Figure 4.1 Energy Use in Clinker Production
Source: EIE, Cement Sector Comparison Study; 2) International Energy Agency/OECD, Energy Technology Transitions for Industry, 2009, Chapter 3 Cement, Figure 3.7
Box 4.4 Cost of Compliance in Cement Sector
According to the industry, a 15% waste to energy substitutions would cost $750 million and result in one percent in CO2 emissions reduction (3 million tons).
In addition, the estimated cost of reducing chromium to EU-mandated levels (2ppm/ton of cement) is $5-9/ton of cement, compared to an average product price of $ 70-100/ton.
Source: Sector Note & Focus Group Meetings
Given the complexity of the construction sector, only cement was considered as part of the analysis.
Both globally and in Turkey, the cement industry is a major emitter of carbon (5% of total GHG emissions). With 67 production facilities (48 fully integrated and 19 grinding and packaging facilities) and an 80-million-ton capacity, Turkey is among the top 10 cement manufacturing countries and a leading world cement exporter. In 2010, production reached 65.7 million tons, and domestic sales reached 49.5 million tons, a 10% and 16% increase respectively from 2009. In addition to a large internal market, Turkey is also a major exporter of cement (over 16 million tons in 2010 with a value of about one billion US dollars).
While the local housing industry will continue to be a growth engine for the construction sector in the short and medium term, ongoing energy investments mainly in Hydroelectric Power Plants (HEPP) and road works are also expected to lead a steady increase in infrastructure investments. For example, the Turkish government is planning a number of ambitious urban transformation projects in the largest metropolitan areas of the country. It is estimated that in the coming years, the urbanization rate of Turkey will increase.
Key pollution issues in the sector with direct health impacts include high levels of chromium (a heavy metal) with concentrations of 30 ppm/ton, fifteen times the level called for by the EU REACH Directive, and high levels of CO2, NOx, dust, and sulphur emissions. In addition, the sector also produces solid and hazardous waste and is subject to regulation on waste incineration.
While the cement sector has undergone significant modernization, there remains potential for additional greening, including in terms of resource use and efficiency and pollution reduction. In terms of energy use, the cement sector is already close to Best Available technology (BAT) performance in terms of energy output efficiency (Figure 4.1). Success in this sector is due in large part to the fact that most production facilities are either new or have undergone technology upgrades. But potential still exists to: (i) reduce energy use through by switching to alternative fuels and increasing energy efficiency, (ii) increase the efficiency of waste heat recovery, and (iii) increase the use of recycled materials and wastes as alternative energy generation—and savings—sources.
65. With respect to pollution mitigation, in addition to measures required in order to comply with the EU IPPC Directive, there is scope for reducing CO2 emissions from combustion of fossil fuels and the quality of raw materials used in the production of cement. However, costs and benefits need to be carefully weighed as the initial compliance investment estimates obtained for this study are in some cases prohibitive (Box 4.4). In addition, while waste producers may be willing to sell their waste for energy conversion, the switch by the cement industry will only happen if it is cost effective, and if the institutional environment provides incentives/regulation to allow/induce municipalities to divert combustible waste and sludge to be used for energy generation.
4.5 Machinery Industry
With a total production of about USD 25 billion, a contribution to GDP of nearly 4.5%, and approximately 200,000 jobs, the machinery industry holds a strategic place in Turkey’s economic development. In addition, because of its’ wide span (agriculture, electrical, food, construction mining, and textile machinery), the sector’s multiplier effect is important for encouraging investment and demand for intermediate goods and services. It also has considerable impact on national competitiveness as a whole. Since 1990, the industry has consistently grown about 20 percent per annum21, a growth that has relied largely on highly competitive and lean Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), which have formed the backbone of Turkey’s industrial production.
As a driver of growth in the sector and in Turkey’s overall industrialization, Turkish SMEs have distinguished themselves in the global market by harnessing Turkey’s low-cost/high-skilled human capital. Turkey’s machinery sector receives around 85 percent of input from domestic supply, reducing the dependency on foreign sources and helping other local industries.
Turkey’s machinery industry is, to a large extent, labor-intensive, and is expected to remain so in the near future. The character of Turkey’s labor workforce has played a major role in the competitive might of its machinery sector, guaranteeing competitiveness through low-cost labor and engineering services. Without a significant leap towards a capital-intensive model, however, Turkey’s machinery industry cannot compete on a global scale. At present, the overall advantage Turkey’s machinery industry lies in its accumulation of companies with different capabilities, strategies and products, which provides the overall industry a technological edge.
Combining engineering know-how with a low-cost/high-skill workforce, the Turkish machinery industry has managed to offer a range of products and components that are both high quality and affordable. The sector has also expanded its share in Turkey’s exports, steadily growing towards a 10% share of total exports. Germany, France, the UK, Italy and Iran are all major export destinations for Turkish machinery products. However, machinery imports continue to exceed exports; these come mostly from China, Germany, Italy, France and the USA. The industry has ambitious goals of exporting US$ 100 billion with a share of 2.3 percent of the global market by 2023 (requiring a sector compound annual growth rate of 17.8%), attracting higher levels of FDI, and increasing investment in R&D, training, and quality and certification systems.22
Area for improvement
In terms of resource use and environmental footprint, the sector’s contribution is not well assessed and documented, as it is made up of thousands of SMEs.23 However, the nature of the production processes are indicative of the fact that the sector should be a candidate for energy audits to identify potential energy efficiency and/or fuel substitution measures, as well as measures to reduce and recycle waste materials (especially metals and plastics), wastewater, solid waste, and hazardous substances. Finally, while the industry is clearly aware of the technological gap it needs to bridge to achieve its ambitious global-player goal, it suffers from lagging R&D investments, lack of qualified workforce in certain areas, and a cost-effective greening strategy that would enhance its competitiveness.