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Supplementary Materials – Terblanche et al. Biology Letters Table taxa and the source used for building the scaling database

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Supplementary Materials – Terblanche et al. Biology Letters
Table S2. Taxa and the source used for building the scaling database.







Lepismatidae sp. 1

Marais et al. 2005

Lepismatidae sp. 2

Marais et al. 2005

Ctenolepisma longicaudata

Marais et al. 2005



Ischnura senegalensis

Marais et al. 2005


Trithemis arteriosa

Marais et al. 2005



Perisphaeria sp.

Marais & Chown 2003

Unknown sp.

Marais et al. 2005

Macropanesthia rhinoceros

Woodman et al. 2007


Blattella germanica

Dingha et al. 2005



Sphodromantis gastrica

Marais et al. 2005



Karoophasma biedouwensis

Marais et al. 2005



Extatosoma tiaratum

Marais et al. 2005



Romalea guttata

Hadley & Quinlan 1993

Romalea guttata

Quinlan & Hadley 1993


Taeniopoda eques

Quinlan & Hadley 1993

Taeniopoda eques

Harrison et al 1995



Euborellia annulipes

Marais et al. 2005



Rhodnius prolixus

Bradley et al. 2003


Unknown sp.

Marais et al. 2005



Phorocantha recurva

Chappell & Rogowitz 2000

Phorocantha semipunctata

Chappell & Rogowitz 2000


Cardiosis faimarei

Lighton 1991

Epiphysa arenicola

Lighton 1991

Onymacris laeviceps

Lighton 1991

Onymacris multistriata

Duncan 2003

Onymacris plana

Lighton 1991

Onymacris rugatipennis albatesselata

Lighton 1991

Onymacris rugatipennis rugatipennis

Lighton 1991

Onymacris unguicularis

Lighton 1991

Onymacris unguicularis

Louw et al. 1986

Physadesmia globosa

Lighton 1991

Pimelia canescens

Duncan et al. 2002a

Pimelia grandis

Duncan et al. 2002b

Psammodes striatus

Lighton 1988a

Stenocara gracilipes

Lighton 1991

Zophosis complanata

Duncan et al. 2002a

Zophosis orbicularis

Lighton 1991

Zophosis punctata

Duncan et al. 2002a


Anachalcos convexus

Duncan & Byrne 2000

Aphodius fossor

Chown & Holter 2000

Circellium bacchus

Duncan & Byrne 2002

Scarabaeus flavicornis

Duncan & Byrne 2000

Scarabaeus rusticus

Duncan & Byrne 2000

Sisyphus fasciculatus

Duncan & Byrne 2000


Carabus nemoralis

Punt 1950; Punt 1956; Punt et al. 1957

Carenum sp.

Duncan & Dickman 2001

Cerotalis sp.

Duncan & Dickman 2001


Omorgus radula

Bosch et al 2000


Bothrometopus randi

Klok & Chown 2005

Bothrometopus elongatus

Klok & Chown 2005

Bothrometopus parvulus

Klok & Chown 2005

Palirhoeus eatoni

Klok & Chown 2005

Canonopsis sericeus

Klok & Chown 2005

Ectemnorhinus marioni

Klok & Chown 2005

Ectemnorhinus similis

Klok & Chown 2005



Glossina morsitans

Marais et al. 2005


Culex tarsalis

Gray & Bradley 2003



Leptocerina sp.

Marais et al. 2005



Gonometa postica (P)

Terblanche et al. unpublished


Ornithoptera priamus (P)

Hetz et al. 1999

Troides rhadamantus (P)

Hetz et al. 1999


Agapema galbina (P)

Buck & Keister 1955

Hyalophora cecropia (P)

Levy & Schneiderman 1966a,b

Hyalophora cecropia (P)

Brockway & Schneiderman 1967



Apis mellifera ligustica

Lighton & Lovegrove 1990

Bombus terrestris

Beekman & van Stratum 1999


Camponotus detritus

Lighton 1990

Camponotus maculatus

Duncan & Newton 2000

Camponotus vicinus

Lighton 1992

Camponotus vicinus

Lighton 1988b

Cataglyphis bicolor

Lighton 1992

Cataglyphis bicolor

Lighton & Wehner 1993

Cataglyphis bicolor

Lighton et al 1993

Formica polyctena

Martin et al. 2004

Messor julianus (alates/workers)

Lighton & Berrigan 1995

Messor pergandei (alates/workers)

Lighton & Berrigan 1995

Pogonomyrmex occidentalis

Quinlan & Lighton 1999

Pogonomyrmex californicus

Quinlan & Lighton 1999

Pogonomyrmex rugosus

Quinlan & Lighton 1999

Pogonomyrmex rugosus

Lighton et al. 1993

Solenopsis invicta

Vogt & Appel 2000


Dasymutilla gloriosa

Duncan & Lighton 1997

Beekman, M. and van Stratum, P. (1999). Respiration in bumblebee queens: effect of life phase on the discontinuous ventilation cycle. Entom. Exp. et Appl. 92, 295-298.

Bosch, M., Chown, S. L. and Scholtz, C. H. (2000). Discontinuous gas exchange and water loss in the keratin beetle Omorgus radula: further evidence against the water conservation hypothesis? Physiol. Entomol. 25, 309-314.

Bradley, T. J., Brethorst, L., Robinson, S. and Hetz, S. (2003). Changes in the rate of CO2 release following feeding in the insect Rhodnius prolixus. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 76, 302-309.

Brockway, A. P. and Schneiderman, H. A. (1967). Strain-gauge transducer studies on intratracheal pressure and pupal length during discontinuous respiration in diapausing silkworm pupae. J. Insect Physiol. 13, 1413-1451.

Buck, J. and Keister, M. (1955). Cyclic CO2 release in diapausing Agapema pupae. Biol. Bull. 109, 144-163.

Chappell, M. A. and Rogowitz, G. L. (2000). Mass, temperature and metabolic effects on discontinuous gas exchange cycles in Eucalyptus-boring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). J. Exp. Biol. 203, 3809-3820.

Chown, S. L. and Holter, P. (2000). Discontinuous gas exchange cycles in Aphodius fossor (Scarabaeidae): a test of hypotheses concerning origins and mechanisms. J. Exp. Biol. 203, 397-403.

Dingha, B. N., Appel, A. G. and Eubanks, M. D. (2005) Discontinuous carbon dioxide release in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae), and its effect on respirometry transpiration. J. Insect Physiol. 51, 825-836.

Duncan, F. D. (2003). The role of the subelytral cavity in respiration in a tenebrionid beetle, Onymacris multistriata (Tenebrionidae: Adesmiini). J. Insect Physiol. 49, 369-346.

Duncan, F. D. and Byrne, M. J. (2000). Discontinuous gas exchange in dung beetles: patterns and ecological implications. Oecologia 122, 452-458.

Duncan, F. D. and Byrne, M. J. (2002). Respiratory airflow in a wingless dung beetle. J. Exp. Biol. 205, 2489-2497.

Duncan, F. D. and Dickman, C. R. (2001). Respiratory patterns and metabolism in tenebrionid and carabid beetles from the Simpson Desert, Australia. Oecologia 129, 509-517.

Duncan, F. D., Krasnov, B. and McMaster, M. (2002a). Metabolic rate and respiratory gas-exchange patterns in tenebrionid beetles from the Negev Highlands, Israel. J. Exp. Biol. 205, 791-798.

Duncan, F. D., Krasnov, B. and McMaster, M. (2002b). Novel case of a tenebrionid beetle using discontinuous gas exchange cycle when dehydrated. Physiol. Entomol. 27, 79-83.

Duncan, F. D. and Lighton, J. R. B. (1997). Discontinuous ventilation and energetics of locomotion in the desert-dwelling female mutillid wasp, Dasymutilla gloriosa. Physiol. Entomol. 22, 310-315.

Duncan, F. D. and Newton, R. D. (2000). The use of the anaesthetic, enflurane, for determination of metabolic rates and respiratory parameters in insects, using the ant, Camponotus maculates (Fabricius) as the model. J. Insect Physiol. 46, 1529-1534.

Gray, E. M. and Bradley, T. J. (2003). Metabolic rate in female Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae): age, size, activity, and feeding effects. J. Med. Entomol. 40, 903-911.

Hadley, N. F. and Quinlan, M. C. (1993). Discontinuous carbon dioxide release in the eastern lubber grasshopper Romalea guttata and its effect on respiratory transpiration. J. Exp. Biol. 177, 169-180.

Harrison, J. F., Hadley, N. F. and Quinlan, M. C. (1995). Acid-base status and spiracular control during discontinuous ventilation in grasshoppers. J. Exp. Biol. 198, 1755-1763.

Hetz, S. K., Psota, E. and Wasserthal, L. T. (1999). Roles of aorta, ostia and tracheae in heartbeat and respiratory gas exchange in pupae of Troides rhadamantus Staudinger 1888 and Ornithoptera priamus L.1758 (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae). Int. J. Insect Morphol. 28, 131-144.

Klok, C. J. and Chown, S. L. (2005). Temperature- and body mass-related variation in cyclic gas exchange characteristics and metabolic rate of seven weevil species: Broader implications. J. Insect Physiol. 51, 789-801.

Levy, R. I. and Schneidermann, H. A. (1966a). Discontinuous respiration in insects - II. The direct measurement and significance of changes in tracheal gas composition during the respiratory cycle of silkworm pupae. J. Insect Physiol. 12, 83-104.

Levy, R. I. and Schneiderman, H. A. (1966b). Discontinuous respiration in insects - IV. Changes in intratracheal pressure during the respiratory cycle of silkworm pupae. J. Insect Physiol. 12, 465-492.

Lighton, J. R. B. (1988a). Simultaneous measurement of oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide emission during discontinuous ventilation in the tok-tok beetle, Psammodes striatus. J. Insect Physiol. 34, 361-367.

Lighton, J. R. B. (1988b). Discontinuous CO2 emission in a small insect, the formicine ant Camponotus vicinus. J. Exp. Biol. 134, 363-376.

Lighton, J. R. B. (1990). Slow discontinuous ventilation in the Namib dune-sea ant Camponotus detritus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). J. Exp. Biol. 151, 71-82.

Lighton, J. R. B. (1991). Ventilation in Namib desert tenebrionid beetles: mass scaling and evidence of a novel quantized flutter-phase. J. Exp. Biol. 159, 249-268.

Lighton, J. R. B. (1992). Direct measurement of mass loss during discontinuous ventilation in two species of ants. J. Exp. Biol. 173, 289-293.

Lighton, J. R. B. and Berrigan, D. (1995). Questioning paradigms: caste-specific ventilation in harvester ants, Messor pergandei and M. julianus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Exp. Biol. 198, 521-530.

Lighton, J. R. B., Fukushi, T. and Wehner, R. (1993). Ventilation in Cataglyhpis bicolor: Regulation of carbon dioxide release from the thoracic and abdominal spiracles. J. Insect Physiol. 39, 687-699.

Lighton, J. R. B. and Lovegrove, B. G. (1990). A temperature-induced switch from diffusive to convective ventilation in the honeybee. J. Exp. Biol. 154, 509-516.

Lighton, J. R. B. and Wehner, R. (1993). Ventilation and respiratory metabolism in the thermophilic desert ant, Cataglyphis bicolor (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). J. Comp. Physiol. B 163, 11-17.

Louw, G. N., Nicolson, S. W. and Seely, M. K. (1986). Respiration beneath desert sand: carbon dioxide diffusion and respiratory patterns in a tenebrionid beetle. J. Exp. Biol. 120, 443-447.

Marais, E. and Chown, S. L. (2003). Repeatability of standard metabolic rate and gas exchange characteristics in a highly variable cockroach, Perisphaeria sp. J. Exp. Biol. 206, 4565-4574.

Marais, E., Klok, C. J., Terblanche, J. S., Chown, S. L. (2005). Insect gas exchange patterns: a phylogenetic perspective. J. Exp. Biol. 208 , 4495-4507.

Punt, A. (1950). The respiration of insects. Physiologia Comparata et Oecologia 2, 59-74.

Punt, A. (1956). The influence of carbon dioxide on the respiration of Carabus nemoralis Müll. Physiologia Comparata et Oecologia 4, 132-141.

Punt, A., Parser, W. J. and Kuchlein, J. (1957). Oxygen uptake in insects with cyclic CO2 release. Biol. Bull. 112, 108-119.

Quinlan, M. C. and Hadley, N. F. (1993). Gas exchange, ventilatory patterns, and water loss in two lubber grasshoppers: quantifying cuticular and respiratory transpiration. Physiol. Zool. 66, 628-642.

Quinlan, M. C. and Lighton, J. R. B. (1999). Respiratory physiology and water relations of three species of Pogonomyrmex harvester ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Physiol. Entomol. 24, 293-302.

Vogt, J. T. and Appel, A. G. (2000). Discontinuous gas exchange in the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren: caste differences and temperature effects. J. Insect Physiol. 46, 403-416.

Woodman, J. D., Cooper, P. D., Haritos, V. S. (2007). Cyclic gas exchange in the giant burrowing cockroach Macropanesthia rhinoceros: Effect of oxygen tension and temperature. J. Insect Physiol. 53, 497-504.

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