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The Spring Offensive B. Arthur, Ed. Round 7 Tossups

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The Spring Offensive

B. Arthur, Ed.
Round 7
1. This man’s Presidential campaign was the first managed by the Jew August Belmont. This man’s first political office was as prosecutor of Morgan County, and he was first elected to Congress while serving on his state’s Supreme Court. In the Galesburg (*) declaration, this man stated his belief that the Declaration of Independence did not mean to include blacks. This man was responsible for breaking the Compromise of 1850 into separate bills. This articulator of the Freeport Doctrine also authored a proposal that was mocked as “squatter sovereignty”, the Kansas-Nebraska Act. For ten points, name this “Little Giant” from Illinois, who lost the 1860 Presidential Election and famously debated Abraham Lincoln.

ANSWER: Stephen A. Douglas

2. As a youth, this man was tutored by Hans Hermann von Katte. This commander captured the fortress of Nachod during a war that ended the cession of the Innviertel under the Treaty of Teschen. An alliance against this man called the (*) “Diplomatic Revolution” left him with no allies except Britain, but this did not prevent him from winning the Battles of Pirna and Rossbach. This man’s mastery of the oblique order of attack allowed him to outflank and defeat much larger armies, such as at the Battles of Leuthen and Mollowitz, both victories against his arch-rival Austria, from whom he seized Silesia. For ten points, name this brilliant commander who ruled Prussia during the Seven Years War and War of the Austrian Succession.

ANSWER: Frederick the Great [accept: Friedrich der Grosse; Frederick II]
3. During this year, the United States brokered the Treaty of Lima, which divided the provinces of Tacna and Arica between Chile and Peru. This year also saw the United States broker an end to the Cristero War in Mexico. Albert Fall was convicted and sent to prison in this year, following his trial for the Teapot Dome scandal. The (*) Young Plan was drafted in this year and replaced the Dawes Plan. Charles Curtis was inaugurated as Vice-President during this year and became the first Native American to hold that office. But this year is best remembered for an event in October nicknamed “Black Tuesday.” For ten points, name this year in which the Stock Market crashed, leading to the Great Depression.

ANSWER: 1929

4. A 1992 uprising in this country involving people like Elias Pena and Jeremias Chitunda is called the Halloween massacre because it took place on October 31st. This country that obtained its independence by the Alvor Agreement has had only two presidents. The first was Antonio Neto, and the second is the current president who is a member of the MPLA Party. Two of the prominent ethnic groups that are important in this country’s history are the Ovimbundu and Chokwe tribes. 2002 witnessed the death of a man who founded a political group in this country’s Moxico province, and that man was Jonas Savimbi who founded (*) UNITA. This country that contains the exclave of Cabinda is currently led by José dos Santos. For 10 points, name this Southwestern African country that became independent from Portugal in 1975, a country located on the Indian Ocean with capital at Lusaka.

ANSWER: (The People’s) Republic of Angola [or República de Angola]

5. Forces of this dynasty allied with the Crusader States to check the incursion of al-Salih at the Battle of La Forbie. The regent queen of this dynasty, Dayfa Khatun, had the madrasa al-Firdaws built in Aleppo. Remnants of this dynasty ruled Hasankeyf located in southeastern Anatolia until the 15th century. After the victory at Mansurah, Al-Muazzam Turanshah was assassinated by a group of Bahri (*) Mamluks essentially ending this dynasty. It began when its founder and Shirkuh, his uncle, occupied Egypt initially for the Zenigid King Nur-ad Din. Succeeding the Fatimids, for 10 points, name this 12th and 13th century Sunni Islamic Dynasty named after the father of its founder, a Kurd who was victor at the Battle of Hattin, Salah al-Din.

ANSWER: Ayyubid Dynasty

6. Early in his career, this man lost his military commission because he joined the Cobhamite faction, also known as the “Patriot Whigs”. During the height of his career, this man served as Secretary of State for the Southern Department in the ministry of the Duke of Newcastle, but he had earlier come to prominence as (*) Paymaster of the Forces. This man’s diplomatic and military leadership led to the “Annus Mirabilis”, which led to victories at Martinique and Quiberon as well as to General Wolfe’s invasion of Quebec. For ten points, name this politician most famous for leading Britain to victory in the Seven Years War, the namesake of a city in Eastern Pennsylvania.

ANSWER: William Pitt the Elder [accept Lord Chatham; prompt on “Pitt”]

7. In response to this revolt, the government requested help from General Gerasim Kolapakovsky, though Russia refused to offer material aid, while Alim Quli sent the spiritual leader Buzurg Khan, a member of the Afaqis khojas. Tuo Ming and Suo Huanzhang led the revolt at the Urumqi garrison, and this event allowed Yaqub Beg to establish himself as ruler of Kashgaria. It started amongst an ethnic minority which adhered to the Khafiya sect of Ma Laichi or the Jahriyya sect of Ma Mingxin, and it was centered in the Ningxia, Gaansu, and Shaanxi provinces. It its aftermath, many emigrated to Russia or Khazakhstan, precipitating a drop in the population of Chinese Muslims. For fifteen points, name this revolt, an attempt to create a Muslim emirate on the Yellow River.

ANSWER: Dungan Revolt or Hui Minorities War [accept Muslim rebellion until the word “Muslim” is mentioned]

8. An inscription on the James Farley post office in Manhattan credits this king with creating the French royal post office. As a prince, this man attempted to overthrow his father in a revolt called the “Praguerie”. As king, this man negotiated the Treaty of Picquigny, by which the last English forces from the Hundred Years War left France. This king was opposed by the (*) League of the Public Weal. This king’s greatest rival died at the Battle of Nancy; that rival was the Duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold. For ten points, name this French monarch whose shrewd diplomacy earned him the nickname “Spider King.”

ANSWER: Louis XI [accept Louis the Spider-King on early buzz]

9. An Athenian priest of Poseidon named Helianax dedicated a heroon on Delos to this man. This man timed one invasion to coincide with the rebellion of Sertorius, and he later killed his own son Machares to take over the Cimmerian Bosporus. He instigated one conflict with the “Asiatic Vespers,” wherein he massacred all the (*) Romans in his lands after Manius Aquilius had been sent to restore Ariobarzanes and Nicomedes IV to their thrones. Lucullus was able to push him out of Tigranocerta, and despite his loss to Sulla at Orchomenus, it was ultimately Pompey Magnus who would defeat him. For 10 points, name this man who fought three namesake wars with the Romans, a king of Pontus.

ANSWER: Mithridates VI or Mithridates the Great or Mithridates Eupator Dionysus

10. The ideas of this group were echoed in the paper entitled “Thoughts of a Freeman”. One person in this group was shot in the mouth by John Cadwalader, and that same person was later promoted to the position of Inspector General. The existence of this group’s beliefs became (*) public when a drunken James Wilkinson revealed the contents of a letter sent from one member to another. Lord Stirling was the individual who blew the cap on that letter described by Wilkinson, and this group’s members included a member of the Board of War, Thomas Mifflin, and the influential Dr. Benjamin Rush. Having been spurred on by success at the Battle of Brandywine Creek, the namesake member of this group wrote the explosive “Weak General” letter. FTP, name this group of conspirators who wanted Horatio Gates to replace George Washington as Commander in Chief of the Continental Army.

ANSWER: Conway Cabal

11. This event was opposed by the moc [moch], a group of mountain peasants led by Avram Iancu, as well as by Ban Josip Jelalcic. This event resulted in the Battle of Pakozd. Generals Theodor Latour and Franz Lemberg were murdered during this event. This event resulted in invasions by Generals Alexander von Luders and Alfred von (*) Windisch-Gratz. Leaders of this event included Sandor Petofi, who was killed at the Battle of Segesvar by Russian troops invited to help stop this event. Put down by Felix von Schwarzenberg, the successor of Metternich as Prime Minister of Austria, for ten points name this 1848 rebellion in Hungary, named for its leader.

ANSWER: Kossuth Rebellion [accept Hungarian Rebellion of 1848 or Rebellion in the Crown Lands of St. Stephen in 1848 before “1848”; prompt on “Hungarian rebellion” before “Hungary”]

12. A more radical sub-faction of this larger group that accepted the Philippian solgas or confession, started the practice of self-immolation and broke away from the Pomorians. Initially, leading members of this group included the abbot Feoktist and later split into further denominations based on the continued acceptance or rejection of runaway (*) priests. Among the changes this group rejected included the three-finger sign of the cross, the change in spelling of Jesus’ name from “Isus” to “Iisus,” and processions against rather than toward the sun. Led by Avvakum Petrov, for 10 points, name this 17th century dissident religious movement formed in response to the liturgical changes imposed the Alexis I supported Patriarch Nikon, which led to the Raskol or schism in the Russian Orthodox Church.

ANSWER: Old Believers [or Starovertsy accept Old Ritualists]

13. This politician discussed the power and influence of China in One World. Gardner Cowles claims that this politician was seduced by the very ambitious wife of Chiang Kai-shek, Soong May-ling. The support of Governor Harold Stassen of Minnesota proved crucial in winning this man the Presidential nomination, and his Vice-Presidential nominee was Oregon senator Charles L. McNary. Because this man had an affair with the editor of the New York Herald Tribune, Irita Bradford Van Doren, he was blackmailed into not revealing the eccentric religion of Nicholas Roerich in the (*) Dear Guru letters, which would have implicated opposing Veep candidate Henry A. Wallace. For ten points, name this Indiana businessman turned Republican candidate who was defeated by Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1940.

ANSWER: Wendell Lewis Willkie

14. This organization published a manifesto titled “Over the Two Hills”, in which they rejected the concept of human rights. This organization traces its history to an older group founded by Jose Carlos Mariategui. This group perpetrated the Lucanamarca massacre, and the weakness of President Fernando Terry was crucial to this group’s rise. (*) Rondas were local militias organized to oppose this group. This organization was founded by Presidente Gonzalo and was largely vanquished by Alberto Fujimori. Currently led by Comrade Artemio, for ten points name this Maoist rebel group in Peru.

ANSWER: Shining Path or Sendero Luminoso [prompt on forms of “Sendero”]

15. Shortly before this man’s death, he penned an autobiography entitled “With the Century,” spanning twelve volumes. Under his rule, all parties and political organizations were first pressured into the Democratic Front for the Liberation of the Fatherland. While on good terms with Nicolae Ceausescu, he was a fierce enemy of Enver Hoxha. This man outlined three fundamental principles of his country’s direction named (*) chaju (cha-JOO), charip (cha-REEP), and chawi (cha-WEE), and the speech in which these principles were declared was further described by his top adviser on ideology, Hwang Jang-Yeop, in future speeches. This official state ideology of his nation was called “juche,” often translated as “spirit of self-reliance.” Designated in his country as its “eternal president,” for ten points, name this man, leader of North Korea from 1948 until his death in 1994.

ANSWER: Kim Il-Sung

16. This polity fractured after its ruler Berdibek was assassinated. Uzbeg converted this polity to Islam. This polity ended the rival Chupanid dynasty by sacking their capital of Tabriz. This polity lost the Battle of the (*) Blue Waters to Grand Duke Algirdas, and its capital was Sarai. This polity was reunited by Toktamysh, who became its last ruler when he was vanquished by Tamerlane. This polity lost the Battle of Kulikovo to Dmitry Donskoi. Earlier, this polity had turned Muscovy into a vassal state. For ten points, name this Mongol horde that conquered Russia.

ANSWER: Golden Horde

17. This ruler employed the generals Mazares and Harpagus, who were sent to attack Asia Minor, as well as Gubaru, who worked in Mesopotamia. According to one story, this ruler won a battle by placing camels at the front of his army, whose smell distracted his opponent’s horses. That was the Battle of Thymbra. This man won the Battle of Opis by (*) diverting a river so that his men could cross it. Rulers defeated by this man included Croesus of Lydia and Nabonius of Chaldea. This man appears in the Hebrew Bible where he brings an end to the Babylonian Captivity and he was succeeded by his son Cambyses II. For ten points, name this founder of the Achaemenid dynasty, the first ruler of the Persian Empire.

ANSWER: Cyrus the Great [accept: Cyrus II]

18. These two nations would sign the Treaty of Teusina, restoring to one of them the lands lost twelve years earlier in the Treaty of Plussa. Another conflict between these two nations saw Barclay de Tolly forced to cross a frozen gulf after the Convention of Olkijoli was signed. The (*) Scottish born Samuel Grieg distinguished himself as an admiral for one of them during a conflict wherein the other triggered the Lingonberry War with their neighbors. They also fought the Hats’ War, and they would later fight a conflict that saw two battles at Tonning and an early clash at Narva. For 10 points, name these two nations, which signed the Treaty of Nystad after the Great Northern War.

ANSWER: Russia and Sweden

19. The French artillery at this battle was deployed along elevated water ponds and was commanded by the mysterious “Monsieur Sinfray”. Causes for this battle include a dispute over trade permits called dastak. Notable officers at this battle included Eyre Coote on the winning side, who pursued the losing force after this battle, and on the losing side (*) Mir Midan, who was killed in action. A crucial factor to the outcome of this battle was the defection of Mir Jafar. The loser of this battle was the Nawab of Bengal, who had perpetrated the Black Hole of Calcutta. For ten points, name this victory for Robert Clive, a 1757 battle that led to British East India company control of most of India.

ANSWER: Battle of Palashi or Plassey or Pelasi

20. Ferdinando Eber described the war meeting held at Misilmeri by the leader of this campaign. It saw Swiss colonel Luca von Mechel massacre presumptive insurrectionists and kill their instigator, Pilo Rossolini, before occupying the Piana dei Greci and refusing to press his advantage. During this campaign, La Farina was replaced by Agostino Depretis and Francesco (*) Crespi tried to stir up support for the invasion, while Nino Bixio would break his leg during its Battle of Volturnus. Ferdinando Lanza would push for a truce after the Battle of Calatafimi, and this campaign saw Francis II hide in his Gaeta fortress. For 10 points—name this campaign led by Giuseppe Garibaldi to conquer the Kingdom of Two Sicilies, named for its number.

ANSWER: Spedizione dei Mille or Expedition of the Thousand (prompt on Risorgimento or Italian unification or anything along those lines)

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