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This is a set of short biographies of some of the major Palestinian political leaders since 1967

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Kamal al-Sharafi: PA minister of health from Apr03. b.1955, Jabalya camp. Trained as a teacher in Ramallah before his medical degree at the University of Bulgaria. He went onto work as a surgeon, and was a prominent member of the PFLP. Elected to PLC (Jabalya), where he briefly served as chair of the committee on human rights and public freedoms.

Abd al-Rahman al-Sharif: governor of the Nablus district under Jordanian rule.

Nabil Sha‘th: External Affairs minister in the PA from Apr03, previously serving as Minister for Planning & International Cooperation from 1994, coordinating PA negotiating team & member of final status negotiating team. b.1938, Safad, of a Gazan father and a Lebanese mother. Refugee into Egypt (became an Egyptian citizen in 1965), & studied in Alexandria; then PhD in economics from Wharton School, Pennsylvania Uni. Worked as an industry consultant & management trainer (heading a company called TEAM) in Alg, Kuwait, Saudi, Lebanon &c; & taught at AUB. Member of PLO-CC since 1970; an adviser to Fatah from 1971, then head of PLO planning centre (1971-81); credited (eg by Abu Mazin) as being the founder of the Democratic State approach. Was head of 1st Palestinian delegation to the UN; & serves as chair of PNC political committee. Appointed to Fatah-CC in Mar90 / May 1991 (to replace Abu Iyad - ??). Member of the Madrid delegation, & took leading role in Oslo process: held meeting with Yossi Sarid in Jul93 (the 1st meeting between a PLO leader & an authorised Israeli cabinet member) to agree the Gaza-Jericho formula; wrote a Palestinian draft DoP for the Oslo agreement. PLO's chief negotiator at Taba talks from Oct93. PLC member for Khan Yunis. Criticised for extensive corruption by the PLC (1997), with PLC commission of inquiry finding evidence of criminal corruption (Aug98); but continued to play a leading role in Palestinian negotiating team. Heads the committee on national reconstruction, established after Mar-May02 onslaught.

Azzam al-Shawwa: PA minister of energy and prominent banker. b.1963, Kuwait, obtaining a BSc in Maths at the University of Memphis. Worked as head of the Bank of Palestine in the Gaza Strip, and then as the Gaza Branch coordinator of the Arab Bank. Has also served as the Treasurer of the Palestine Investment Fund; the Secretary-General of the Palestine Banking Association; President of the Gaza Sporting Club; President of Atfaluna (the Society for Deaf Children in Gaza); and a member of the Board of Directors of the Spanish-Palestinian Training Institute.

Rashad al-Shawwa: (1908-88), leading citrus merchant & landowner appointed mayor of Gaza by Israel in Sept71 [role from Oct70?] to quell disturbances. Articulated support for SCR242 from Apr72 & UAK plan from Jul72, in order to build links with Jordan; seems to have acted as an intermediary between Jordan & Israel. Dismissed on 23Oct72 after disobeying a military government order to provide services to al-Shati refugee camp. Reappointed Oct75, staying in power until his dismissal of 9Jul82. Conservative, maintaining close relations with Jordan, supporting Gaza’s integration into a United Arab Kingdom. Set up a Benevolent Society (al-Kharaiyya) in Gaza, to provide services to Gazans & ensure his continued control; also established the Shawwa Cultural Centre. The permit system for leaving the Gaza Strip ("Shawwa passports") were widely resented due to the personal controls he had over their allocation. Though pledged support to the PLO, was persistently criticised by them, with numerous assassination attempts (esp 4Sept72, when shots were fired at his car). From 1977, and his belated support, firstly for an independent Palestinian State (in signing Sept77 petition, unlike his earlier rejection of this goal) & his rejection of Begin's autonomy proposals (esp at public rally of Oct78); came into an alliance with Fatah leadership, who tried (unsuccessfully) to install him as the head of the NGC (1979) and placed him on the Council of Higher Education (1980). After his dismissal, he signed the (unreleased) "Palestinian Peace Document" of Nov82 which recognised the PLO as the sole legitimate representative, but urged them to authorise King Husayn to negotiate on Palestinians' behalf and to accept a confederation with Jordan. Eventually died of a heart attack on 28Sept88.

Ahmad al-Shaybi: b.1945. Fatah member of PLC for Khan Yunis. A physician and former health consultant at the Health Ministry, he was appointed as minister for health on 29Oct02. Lost position in the Apr03 reshuffle.

Husayn al-Shaykh: Sec-Gen of Fatah Higher Committee in the West Bank since Marwan Barghuthi's capture in Apr02. A veteran of the 1st intifada, spending almost 10 years in Israeli prisons. In Fatah's series of internal election in the late 1990s to select delegates to a Fatah General Conference (which never occurred), he received the highest number of votes in Ramallah in March 1999 (defeating Barghuthi). Was installed as leader of Fatah Higher Committee in 2000 to replace Barghuthi, a move that went unrecognised in most of Fatah until Barghuthi's capture. Has strongly supported Fatah remaining with the resistance organisations; and strongly criticised the May02 deal that deported Palestinians from the Church of the Nativity. His house in Ramallah was raided by Israeli forces in Jun02. Pioneered the projected unilateral ceasefire statement that was aborted when Israel bombed Gaza on 22Jul02. Extensive interview on reform of Fatah of 27Jun02 is here.

Muhammad Eid Shbayr: former president of IUG. b.1946. Studied microbiology at West Virginia University, gaining his PhD in 1990 for his thesis "Gardnerella vaginalis hemolysin: isolation, characterization and in vitro effects on polymorphonuclear leukocytes". Went onto head IUG for 15 years, retiring in 2005. Close to Hamas, but claims not to be a member. Suggested by Hamas as a compromise between Hamas & Fatah for the prime ministerial position of a national unity government in November 2006.

Azmi Shu‘aybi (‘Azmi Salih Muhammad al- Shu‘aybi): member of PLC (Fida) & PLO-CC. A dentist (& long-time leader of Ramallah Dentists Association); began on al-Bira municipal council (elected in 1976 on a pro-PLO slate), member of NGC & has had an active role in DFLP as central committee member & PNC delegate after he was deported by Rabin under Iron Fist policies in 1985. Returned in 1993, became member of Fida, & led a pro-Fatah section within it; served as PA minister for youth & sports until May96, & was the only member of Fida to be elected to PLC (largely due to Fatah support: he was placed on the Fatah list in Ramallah). Has since served as chair of PLC budget committee. Strong proponent of democratisation.

Jamal al-Shubaki : PA minister; PLC member for Hebron (Fatah); head of PLC economic committee; member of PLO-CC. b.1952, Ithna, from a refugee family from Bayt Jibrin. BA in geography from AUB. A prisoner from 10 years, he is on the PA committee for political prisoners. Member of Fatah-RC. Key ally of Marwan Barghuthi in Hebron; joined criticism of PA reforms in Aug98 & criticised ‘Arafat's autocratic tendencies in 1999. Was appointed minister for local government in Apr03, retaining his position in the emergency government from Oct03.

Abd al-Majid Shuman: leading Palestinian businessman. From Bayt Hanina, the son of the founder of the Arab Bank (which was established in 1930 in Jerusalem), and has gone on to be the chair of its board of directors. Member of the first PLO-EC, heading its financial department and the PNF until Sept69. Became a vocal critic of Ahmad Shuqayri's leadership of the PLO, and who is credited by some with forcing Shuqayri's resignation. Since then, set up the Jerusalem Development & Investment committee, to help finance the continuation of the Palestinian community in Jerusalem.

Hanna Siniora: journal editor & Jerusalem leader. b.1937, Jerusalem. Trained as a pharmacist in India, grad 1969. Editor of al-Fajr from 1974, taking over after Yusuf (Joe) Nasr disappeared, due to his familial connections with the publisher & US citizen, Paul Ajluni; ed. in chief 1983-93. Also established al-Usbu‘a al-Jadid, a pro-PLO journal, appearing intermittently from 31Mar78, becoming a weekly from 1982 & a bi-monthly from 23Nov88; allowed to circulate in the West Bank only from 1991. 3rd periodical was al-Mawkef, published weekly from 1Jan85 to 1Apr87, under joint editorship with Zuhayr al-Rayyes; Israel only allowed circulation in E.Jerusalem, & pol disagreement between editors led to its demise. An advocate of cooperation with Israelis to improve Palestinian wellbeing, he pushed for the extension of Israeli rights to Palestinians, culminating in his call for Palestinian participation in Jerusalem elections, & his announcement that he was standing in the Jerusalem municipal council elections in 1988. Withdrew under strong pressure from the PRM, including the firebombing of his cars by the PFLP (21Jun87). Was also deemed by both Israel & the PLO to be an acceptable interlocutor as part of a joint Jordanian-Palestinian delegation in late80s, thus representing Palestinian interests to visiting US & UN officials. Has gone on to found the Jerusalem Times & the New Middle East Magazine (established mid 1994) and is head of the European-Palestinian Chamber of Commerce. Signatory to 20Jun02 statement in al-Quds appealing for an end to suicide bombings.

Sa‘id Siyam: a teacher and leading Hamas official in the Gaza Strip, believed to be on the 3-person leadership council in Palestine from Apr04.

Muhammad Subayh: Palestinian representative to the Arab League, and Secretary-General of the PNC from at least 1994 (and so co-opted on the PLO-CC). Takes a role in coordinating negotiations between Palestinian factions held under Egyptian auspices.

Mazin Sunqrat: leading businessman from Ramallah, a non-aligned Islamist. Studied at Nottingham Uni, UK, graduating in Production Engineering and Industrial Management in 1980. Has been CEO of Sinokrot Global Group since 1982. Believed to have liberal economic views. Full list of past positions here.

Jamal al-Surani: PLO’s former representative in Cairo; secretary of PLO-EC until Apr96, when left due to opposition to Oslo & amending the PN Charter until Israel gave reciprocal recognition of Palestinian rights.

Zuhair al-Surani: former PA minister of justice. b.1935, Gaza, studied law in Egypt before going on to work as an attorney and judge in the Gaza Strip. A veteran independent lawyer, he became attorney-general and a member of the Palestinian higher judiciary council before being appointed PA minister for Justice on 29Oct02. Lost position in Apr03.

Abd al-‘Aziz Suwayti: nationalist mayor of Jericho from 1976.

Hasan Tahbub: Director-General of the Waqf Administration prior to 1992; from 1992, became head of the Supreme Islamic Board; and in late94, was appointed head of the Religious Affairs portfolio in the PA. Died on 27Apr98.

Salah al-Ta‘mari: see ‘Abd al-Qadir, As’ad.

Zuhdi Tarazi: former PLO representative to the UN in the 1970s; critic of Oslo. Independent member of PLO-CC. An Orthodox Christian, he was famously allowed to attend a Christian conference in the US on the condition that he didn’t speak. A brief consultation between him & Andrew Young, the US ambassador to the UN under Carter, also led to the latter’s sacking.

Jamil Tarifi (Jamil Yusif Muslih al-Tarifi): PA Minister of Civil Affairs from 9May96-29Oct02; PLC member for Ramallah (independent). Fatah member; was deputy mayor of al-Bira (1976-82), & member of Palestinian delegation to Madrid talks. Seen as a leader of the business community in Ramallah; his family own a construction company that builds Israeli settlements. Before his ministerial appointment, served as was the head of the PA's Civil Affairs Department in the West Bank. PLC commission of inquiry found evidence of his criminal corruption (Aug98). Was a member of the safe passage negotiating team. A nephew, Wasim, was shot dead by PA forces when protesting against the seizure of Fatah's weapons in the aftermath of the Wye deal in Oct98. His reputation for corruption was a major point for criticism of the PA cabinet in Sept02, and he was removed on 29Oct02, but kept role as head of a "bureau" of civil affairs.

Ibrahim Tawil (Ibrahim ‘Ali Sulayman Tawil). b.1943. Pharmacist & mayor of al-Bira from 1976. Narrowly avoided being maimed in May80 car bombs, instead being placed under house arrest from Aug80. Dismissed & replaced with Israeli official on 13Mar82.

Jawad al-Tibi: b. 1959, Khan Yunis. Trained as a surgeon. Member of Fatah, imprisoned by Israel for 8 years. Elected as PLC member for Khan Yunis, and brought into emergency cabinet of Oct03 as PA minister for health. Cousin of Ahmad Tibi, formerly a member of the Israeli Knesset.

Qadri Tuqan: Nablus politician & writer. b.1911, BA in Maths from AUB. Teacher, later principal, of al-Najjah. Deputy in Parliament from early50s; member of the Executive Committee of the National Conference, demanding the return of the Nabulsi government, in 1957; & served as a minister in the Jordanian government in 1964 as foreign minister. Author of noted books: Ba‘d al-Nakba (After the catastrophe; Beirut: Dar al-Ilm Lilmalayeen, 1950), on how must encourage present generation to revive past glories; reform of Arab society through educational system: need reform of curricula in Arab schools to reflect a “philosophy which derives its content & strength from Arab history & the Arab present” (p.26); Wa’y al-Mushtakbal (Comprehending the future), which was more critical of Arab inaction in the face of the problem of Palestine = both books addressed to all Arab people & stress the importance of science. Died in Feb71 whilst on a visit to Beirut.

Kamal ‘Udwan [Abu Hisham]: founding member of Fatah. b.1925, refugee from Barbara village, he played an active role in the Pop Resistance Front that emerged in Gaza after Israeli occupation in 1956-7, & was arrested by Israeli forces. Then worked as a teacher in Qatar (late50s) & then trained as a petroleum engineer in Cairo. Attended PNC in 1964, calling for popular liberation war. Took over Fatah’s leadership of the occupied homeland bureau in Sept71, and became a member of Fatah-CC; also thought to have a key role in establishing the Black Sept Org. Was killed in the Israeli raid on Beirut on 10Apr73.

Sa’ib ‘Urayqat (Sa’ib Muhammad Salih ‘Urayqat): Political scientist, head of PLO negotiations department and PA minister. b.1955 in Abu Dis, but grew up in Jericho. BA,MA in polsci from San Francisco Uni; PhD in peace studies from Bradford Uni, UK, on the role of Opec in the Arab-Israel conflict; taught at al-Najjah from 1979 (& was also director of public & external relations for them 1982-6). On the editorial board of al-Quds for 12 years from 1982, & convicted for “incitement” in an Israeli military court when an article of his urged resistance to the occupation (16Jul87). Was also S-G of Arab Studies Society; & became a member of Fatah-RC & the PLO-CC. Served as vice-chair of Palestinian delegation to Madrid, then head of interim negotiations with Israel; has often resigned, eg, on 8Aug93 as secret Oslo negotiations were revealed; and 22Sept98 to protest at ‘Arafat’s negotiating style, but always withdrawing his resignation. Served as minister for local government from 1994 to Apr03 & PLC member (Fatah) for Jericho. Mahmud ‘Abbas has sought to demote him to the position of minister without portfolio from Apr03, before a compromise was reached to keep him as "negotiations minister". He resigned this position on 16May03 after being sidelined by ‘Abbas, although retained his PLO position. Reappointed to the emergency cabinet under Ahmad Qurai', Oct03.

Abd al-Aziz al-Wajih: former PLA commander. b.1927, Iksal nr Nazareth; educated there and at Khaduri Agricultural College nr Tulkarm, from which he graduated as an agricultural engineer in 1946. Trained in the military academy at Aleppo, Syria; graduated as a first lieutenant in 1949, and served in the Syrian Army until 1959. Had a key role in establishing the Palestinian Liberation Army which he commanded until 1968, also commanding the Popular Liberation Forces until 1970. From 1970, he trained at the Soviet Military Academy, graduating in 1971 with the rank of Colonel in the general staff; returned to resume command of the PLA. Elected member of the PLO-EC in Jun74, serving at the Department of Popular Organizations until his death on 6May76.

Intisar al-Wazir [Umm Jihad]: long-term leader of Palestinian women's movement. b.1941/42 in Gaza City, BA in history from Damascus Uni. Joined Fatah in late 1950s, & was in 1965 a founding member of GUPW which she continued to take a leading role in. Served as head of the PLO's soc welfare institute, the Families of Martyrs foundation, for many years. Member of PNC since 1974, PLO-EC since 1988, Fatah-CC since Aug89, & continuing independent member of the PLO-CC. Became PA minister for social affairs (and gaining responsibility for prisoner affairs in Jun02), PLC member for Gaza city. Widow of Khalil al-Wazir.

Khalil al-Wazir [Abu Jihad]: Founding member of Fatah. b.Oct1935-6, Acre / Ramla[?]; a 1948 refugee from Ramla. In Gaza, joined Muslim Brotherhood in 1951 & joined a paramilitary wing, Katibat al-Haq, from which he organised independent cells which launched attacks from Gaza from 1954; was imprisoned for this by Egypt. Joined Cairo uni from mid56, linking up with ‘Arafat to lay basis for Fatah. Worked in the Gulf in early60s & acted as Fatah military chief, moving to Algiers to supervise Fatah training camp in 1964. Developed PLO relations with Jordan, Syria & Saudi; & was key in developing relations with OTs as the head of the OH bureau (until 9/71 & again after 4/73). Appointed Fatah’s commander-in-chief in Sept71, and official deputy leader at Fatah’s 1980 congress. From 1979, was head of PLO's side of the Jordanian-Palestinian joint committee. Assassinated in his Tunis home, 16Apr88.

Abd al-Razzaq Yahya: General. b. Tantura, nr Haifa, 1929. Trained as a military strategist; served as chief operations officer & then deputy chief-of-staff of the PLA brigade in Syria pre-67. From Aug68, led attempt to make PLA Syria brigades more independent of Syrian control, & was made PLA chief-of-staff by PLO-EC. But with Syria opposed, he resigned to become military advisor to PLO-EC from 1969 & chief-of-staff of PASC (Feb69). Reappointed to PLA as commander-in-chief by PLO-EC in Jun69; & with 'Arafat taking this role in Sept70, became chief-of-staff of all Palestinian forces. Due to Syrian pressure, was replaced in 1971. Became director of PLO's political department (1971-6); member of PLO-EC (1984-91). Headed security committees in talks with Israel from 1993, including in final status talks; also headed negotiations on Hebron security arrangements & Safe Passage. Appointed as Interior Minister on 9Jun02, charged with overhauling Palestinian security forces. Was a member of the 3-man delegation to Washington in Aug02; has been a strong critic in interviews with the Arabic and Hebrew press of suicide bombing. Replaced on 29Oct02, after strong criticism for his stance on security issues.

Ahmad al-Yamani: veteran PFLP leader. A Palestinian teacher in Lebanon, he joined the early ANM, & was a member of its 1st Palestine Committee (established 1959). Arrested with Habash in Syria in Mar68, held for 8 months. Member of PF’s 1st politburo (Feb69), responsible for finance, but largely took over control of PF’s position in Lebanon from 1972. Became PF’s rep to the PLO-EC from Jan73, acting as the head of the Department of Popular Orgs, resigning in Sept74 with formation of Rejectionist Front. Retook position in Apr81 with PF’s return to the PLO, until boycott of Nov84. Retired from active politics in 1991.

Ahmad Yassin (Shaykh Ahmad Ismail Yassin): religious leader of Hamas. b.1936-8 in al-Jura village (al-Majdal district); became paralysed from neck down as a result of an accident playing football when 12. Was a refugee in Gaza from '48 & influenced by Ikhwan teachers in his youth, though no formal religious education. After working in Gaza restaurants, trained as a teacher; studied English at Ain Shams, Cairo, from 1964, where he associated with the Muslim Brotherhood. His predominant efforts in 1960s were to encourage religiosity & ritual observances among Gazan youth. Briefly imprisoned by Egypt in 1966, but left political sphere after Israeli occupation. Decision to revive Ikhwan in 1969-70, with Yassin as head; with increased cultural activities in 1972-3, formed a welfare charity Mujama‘ (Islamic Congress) in 1973. Imprisoned after an arms cache was discovered in Jaurat in 1983/4 & given a 13yr sentence, but released in the PFLP-GC prisoner exchange in May85. Arrested again in May89, sentenced in Oct91 to life + 15 years imprisonment, & released in prisoner exchange (after Israeli agents were captured in Jordan) in Oct97. In Spring94, his letter from prison offered a ceasefire (hudna) if Israeli forces withdrew from the Occupied Territories, settlements dismantled, and prisoners released (repeated, seemingly with errors, in a 1997 interview with CNN). PA tried to place him under house arrest from 5Dec01, leading to widespread clashes; again from 24Jun02. Israel forces fired missiles at his apartment, in an apparent assassination attempt, on 6Sept03; lightly injured. Killed in an Israeli missile strike on 22Mar04. Obituary here.

Nasr Yusif: Interior minister from Oct03. b.1943, in Jisr al-Majama', near Bisan in the Jordan valley. A Fatah recruit, trained through a leadership course for Fatah members in China, Jul-Dec67. Went on to become Fatah's commander of the Central Sector in Jordan (1968-71); a brigade commander in Lebanon, & as a general in Palestinian National Liberation Army. Member of Fatah-CC since Aug89. After the creation of the PA, served as the public security commander of the police force / head of National Security Forces [?] in the PA areas, with the rank of Major-General; based at Lasarya, Gaza City. Was slated by Mahmud ‘Abbas for a new post of Minister for Administrative Reform in the new cabinet of Apr03; due to ‘Arafat's opposition, he was removed from the line-up announced on 29Apr.

Mustafa al-Zabri [Abu Ali Mustafa]: former head of PFLP. b.1938, from Arraba, Jenin district. Joined the ANM in 1955, and imprisoned by Jordan for 5 years in al-Jafar prison from Apr57. Re-emerged as a pro-military leader in Jordan in 1963, responsible for popular and military operations in Nn Palestine, & an early proponent of fida’i attacks on Israel. Received military training in Egypt in 1965, & went on to head the ANM in Jordan from 1966, until re-arrested that yr. Played key role in re-establishing ANM-PFLP's position in Jordan after 1967 war; infiltrated into West Bank to lead supporters there from Sept67, evading crackdown of Jan68, & heading PF's operations. Became PF's military commander in late68, after Jibril’s split; held responsibility for military affairs from first PF politburo (Feb69). A PF "rightist", oppg leftist mobilisation within the ranks. Took control at "hijack airport" (Sept70); & only escaped from ‘Ajlun in Jul71 because Jordan's intelligence chief Kaylani escorted him to the Syrian border. Adopted a more clear leadership role after Apr72, with control over PF in Jordan & West Bank. Appointed deputy S-G in 1981; led the PF's delegation at the Aden-Algiers talks in 1984 to reunify the PLO; PF's rep to EC from 1987; was strongly supportive of Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait; but taken off PLO-EC in Sept91, purportedly to take effective control of the PFLP. Elected S-G of PFLP in Jul00; detailed interview prior to election on al-Jazira here. Israel gave permission for him to enter West Bank in Aug99; and resided in Ramallah until his murder by an Israeli missile strike on his office on 27Aug01. PFLP's obituary is here.

Mahmud Zahhar: Hamas Gaza spokesperson. b.1945, Zaytun district of Gaza City. Studied at Cairo's Ayn Shams university, graduated in 1971. Returned to Gaza in 1976, where he worked as a thyroid surgeon and lecturer at Islamic University in Gaza Medical Department. Led Hamas (with Rantisi) after Apr89, & held private meeting with Rabin. Served as Hamas' unofficial rep to the PLO from Jan90. Was deported with his brother Fadil to Marj al-Zahhur in Dec92. Repeatedly arrested after his subsequent return. His 29 yr old son Khalid was killed by an Israeli missile strike on his home on 10Sept03, a strike which also badly injured his wife. Believed to be part of Hamas' 3-person leadership after Rantisi's assassination in 2004, and became foreign minister after election of Hamas govt in 2006.

Abbas Zaki (Sharif Mash’al): Head of Fatah operations, Fatah-CC (since Aug89) & PLO-CC member. Joined Fatah in early60s, through his connections as a Jordanian student with GUPS. Formerly worked with Abu Mazin at the PLO Department of Arab & IR; headed the PLO's "Lebanon Committee" & Palestine National Lib Army's political commissariat from Aug89. With Abu Jihad's assassination, became secretary to Fatah's committee on OTs; remained based in Amman. Some argue that all his positions were relatively powerless, due to ‘Arafat’s perception of him as a possible leadership threat; others argue that he was used as a loyalist to prevent the rise of local activists. Opposed to Oslo, but continues to co-operate with ‘Arafat, & stood (& won) a PLC seat for Hebron, where he has strong local support. Also a strong critic of PA security forces, esp those of Rajub. Was attacked and injured by settlers from Gilo on 23Jul97. Has been highly critical of the PA cabinet, esp in Oct02 when he announced that he longer cared about the continuation of the PA.

Riyad al-Za‘nun: PA Minister of Health from May96-29Oct02. PLC member for Gaza City (Fatah). Threatened to resign as minister in Jun97 over doctors' salaries; and again in 2000 over funding of his ministry. Trained as a medical doctor.

Salim Za‘nun [Abu al-Adib]: Speaker of the PNC since 1993. An early recruit to the Muslim Brotherhood, a refugee to Gaza in 1948; had a leading role in organising the Popular Resistance Front to oppose Israeli occupation of Gaza in 1956-7. Left Brotherhood to join Fatah in late50s, & built support for it in Kuwait. In Fatah-CC from 1968, where after Black September he argued for scaling down the Palestinian military presence in favour of smaller units > lost his position on CC in 1971. Took over as senior Fatah rep in the Gulf. Has remained within Fatah despite his often strongly disagreements with ‘Arafat; appointed PNC deputy speaker in the 1980s.

Nadim Zaru: mayor of Ramallah. b.1929, Christian, from the notable ‘Awwad family; trained as a pharmacist in Houston, Texas; wife was a US citizen. Became a city councillor of Ramallah in 1964, & mayor shortly after. Was deported 6Oct69 after he protested at the IDF demolition of a house. Replaced as mayor by Khalil Musa (tho Jordan continued to view him as deputy mayor). Remained pro-Jordanian, & was Minister of Transport Aug72-4; allowed back into West Bank in 1981. Signed the (unreleased) "Palestinian Peace Document" of Nov82 which recognised the PLO as the sole legitimate representative, but urged them to authorise King Husayn to negotiate on Palestinians' behalf and to accept a confederation with Jordan.

'Abd al-Rahman Zaydan: Hamas member and PA minister for transport from 2006. Trained in civil engineering at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (BA in 1985).

Ziyadh Ya’kub Ziyadeh: nationalist mayor of Bir Zayt from at least 1973[?].

Ahmad Zughayr: merchant and farmer from Hebron. Was placed on Fatah's Jerusalem slate for the 1996 PLC elections, even though he did not take part in the Jerusalem Fatah primaries to select that slate. Won a place in the PLC, as a result of the votes of Jerusalem's Hebronite community.

See also the institutional biographies of the major Palestinian political groupings since 1967.
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