Decades

Functional group

Reference

Observations


Submerged macrophyte



1960s

Biomass

Geography Department of Chinese Academy of Science 1965; School of Life Sciences East China Normal University 1959

By Geography Department of Chinese Academy of Science (Jun 15^{th} –Aug 25^{th} 1960), 33 sampling points, covering the whole lake.
By School of Life Sciences East China Normal University (July 18^{th}24^{th} 1959), 6 sampling sections, covering the whole lake (sampling area covered 6.8%of the total area of the lake).

1980s

Biomass

Sun 1993

11 sampling sections, 42 sampling points, covering the whole lake, carried out in 1981(Sun and Huang 1993)

1990s

Biomass

Bao 1991; Yang 1998


1960s

P/B



1980s

P/B



1990s

P/B

Liu 1992



Catch

Yang 1998



Other macrophyte



1960s

Biomass

Geography Department of Chinese Academy of Science 1965; School of Life Sciences East China Normal University 1959

By Geography Department of Chinese Academy of Science (Jun 15^{th} –Aug 25^{th} 1960), 33 sampling points, covering the whole lake.
By School of Life Sciences East China Normal University (July 18^{th}24^{th} 1959), 6 sampling sections, covering the whole lake (sampling area covered 6.8%of the total area of the lake).

1980s

Biomass

Sun 1993

11 sampling sections, 42 sampling points, covering the whole lake, carried out in 1981(Sun and Huang 1993)

1990s

Biomass

Bao 1991; Yang 1998


1960s

P/B



1980s

P/B



1990s

P/B

Liu 1992



Catch

Yang 1998



Phytoplankton



1960s

Biomass

Geography Department of Chinese Academy of Science 1965; School of Life Sciences East China Normal University 1959

By Geography Department of Chinese Academy of Science (Jun 15^{th} –Aug 25^{th} 1960), 33 sampling points, covering the whole lake.
By School of Life Sciences East China Normal University (July 18^{th}24^{th} 1959), 6 sampling sections, covering the whole lake (sampling area covered 6.8%of the total area of the lake).

1980s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

19801981, 30 sampling points, covering the whole lake, sampled seasonally

1990s

Biomass

Tang 1995


1960s

P/B

Sun and Huang 1993


1980s

P/B

Sun and Huang 1993


1990s

P/B

Sun and Huang 1993



Detritus




Biomass

State Environmental Protection Administration of China 2000

Used conversion factor that estimated the biomass of bacteria as 17.5% of that for phytoplankton (Heymans et al., (2004)). The biomass of DOC and POC was estimated by the Ecoempire in the EwE model (Christensen and Pauly 1992; 1993; Christensen et al.,, 2004)


Zooplankton




Microzooplankton



1960s

Biomass

Geography Department of Chinese Academy of Science 1965; School of Life Sciences East China Normal University 1959

By Geography Department of Chinese Academy of Science (Jun 15^{th} –Aug 25^{th} 1960), 33 sampling points, covering the whole lake.
By School of Life Sciences East China Normal University (July 18^{th}24^{th} 1959), 6 sampling sections, covering the whole lake (sampling area covered 6.8%of the total area of the lake).

1980s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

19801981, 30 sampling points, covering the whole lake, sampled seasonally

1990s

Biomass

Yan 1995

Used conversion factor from dry weight to wet weight of 16.7% (Gong et al., 2001)


U/Q

Park et al., 1974


1960s

P/B

Estimated by Ecopath

EE was assumed to be 0.95 (Christensen et al., 2004)

1980s

P/B

Estimated by Ecopath

EE was assumed to be 0.95 (Christensen et al., 2004)

1990s

P/B

Estimated by Ecopath

EE was assumed to be 0.95 (Christensen et al., 2004)

1960s

Q/B


P/Q ratio of 0.05 was adopted for zooplankton (Park et al., 1974; Scavia et al., 1974; Yang 2003), which could then be converted into consumption/biomass ratio (Q/B) using Q/B= (P/B)/ (P/Q)

1980s

Q/B


P/Q ratio of 0.05 was adopted for zooplankton (Park et al., 1974; Scavia et al., 1974; Yang 2003), which could then be converted into consumption/biomass ratio (Q/B) using Q/B= (P/B)/ (P/Q)

1990s

Q/B


P/Q ratio of 0.05 was adopted for zooplankton (Park et al., 1974; Scavia et al., 1974; Yang 2003), which could then be converted into consumption/biomass ratio (Q/B) using Q/B= (P/B)/ (P/Q)


Cladocera



1960s

Biomass

Geography Department of Chinese Academy of Science 1965; School of Life Sciences East China Normal University 1959

By Geography Department of Chinese Academy of Science (Jun 15^{th} –Aug 25^{th} 1960), 33 sampling points, covering the whole lake.
By School of Life Sciences East China Normal University (July 18^{th}24^{th} 1959), 6 sampling sections, covering the whole lake (sampling area covered 6.8%of the total area of the lake).

1980s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

19801981, 30 sampling points, covering the whole lake, sampled seasonally

1990s

Biomass

Yan 1995

Used conversion factor from dry weight to wet weight of 16.7% (Gong et al., 2001)

1960s

P/B

Estimated by Ecopath


1980s

P/B

Estimated by Ecopath


1990s

P/B

Estimated by Ecopath


1960s

Q/B


P/Q ratio of 0.05 was adopted for zooplankton (Park et al., 1974; Scavia et al., 1974; Yang 2003), which could then be converted into consumption/biomass ratio (Q/B) using Q/B= (P/B)/ (P/Q)

1980s

Q/B


P/Q ratio of 0.05 was adopted for zooplankton (Park et al., 1974; Scavia et al., 1974; Yang 2003), which could then be converted into consumption/biomass ratio (Q/B) using Q/B= (P/B)/ (P/Q)

1990s

Q/B


P/Q ratio of 0.05 was adopted for zooplankton (Park et al., 1974; Scavia et al., 1974; Yang 2003), which could then be converted into consumption/biomass ratio (Q/B) using Q/B= (P/B)/ (P/Q)


Copepoda



1960s

Biomass

Geography Department of Chinese Academy of Science 1965; School of Life Sciences East China Normal University 1959

By Geography Department of Chinese Academy of Science (Jun 15^{th} –Aug 25^{th} 1960), 33 sampling points, covering the whole lake.
By School of Life Sciences East China Normal University (July 18^{th}24^{th} 1959), 6 sampling sections, covering the whole lake (sampling area covered 6.8%of the total area of the lake).

1980s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

19801981, 30 sampling points, covering the whole lake, sampled seasonally

1990s

Biomass

Yan 1995

Used conversion factor from dry weight to wet weight of 16.7% (Gong et al., 2001)

1960s

P/B

Estimated by Ecopath


1980s

P/B

Estimated by Ecopath


1990s

P/B

Estimated by Ecopath


1960s

Q/B


P/Q ratio of 0.05 was adopted for zooplankton (Park et al., 1974; Scavia et al., 1974; Yang 2003), which could then be converted into consumption/biomass ratio (Q/B) using Q/B= (P/B)/ (P/Q)

1980s

Q/B


P/Q ratio of 0.05 was adopted for zooplankton (Park et al., 1974; Scavia et al., 1974; Yang 2003), which could then be converted into consumption/biomass ratio (Q/B) using Q/B= (P/B)/ (P/Q)

1990s

Q/B


P/Q ratio of 0.05 was adopted for zooplankton (Park et al., 1974; Scavia et al., 1974; Yang 2003), which could then be converted into consumption/biomass ratio (Q/B) using Q/B= (P/B)/ (P/Q)


Trophic data

Liu 1999



Benthos



1960s

Biomass

Geography Department of Chinese Academy of Science 1965; School of Life Sciences East China Normal University 1959

By Geography Department of Chinese Academy of Science (Jun 15^{th} –Aug 25^{th} 1960), 33 sampling points, covering the whole lake.
By School of Life Sciences East China Normal University (July 18^{th}24^{th} 1959), 6 sampling sections, covering the whole lake (sampling area covered 6.8%of the total area of the lake).

1980s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

19801981, 30 sampling points, covering the whole lake, sampled seasonally

1990s

Biomass



1960s

P/B

Empirical equation from Brey 1999

Used conversion factor from dry weight to wet weight of 16.7% (Gong et al., 2001)

1980s

P/B

Empirical equation from Brey 1999

Used conversion factor from dry weight to wet weight of 16.7% (Gong et al., 2001)

1990s

P/B

Empirical equation from Brey 1999

Used conversion factor from dry weight to wet weight of 16.7% (Gong et al., 2001)

1960s

Q/B

Estimated by Ecopath

P/Q ratio of 0.05 was adopted for zooplankton (Park et al., 1974; Scavia et al., 1974; Yang 2003), which could then be converted into consumption/biomass ratio (Q/B) using Q/B= (P/B)/ (P/Q)

1980s

Q/B

Estimated by Ecopath

P/Q ratio of 0.05 was adopted for zooplankton (Park et al., 1974; Scavia et al., 1974; Yang 2003), which could then be converted into consumption/biomass ratio (Q/B) using Q/B= (P/B)/ (P/Q)

1990s

Q/B

Estimated by Ecopath

P/Q ratio of 0.05 was adopted for zooplankton (Park et al., 1974; Scavia et al., 1974; Yang 2003), which could then be converted into consumption/biomass ratio (Q/B) using Q/B= (P/B)/ (P/Q)


U/N

Yan 2003



Trophic data

Liu 1999



Mollucs



1960s

Biomass

Geography Department of Chinese Academy of Science 1965; School of Life Sciences East China Normal University 1959

By Geography Department of Chinese Academy of Science (Jun 15^{th} –Aug 25^{th} 1960), 33 sampling points, covering the whole lake.
By School of Life Sciences East China Normal University (July 18^{th}24^{th} 1959), 6 sampling sections, covering the whole lake (sampling area covered 6.8%of the total area of the lake).

1980s

Biomass



1990s

Biomass

Deng et al., 1997


1960s

P/B

Yang 2003


1980s

P/B

Yang 2003


1990s

P/B

Yang 2003


1960s

Q/B

Estimated by Ecopath

P/Q ratio of 0.05 was adopted for zooplankton (Park et al., 1974; Scavia et al., 1974; Yang 2003), which could then be converted into consumption/biomass ratio (Q/B) using Q/B= (P/B)/ (P/Q)

1980s

Q/B

Estimated by Ecopath

P/Q ratio of 0.05 was adopted for zooplankton (Park et al., 1974; Scavia et al., 1974; Yang 2003), which could then be converted into consumption/biomass ratio (Q/B) using Q/B= (P/B)/ (P/Q)

1990s

Q/B

Estimated by Ecopath

P/Q ratio of 0.05 was adopted for zooplankton (Park et al., 1974; Scavia et al., 1974; Yang 2003), which could then be converted into consumption/biomass ratio (Q/B) using Q/B= (P/B)/ (P/Q)


U/N

Scavia et al., 1974



Catch

Zhu 1998



Trophic data

Liu 1999



Macrocrustacean



1960s

Biomass

Zhu 2003


1980s

Biomass

Zhu 2003


1990s

Biomass

Zhu 2003


1960s

P/B

Estimated by Ecopath


1980s

P/B

Estimated by Ecopath


1990s

P/B

Estimated by Ecopath


1960s

Q/B

Estimated by Ecopath


1980s

Q/B

Estimated by Ecopath


1990s

Q/B

Estimated by Ecopath



U/Q

Halfon et al., 1996



Catch

Zhu 1998



Trophic data

Shi 1995



Herbivorous fishes



1960s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu

1980s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu

1990s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu

1960s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1980s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1990s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1960s

Q/B

Empirical equation from Palomares and Pauly 1998


1980s

Q/B

Empirical equation from Palomares and Pauly 1998


1990s

Q/B

Empirical equation from Palomares and Pauly 1998



U/N

Winberg 1956; Brett 1979



Catch

Zhu 1998



Trophic data

Liu 1992



Other fishes



1960s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu

1980s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu

1990s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu

1960s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1980s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1990s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1960s

Q/B

Empirical equation from Palomares and Pauly 1998


1980s

Q/B

Empirical equation from Palomares and Pauly 1998


1990s

Q/B

Empirical equation from Palomares and Pauly 1998



U/Q

Winberg 1956; Brett 1979



Catch

Zhu 1999; Zhu 2003



Trophic data

Zhu 1999



Icefish



1960s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu

1980s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu

1990s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu

1960s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1980s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1990s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1960s

Q/B

Empirical equation from Palomares and Pauly 1998


1980s

Q/B

Empirical equation from Palomares and Pauly 1998


1990s

Q/B

Empirical equation from Palomares and Pauly 1998



U/Q

Winberg 1956; Brett 1979



Catch

Zhu 1999; Zhu 2003



Trophic data

Bing 1995



Black carp



1960s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu

1980s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu

1990s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu

1960s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1980s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1990s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1960s

Q/B

P/Q was assumed to be 0.079


1980s

Q/B

P/Q was assumed to be 0.079


1990s

Q/B

P/Q was assumed to be 0.079



U/Q

Winberg 1956; Brett 1979



Catch

Zhu 1999; Zhu 2003



Trophic data

Liu 1992



Common carp



1960s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu

1980s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu

1990s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu

1960s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1980s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1990s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1960s

Q/B

Empirical equation from Palomares and Pauly 1998


1980s

Q/B

Empirical equation from Palomares and Pauly 1998


1990s

Q/B

Empirical equation from Palomares and Pauly 1998



U/Q

Winberg 1956; Brett 1979



Catch

Zhu 2003



Trophic data

Liu 1992



Goldfish




Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu

1960s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1980s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1990s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1960s

Q/B

Empirical equation from Palomares and Pauly 1998


1980s

Q/B

Empirical equation from Palomares and Pauly 1998


1990s

Q/B

Empirical equation from Palomares and Pauly 1998



U/Q

Winberg 1956; Brett 1979



Catch




Trophic data

Liu 1992



Bighead carp



1960s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu

1980s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu

1990s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu

1960s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1980s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1990s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1960s

Q/B

Empirical equation from Palomares and Pauly 1998


1980s

Q/B

Empirical equation from Palomares and Pauly 1998


1990s

Q/B

Empirical equation from Palomares and Pauly 1998



U/Q

Winberg 1956; Brett 1979



Catch

Zhu 1999; Zhu 2003



Trophic data

Liu 1992



Silver carp



1960s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu

1980s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu

1990s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu

1960s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1980s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1990s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1960s

Q/B

Empirical equation from Palomares and Pauly 1998


1980s

Q/B

Empirical equation from Palomares and Pauly 1998


1990s

Q/B

Empirical equation from Palomares and Pauly 1998



U/Q

Winberg 1956; Brett 1979



Catch

Zhu 1999; Zhu 2003



Trophic data

Liu 1992



Tapertail anchovy



1960s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu

1980s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu

1990s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu

1960s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1980s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1990s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1960s

Q/B

Empirical equation from Palomares and Pauly 1998


1980s

Q/B

Empirical equation from Palomares and Pauly 1998


1990s

Q/B

Empirical equation from Palomares and Pauly 1998



U/Q

Winberg 1956; Brett 1979



Catch

Zhu 1999; Zhu 2003



Trophic data

Tang 1995



Large Icefish



1960s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu

1980s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu

1990s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu

1960s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1980s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1990s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1960s

Q/B

Empirical equation from Palomares and Pauly 1998


1980s

Q/B

Empirical equation from Palomares and Pauly 1998


1990s

Q/B

Empirical equation from Palomares and Pauly 1998



U/Q

Winberg 1956; Brett 1979



Catch

Zhu 1999; Zhu 2003



Trophic data

Zhu 1985



Other priscivorous



1960s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu

1980s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu

1990s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu

1960s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1980s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1990s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1960s

Q/B

Empirical equation from Palomares and Pauly 1998


1980s

Q/B

Empirical equation from Palomares and Pauly 1998


1990s

Q/B

Empirical equation from Palomares and Pauly 1998



U/Q

Winberg 1956; Brett 1979



Catch

Zhu 1999; Zhu 2003



Trophic data

Tan 1997b



Large culers



1960s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu.

1980s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu.

1990s

Biomass

Zhu 2003

Biomass estimated from the trawling surveys (19911998) in the Lake Taihu.

1960s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1980s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1990s

P/B

F=C/B and Z=F+M=P/B, M=empirical equation from Pauly 1980


1960s

Q/B

Fishbase 2004


1980s

Q/B

Fishbase 2004


1990s

Q/B

Fishbase 2004



U/Q

Winberg 1956; Brett 1979



Catch

Zhu 2003



Trophic data

Xu, 1984

