GSAC XIX Round 8
1. This leader defeated Zwide at the Battle of Gqokli Hill. He preferred fighting with the iklwa over the assegai, and he nearly starved his own subjects to death when his mother Nandi died. Mfecane resulted when the tribes nearby attempted to escape this man’s forces, and he was assassinated by his brother Dingane. He famously pioneered the “buffalo horns” formation. For 10 points, name this man who united the Northern Nguni people, a brutal founder of the Zulu Kingdom.
ANSWER: Shaka Zulu [accept Shaka Senzangakhona]
2. The square root of this quantity is obtained when the gamma function is evaluated at one-half, and it can be approximated by Buffon's needle problem. The probability density function of the normal distribution has a coefficient of two times this quantity all to the negative one-half power, and e to the i raised to this power equals negative 1. The sine function equals zero at integer multiples of it. It is multiplied by four-thirds times the radius cubed to find the volume of a sphere, and it is also the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter. For 10 points, name this transcendental number commonly approximated as 3.14.
ANSWER: Pi [prompt on 3.14159... before mentioned]
3. This man created the staircase entrance to the Vatican Palace known as Scala Regia. He created the two marble figures below the tomb of Urban VIII, and his works in the Borghese Gallery include a depiction of a hero carrying his father fleeing from Troy. One of his works shows a god and a nymph turning into a tree, and he also sculpted a man in the process of firing a sling. In addition to Apollo and Daphne and David, he sculpted a work located in the Cornaro Chapel which shows an angel ravishing a woman with an arrow. For 10 points, name this Italian sculptor who created The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa.
ANSWER: Gian Lorenzo Bernini
4. In one novel from this country, Mrs. Ruth Godbold and her children watch the destruction of Xanadu, a house previously owned by Miss Hare. That novel is Riders in the Chariot. One author from this country described the murder of the Healy and Newby families in The Chant of Jimmie Blacksmith. One author from this country wrote about Laura Trevelyan and the title German explorer’s attempt to cross an entire continent in Voss, and another author from this country wrote about a bet centered on transporting a glass cathedral in Oscar and Lucinda. For 10 points, name this country home to Thomas Keneally, Patrick White, and Peter Carey.
ANSWER: Commonwealth of Australia
5. This holiday occurs on the day before the Fast of Gedaliah, and it is believed to be the day on which God inscribes one’s fate into the Book of Life. Its observers metaphorically cast off their sins into a body of water in a ritual known as tashlikh. Apples dipped in honey are consumed during this holiday, which begins the Days of Awe. A ram’s horn called the shofar is blown to satisfy the commandment of making T’ruah, and it incorporates the greeting “shana tova.” For 10 points, name this holiday occurring at the beginning of Tishrei, the Jewish New Year.
ANSWER: Rosh Hashanah [accept Yom HaZikaron or Yom Ha-Din; accept Yom T’ruah before “T’ruah”]
6. The largest convention center in the U.S. is located in this city, and the Canal Street railroad bridge lies on its namesake river. That river’s branches converge to form the Main Stem at Wolf Point, and the tomb of Stephen Douglas is located in this city. The neighborhood of Streeterville contains its Navy Pier, and the Lake Point Tower is located east of its Lake Shore Drive. Its Orange Line connects Midway Airport with “the Loop,” and it holds the tallest building in the U.S. For 10 points, name this home of the Willis Tower, the largest city in Illinois.
7. Before this battle, the officer who recaptured the island fort of Diamond Rock retreated to Cadiz, believing a false report that an enemy was residing in the Bay of Biscay. The Redoutable and the Bucentaure were captured during this battle, in which Cuthbert Collingwood managed to maneuver a squadron behind the fleet of Pierre de Villeneuve. The victorious commander of this battle signaled “England expects that every man will do his duty” before being shot by a sniper. For 10 points, name this 1805 naval battle in which Horatio Nelson won a major victory in the Napoleonic Wars.
ANSWER: Battle of Trafalgar
8. This scientist theorized that solids combine with “caloric” to form liquids, and he also showed respiration to be a type of combustion. He theorized that all acids must contain oxygen, and his research showed that weight changes during combustion arise from mixing with oxygen, disproving the phlogiston theory. This author of Elementary Treatise on Chemistry also named the element hydrogen. For 10 points, name this French scientist who developed the law of conservation of mass, often considered the father of modern chemistry.
ANSWER: Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier
9. This artist recorded a song for the movie Rio called “Telling the World”, and another of his songs was released in two versions featuring either Kylie Minogue or Travie McCoy. That song, “Higher”, was included in his first album Rokstarr, and in another of his songs, he sings that “I throw my hands up in the air sometimes”. In one of his songs, Ludacris declares that “I may not be the worst or the best but you gotta respect my honesty,” and the singer warns in the chorus that “if you fall for me, I’m not easy to please”. For 10 points, name this British singer whose hits have included “Dynamite” and “Break Your Heart”.
ANSWER: Taio Cruz [accept Jacob Taio Cruz]
10. One short story by this author sees the title character halt a procession led by Edmund Andros, and in another, a small orange lizard distorts itself to death. This author of “The Gray Champion” wrote about four old men who travel to Florida in search of the Fountain of Youth in “Dr. Heidegger’s Experiment”. He also wrote a short story in which Goodman finds his wife Faith at a witches’ Sabbath. In his most famous novel, Arthur Dimmesdale fathers Pearl with Hester Prynne. For 10 points, name this American author of The Scarlet Letter.
ANSWER: Nathaniel Hawthorne
11. This work suggests that it is better to give citizens weapons freely rather than forcibly confiscate them. It asserts that it is better for one to have barons than servants, and mercenaries are declared to be both useless and disloyal in this work. This book warns against flatterers, and it personifies fortune as a woman that must be controlled. It praises Cesare Borgia and also advises rulers to be both a fox and a lion. This work declares that it is better to be feared than loved. For 10 points, name this political treatise written for one of the Medicis by Niccolo Machiavelli.
ANSWER: The Prince [accept Il Principe]
12. The title figure in this work manages to escape from angry pursuers shortly after “Protegga il giusto cielo” is played. The aria “Il mio tesoro” is sung by Ottavio in this opera, and the bass aria “Madamina, il catalogo e questo” is sung in an attempt to console a revengeful character. The victims in this opera include Zerlina and Donna Elvira, and the title figure escapes with his servant Leporello after a murder. The statue of the Commendatore drags the title figure to hell in its final scene. For 10 points, name this opera about a seducer by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
ANSWER: Don Giovanni
13. One character in this work asserts that acting is a profession for madmen, and that character sends away his wife when she falls in love with a clerk. That wife, Amalia, returns to the town after the death of the clerk, and finds work as a seamstress. Amalia’s daughter works as a prostitute in this work, and is discovered by Amalia’s former husband when he visits Madame Pace’s shop. In its last scene, The Child drowns in a fountain, and The Boy shoots himself in the head. For 10 points, name this play in which The Father, The Mother, and four other characters seek a creator, a work by Luigi Pirandello.
Answer: Six Characters in Search of an Author [accept Sei personaggi in cerca d'autore]
14. This man was defeated at the Battle of Cheat Mountain, and he later fought against Winfield Hancock at the Second Battle of Deep Bottom. This man found a trail which would lead the Americans to victory at the Battle of Cerro Gordo, and he was given field command when Joseph Johnston was wounded at the Battle of Seven Pines. One of his officers lost a copy of his battle plan before the Battle of Antietam, and he suppressed an attempted revolt led by John Brown at Harper's Ferry. For 10 points, name this Confederate general who surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse.
ANSWER: Robert Edward Lee
15. A precursor stage to the formation of these cells is the creation of a normoblast, and they express the CD47 marker to protect themselves from phagocytosis. The Coombs test is used to detect antibodies on the surface of these cells, and immature ones are known as reticulocytes. Excessive production of them is known as polycythemia, and they form in the bone marrow and are destroyed in the spleen. These biconcave cells lack nuclei, though they become distorted in people with sickle cell anemia. For 10 points, identify these cells that deliver oxygen via the circulatory system.
ANSWER: Red Blood Cells [accept Erythrocytes]
16. One member of this school of thought used a box of thumbtacks, a box of matches, and a candle to examine the concept of functional fixedness and was named Karl Duncker. Another member of this school who posited the Field Theory was named Kurt Lewis, and a Necker Cube is used as an example to illustrate its concept of multistability. It theorized that all cognitive experiences are organized in the simplest forms in the law of pragnanz. For 10 points, name this holistic school of psychology led by Wolfgang Kohler and Max Wertheimer centered in Berlin.
ANSWER: Gestalt Psychology
17. In one story, this figure engages in an insult exchange with the ferryman Harbarth. He killed a certain giant after that giant almost finished building Asgard, and he recovered his favorite weapon from Thrym by disguising himself as Freya. This deity failed to empty a drinking horn connected to the sea, and at Ragnarok, he will kill the Midgard Serpent. His most precious possessions are a pair of iron gloves, a belt of strength, and a hammer. For 10 points, name this thunder god of Norse mythology.
18. This man once served as a Special Adviser to Norman Lamont. He generated controversy when it was revealed that his communications director Andy Coulson had engaged in phone hacking as a news editor, and he has recently faced criticism for his policy regarding the European Union. He succeeded Michael Howard as the head of his party, and is currently the MP for Witney. Upon forming a coalition government with Nick Clegg and the Liberal Democrats, he assumed his current office after the resignation of Gordon Brown. For 10 points, name this Conservative and current Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
ANSWER: David Cameron
19. This author wrote about the triumph of proverbs in his work The Gods of the Copybook Headings. In one poem, he states that the hyenas “know that the dead are safer meat,” and in another, a soldier is hanged for shooting a sleeping comrade. This author of “Danny Deever” wrote a story in which Daniel Dravot and Peachey Carnehan take over the throne of Kafiristan. The narrator of one of his poems tells a water carrier that he is “a better man than I am,” and he created such characters as Shere Khan, Baloo, and Mowgli. For 10 points, name this British author of The Jungle Book.
ANSWER: Joseph Rudyard Kipling
20. This scientist showed a quantitative link between Rayleigh scattering and critical opalescence, and he also created a theory of stimulated emission for use in lasers. This scientist who names a set of ten field equations worked with Rosen and Podolsky to develop the EPR paradox. With Satyendra Bose, he developed statistics predicting the behavior of bosons, and this physicist won the Nobel Prize for his explanation of the photoelectric effect. For 10 points, name this developer of the theories of special and general relativity.
ANSWER: Albert Einstein
TB. This law can be applied to determine the degree of completion of chemical reactions, and one statement of this law, which breaks time reversal symmetry, is known as Boltzmann’s H-theorem. Another formulation of this law states that heat cannot convert energy completely into work. A thought experiment proposed to violate this law allowed one side of a chamber to heat up quickly, and Clausius is credited with the first formulation of this law, which is violated by Maxwell’s demon. For 10 points, name this law which states that the entropy of the universe is always increasing.
ANSWER: Second Law of Thermodynamics
1. Music by this composer was used as the theme of Benjamin Britten’s The Young Person’s Guide to the Orchestra. For 10 points each:
 Name this English composer of The Indian Queen and The Fairy-Queen.
ANSWER: Henry Purcell
 Purcell composed in this heavily ornamented musical style which preceded the Classical period.
 This Purcell opera has a libretto by Nahum Tate. Its last act features the aria “When I am laid in Earth” sung by the title queen.
ANSWER: Dido and Aeneas
2. The narrator of this poem states that the title figure is “burning bright in the forests of the night.” For 10 points each:
 Name this poem which ends with the narrator asking “What immortal hand or eye dare frame thy fearful symmetry?”
ANSWER: “The Tyger”
 “The Tyger” was written by this English poet of Songs of Experience.
ANSWER: William Blake
 In this poem from Songs of Innocence, the narrator asks the title figure, “Dost thou know who made thee?” and identifies God as its creator.
ANSWER: “The Lamb”
3. The stars Alnitak, Alnilam and Mintaka form this constellation’s “belt”. For 10 points each:
 Name this constellation known as “The Great Hunter.”
 Although it is the constellation’s alpha star, this red supergiant is actually the second brightest star in Orion by magnitude. It forms one of Orion’s shoulders.
ANSWER: Betelgeuse [prompt on Alpha Orionis]
 This blue supergiant is the beta star in Orion and is located at the “foot” of the constellation.
4. In this work’s second chapter, the author focuses on Benjamin Franklin’s saying that “time is money.” For 10 points each:
 Name this work in which the author suggests that the belief in “vocational calling” encourages the growth of the title economic system.
ANSWER: The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
 This German sociologist wrote The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism while also studying the development of capitalism in other religions.
ANSWER: Maximilian Carl Emil Weber
 In his Politics as a Vocation, Weber stated that the state holds one of these on the legitimate use of violence. This term refers to a market situation in which only one seller exists.
5. It was created after the failure of the electric utility companies to develop water resources for cheap power. For 10 points each.
 Name this New Deal agency responsible for navigation, flood control, and economic development in its namesake region.
ANSWER: Tennessee Valley Authority
 This New Deal agency provided unemployed men with jobs relating to natural resources, such as planting trees and improving irrigation.
ANSWER: Civilian Conservation Corps
 Symbolized with an image of a blue eagle, this New Deal agency set the maximum working hours and minimum wage. It was held unconstitutional in 1935.
ANSWER: National Recovery Administration
6. Steven Martin plays the protagonist in its 2006 release, in which he works with Ponton to stop Yuri the Trainer from killing Xania. For 10 points each:
 Name this series of comedy films in which Inspector Clouseau investigates the theft of the title jewelry.
ANSWER: The Pink Panther
 The Pink Panther is closely associated with this British comedian and actor, who starred in Being There and a movie about a doomsday device.
ANSWER: Peter Sellers
 Sellers starred as three different characters in this aforementioned black comedy film about General Jack D. Ripper causing a nuclear holocaust. It was directed by Stanley Kubrick.
ANSWER: Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb
7. He became known as the “father of modern genetics.” For 10 points each:
 Name this Austrian scientist who worked with pea plants and came up with four principles of genetics.
ANSWER: Gregor Mendel
 This law of Mendelian inheritance states that for a specific trait, each parent provides one allele.
ANSWER: Law of Segregation
 This other genetic principle states that allele frequency will remain constant in a population. It only holds in certain conditions, which include random mating and the absence of mutations.
ANSWER Hardy-Weinberg principle
8. Answer the following about Roman emperors. For 10 points each:
 This predecessor of Caligula despised his adopted son, General Germanicus. He spent the end of his reign on Capri, leaving Lucius Sejanus in control of Rome.
ANSWER: Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus [accept Tiberius Claudius Nero]
 This last of the Four Emperors founded the Flavian dynasty. He led the invasion of Britain and put down the Great Jewish Revolt.
ANSWER: Titus Flavius Vespasianus
 This member of the Five Good Emperors built a namesake wall which marked Rome’s northern boundary in Britain.
ANSWER: Publius Aelius Hadrianus
9. This character imprisoned in ice eternally gnaws the skull of his enemy Ruggieri. For 10 points each:
 Name this nobleman who ate his sons’ corpses when left to starve to death in a tower.
ANSWER: Ugolino della Gherardesca
 Ugolino appears in the Ninth Circle of Hell in The Divine Comedy, a work by this Italian poet.
ANSWER: Dante Alighieri [accept either]
 In the first two parts of The Divine Comedy, Dante is guided through Hell and Purgatory by this earlier poet.
10. He was raised in Mount Nysa when his mother died after seeing Zeus in all his glory. For 10 points each:
 Name this son of Semele and the Greek god of wine and fertility, who turned the Tyrrhenian pirates into dolphins.
ANSWER: Dionysus [accept Bacchus]
 Dionysus was from this city, whose legendary finder began his journey by looking for his abducted sister Europa.
 This king of Thebes opposed Dionysus and ended up being ripped apart by his own mother Agave, who tore his head off and stuck it on a stick.
11. The Dardanelles connects this body of water to the Aegean Sea. For 10 points each:
 Name this sea connected to the Sea of Marmara by the Bosporus.
ANSWER: Black Sea
 The Strait of Kerch connects the Black Sea to this smaller sea, bounded to the west by the Crimean Peninsula. The Don River and the Kuban River flow into this sea.
ANSWER: Sea of Azov
 This city is the administrative center of its namesake Oblast. It is located on the Don River near the Sea of Azov.
12. This quantity equals zero when the force and displacement vectors are perpendicular to each other. For 10 points each:
 Name this quantity measured in joules, the change in kinetic energy of an object.
 This quantity, the rate at which work is done, is equal to the dot product of the force and velocity vectors.
 For a force that varies with position, work can be calculated by performing this operation on the force function with respect to position.
ANSWER: Integration [accept word forms; accept Line Integral or Path Integral]
13. It is separated into the three divisions of wisdom, ethical conduct, and mental development.
For 10 points each:
 Name this fourth of the Four Noble Truths, which the adherents of Buddhism believe is the way to end suffering.
ANSWER: The Noble Eightfold Path
 The Eightfold Path is one of the principal teachings of this founder of Buddhism.
ANSWER: Siddhartha Gautama
 Siddhartha Gautama is believed to be the first figure to achieve this state of enlightened peace and freedom from suffering.
14. Pisthetaerus plans to cut off communication between humans and the gods by building Cloudcuckooland in one of this author’s plays. For 10 points each:
 Name this Greek playwright who wrote about Strepsiades forcing Pheidippides to enroll in school in The Clouds and who also wrote The Birds.
 In this Aristophanes play, Bacchus and Xanthias travel to the underworld to meet the great playwrights, and Bacchus judges Aeschylus to be a superior playwright compared to Euripides.
ANSWER: The Frogs [accept Batrachoi]
 A sausage seller and Cleon the Paphlagonian compete to serve Demus in this Aristophanes play.
ANSWER: The Knights [accept Hippēs]
15. Prior to this battle, Mir Jafar had been bribed to betray his own side by the winning commander. For 10 points each:
 Name this battle in which the East India Company defeated the forces of the Nawab of Bengal.
ANSWER: Battle of Plassey
 The East India Company army was led by this man, who assumed command of the Company army following his unsuccessful bid for a seat in the House of Commons.
ANSWER: Robert Clive
 This incident, in which it was alleged one hundred forty-six people were imprisoned by the Nawab in a tiny, airless dungeon in Fort William, became notorious prior to Plassey.
ANSWER: The Black Hole of Calcutta
16. A man wearing an overcoat and a bowler hat stands behind a hovering green apple in this painter’s The Son of Man. For 10 points each:
 Name this Belgian artist, who also painted a group of identical men falling down from the sky in his Golconda.
ANSWER: Rene Magritte
 This painting by Magritte depicts a black locomotive coming out of a fireplace into an empty room.
ANSWER: Time Transfixed
 An image of this object appears in Magritte’s The Treachery of Images.
17. This novel is divided into four sections corresponding to the four seasons. For 10 points each:
 Name this novel in which Pecola Breedlove has an obsession with the title facial feature and moves in with the family of Claudia.
ANSWER: The Bluest Eye
 The Bluest Eye was written by this female African-American author of Song of Solomon.
ANSWER: Toni Morrison [accept Chloe Anthony Wofford or Chloe Anthony Morrison]
 In this Morrison novel, Paul D and Sethe are haunted by a ghost after Sethe kills her child to protect the child from slavery.
18. This philosopher warned of the danger “the tyranny of the majority” can pose to liberty. For 10 points each:
 Name this philosopher who argued that governments should be judged by their ability to make their citizens happy in his book On Liberty.
ANSWER: John Stuart Mill
 John Stuart Mill developed the harm principle in a book describing this philosophy supporting the greatest good for the greatest number developed by Jeremy Bentham.
 Mill made a case for female suffrage and rights in this work possibly co-written with his wife, Harriet Taylor.
ANSWER: The Subjection of Women
19. Often called the Gentle Revolution, it included the Charter 77 and the Civic Forum. For 10 points each:
 Name this event in which Gustav Husak resigned as the president of a certain country and Vaclav Havel became the final president.
ANSWER: Velvet Revolution [accept Sametova Revoluce]
 The Velvet Revolution occurred in this country, which held its first democratic election in 1945. Prague Spring occurred in this country under Alexander Dubcek.
ANSWER: Czechoslovakia [Do not accept “Czech Republic” or “Slovakia”]
 Czechoslovakia was part of this alliance led by the Soviet Union, which was the Communist analogue to NATO. It was a mutual defense organization of eastern European countries.
ANSWER: Warsaw Pact [accept Warsaw Treaty or Warpac]
20. Often symbolized K, this quantity can be used to determine if a reversible reaction favors products or reactants. For 10 points each:
 Name this quantity equal to the concentration of products over concentration of reactants when forward and reverse chemical reactions are both proceeding at the same rate.
ANSWER: Equilibrium Constant
 The equilibrium constant can be used with this principle that states that if dynamic equilibrium in a system is disturbed, equilibrium will shift to counteract that change.
ANSWER: Le Chatelier’s Principle
 Le Chatelier’s principle can be used to explain this effect describing the reduced dissociation of an acid when it is mixed with a salt with the namesake property.
ANSWER: Common Ion Effect
TB. This gulf’s low salinity allows many freshwater fish live in it. For 10 points each:
 Name this Northern gulf in the Baltic Sea, which is located between Sweden and Finland.
ANSWER: Gulf of Bothnia
 This country borders the Skagerrak Strait and has cities including Trondheim and Oslo. It is well known for its fjords.
 Norway owns this Arctic Ocean archipelago, which mostly consists of national parks and nature reserves.