Online Supplemental Materials
Supplemental Table 1. To determine whether the hormone solution affected fitness measures, we compared the progeny of crossfertilizations from dioecious lineages in which the individuals to which the focal plants were outcrossed were either treated with hormone (males changed into females) or not treated with hormone (females left as females). A logit model was used to determine the effect of hormone treatment (a fixed effect) and lineage (a random effect) on whether a seed germinated and survived as a seedling (SAS Institute, 2004). We used mixedmodel ANOVAs to test how the remaining fitness measures were affected by hormone treatment (a fixed effect) and lineage (a random effect). Proportion survival was analyzed on a per lineage basis, as it was for the analysis of cross type. For the ANOVA analyses, all fitness measures were logtransformed (Johnston and Schoen, 1994). Interaction terms with lineage were not included in these models, unlike in the models analyzing cross type, because only one hormone comparison was made per lineage.







trait


hormone


lineage


error















Proportion Germination & Early Survival

df = 1


df = 10





Χ^{2} = 0.12


Χ^{2} = 48.5





P = 0.73


P < 0.0001










Proportion Late Survival

df = 1


df = 12


df = 21



MS = 0.02


MS = 0.11


MS = 0.02



F = 0.95


F = 0.56





P = 0.34


P = 0.85










Plant Mass

df = 1


df = 12


df = 273



MS = 0.43


MS = 1.53


MS = 0.59



F = 0.73


F = 2.61





P = 0.39


P = 0.003










Proportion Pollen Viability

df = 1


df = 11


df = 144



MS = 0.27


MS = 0.17


MS = 0.19



F = 1.44


F = 0.90





P = 0.23


P = 0.55










Seed Mass

df = 1


df = 10


df = 69



MS = 0.07


MS = 2.56


MS = 1.23



F = 0.06


F = 2.10





P = 0.81


P = 0.036










