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U. S. History Chapter 10 “Jacksonian Era” Review

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U.S. History - Chapter 10 “Jacksonian Era” Review

Part 1: Terms/People/Events – identify the event or person and / or its significance to the era…

1. Election of 1824 – J.Q. Adams, H. Clay, W. Crawford, A. Jackson…Jackson won popular / electoral vote, but J.Q. Adams wins election in House of Rep. with Clay’s help.

2. John Q. Adams- 6th Pres. of U.S. / Son of 2nd Pres. John Adams, Sec. of State under Monroe – becomes president in 1824 through what was called the “Corrupt Bargain” (see below) / Ineffective presidency due to the scandal.

3. Andrew Jackson- “Old Hickory”; President of the “common man”; Vetoed more bills than previous 6 presidents combined.

4. Henry Clay- Helped J.Q. Adams win election of 1824 (Corrupt Bargain) & became Adams’s Sec. of State. Known as the “Great Compromiser”, he devised the Compromise Tariff that ended the Nullification Crisis.

5. “Corrupt Bargain”- Deal between H. Clay & J.Q. Adams that enabled Adams to become Pres. In 1824 with Clay becoming his Sec. of State.

6. Spoils System- Benefits of winning! Jackson used this policy to reward people that helped him get elected by giving them Gov’t jobs.

7. John C. Calhoun- S.C. Congressman / Senator as well as Jackson’s 1st VP. He pushes for nullification of the 1828 / 1832 Tariffs causing the nullification crisis.

8. Nullification Doctrine- (States’ Rights Doctrine) Drafted by Calhoun…States should have the right to be able to nullify Federal policies that they don’t agree with.

9. Force Bill- Act of Congress that gave Jackson the power to use military, if necessary, to enforce Federal law.

10. Tariff- Tax on Imports (North favored high tariffs to protect growing U.S. businesses / South against tariffs because they relied on imports)

11. Compromise Tariff of 1833- Devised by Henry Clay – Reduced tariffs over a 10 year period, ending Nullification Crisis and avoiding Civil War.

12. Whig Party-Political Party formed in 1830s that opposed Jackson & favored a weak presidency.

13. Indian Removal Act- Passed by Congress under Jackson (1830). Tribes east of the Mississippi River were removed and forced to move to land west of the Miss. River (Oklahoma). Jackson argued it would be beneficial to the Native Americans…

14. Trail of Tears- Name given to the forced march of the Cherokee. Thousands died along the route due to disease, starvation, and exposure to the harsh winter conditions.

15. Cherokees-Native American tribe of the Southern Appalachian Mts. - impacted the most by the Indian Removal Act due to forced march west during the winter (Trail of Tears).

16. Depression (Panic) of 1837- Economic depression that developed after the National Bank was dissolved by Jackson.

17. Martin Van Buren- Jackson’s Sec. of State in 1st term / VP in 2nd term. Popularity dwindled due to Panic of 1837 (referred to as “Martin Van Ruin”, etc.) Lost re-election attempt to William Henry Harrison.

18. Election of 1840- Harrison (Whig) defeats Van Buren (Dem.). 1st time a Whig becomes President.

19. William H. Harrison- Military hero from the Battle of Tippecanoe (Fought Tecumseh) / 1st Whig Party President and served the shortest term of any president (1 month). 1st Pres. to die in office.

20. John Tyler- Harrison’s VP candidate in election of 1840 – became president upon Harrison’s death in 1841.

21. “Tippecanoe and Tyler too”- Campaign slogan for William H. Harrison drawing upon his war hero status.

22. “Old Hickory”- Andrew Jackson’s nickname because he was seen as a tough, rugged man.

23. Nicholas Biddle – National Bank Director that asked congress to renew the Bank Charter Bill opposed by Jackson.

Part 2: Analysis Questions-
23. Describe the results of the election of 1824 (The winner, the loser, voting process, etc…):

Adams won – defeating Jackson… Jackson had won the popular vote and electoral vote, but did not have enough votes to win. When the vote went to the House of Representatives, Adams defeated Jackson. Henry Clay endorsed Adams and later became his Sec. of State. Jackson supporters called this a “Corrupt Bargain” and felt that Adams and Clay had stolen the election from Jackson.

24. Why was the deal struck between Adams and Clay known as the “corrupt bargain?”

See above…Jackson supporters claimed that Adams and Clay made a deal where Henry Clay would influence members of Congress to vote for Adams. In exchange, Clay became Secretary of State.

25. Why was Jackson seen as a hero of the common man?

Jackson was a self-made man. He came from poverty (grew up in a log cabin), became a war hero, educated himself and became a successful lawyer, etc… Jackson represented the belief that Americans can make it through hard work and perseverance. He also believed the presidency should represent what the majority of Americans believed about government policies…

26. Summarize the Nullification Crisis with South Carolina. How was the crisis resolved?

The South opposed tariffs. John C. Calhoun (SC) spoke out, stating that states should have the right to nullify Federal policy that they did not agree with (States’ Rights Doctrine). South Carolina, therefore, refused to collect Federal tariffs. Jackson had congress pass the Force Bill, giving him the right to send in the military if necessary to enforce Federal law. Henry Clay devised the “Compromise Tariff” which reduced tariffs over a ten year period. This ended the crisis and avoided Civil War.

27. What was the trap Henry Clay set for Jackson in regard to the National Bank Charter Bill?

- Henry Clay planned on running against Jackson in the election of 1832, so Clay and Nicholas Biddle tried to get the Bank re-chartered early. Clay thought that if Jackson supported the Bill, he would lose votes in the South and West. If he opposed the re-charter, he would lose votes in the North.

- What did Jackson do?

- Jackson vetoed the charter, arguing that the bank was unconstitutional and corrupt since most investors were British. Most Americans agreed with Jackson. He defeated Clay easily in the election.

28. Why did the Whig Party form?

- Anti Jackson political party. They opposed a powerful presidency and portrayed Jackson as acting like a King & abusing his power. The Whig party got its name from an old English political party that opposed the monarchy. Whigs desired a weak presidency, with power residing in the Legislative Branch.

29. Describe the removal of the Indians from East of the Mississippi and explain Jackson’s motivation for removal (why did he do it?):

- The Indian Removal Act of 1830 was encouraged by Andrew Jackson. Native American tribes were moved from their lands east of the Mississippi River to areas in present-day Oklahoma. Jackson argued that it was actually beneficial to the Native Americans because they would be left alone in the west to live their traditional way of life without constant conflict from white settlers.

30. What brought about the Depression (Panic) of 1837 and how did Martin Van Buren deal with the problem?

- When the National Bank was dissolved by Jackson, money was redistributed to state banks. These banks were mismanaged, however, causing a panic in which people were afraid they would lose their money. An economic depression resulted. Martin Van Buren believed that that situation would work itself out and did nothing. This caused his popularity to greatly decrease (“Martin Van Ruin,” etc.) and he lost his re-election attempt in 1840 to the Whig, William Henry Harrison.

31. Describe the results of the election of 1840:

- William Henry Harrison defeated Martin Van Buren. Used numerous campaign slogans (“Van Van is a used up man,” Tippecanoe and Tyler Too…”) and “log Cabin” campaign to portray Harrison as a “common man” / Van Buren blamed for Economic depression (1837) - 1st Whig elected president (died 1 month after taking office.)

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