase a man's risk of dying from____ disease.

A are, evidences, hearts

B is, evidence, heart

C is, evidence, heart's

D are, evidence, heart

19. At its height in the early 1900s, the British Empire included over 20____ of the____ land area and more than 400____ people.

A percents, world, million

B percent, world's, millions

C percent, world's, million

D percents, worlds', million

20. The____ history goes back to 1808.

A state's newspaper's

B state's newspaper

C state newspaper's

D state newspapers'

Unit 1

Написання розповіді від першої особи

Використайте вирази, слова та словосполучення і напишіть оповідання під назвою «Вихідний, який мені запам’ятався» - "A Day Out to Remember" (обсяг 120-180 слів). Окрім поданих слів, використайте також власні ідеї.

"A Day Out to Remember"

Introduction (Вступ)

(Параграф 1) one afternoon last summer - friend came to your home - invitation - a bike ride

Main Body – (Основна частина)

(Параграф 2) made sandwiches - set off - early morning -country lanes - open fields - nice weather

(Параграф 3) field - stop for lunch - picnic - bull ran at us -left picnic - ran away – bull ate sandwiches -we watched from a distance
Conclusion – (Заключна частина)

(Параграф 4) hours later - back home -felt happy - tired -very hungry

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