Selection of issues relevant to a partnership in relation to rural and urban development
- Case study of the region „Südraum Leipzig“ -
Author: Prof. Dr. Usbeck - Büro für Stadt- und
Arnoldplatz 5 a, 04439 Leipzig-Engelsdorf
Tel.: (03 41) 2 51 45 51; Fax: (03 41) 2 51 45 56
By order of: Zweckverband Kommunales Forum Südraum Leipzig
Rathausplatz 1, 04416 Markkleeberg
Leipzig-Engelsdorf, September 1999
II. General data about the region „Südraum Leipzig“
III. Characteristics of the region „Südraum Leipzig“
III.1. Situation, historical overview, topics
III.2. Settlement structure
III.3. Economic structural change
III.4. Planning culture and main actors
Name: Region „Südraum Leipzig“ (southern region of Leipzig)
NUTS: The NUTS level at European level is II / III. The regions of Germany (”planning regions“ defined by the Federal Office for Building and Regional Planning / BBR are located between NUTS levels II and III.
Localisation: Figure 1 (Annex) gives the localisation of the case study region „Südraum Leipzig“ in Germany.
II. General data about the region „Südraum Leipzig“
a) Total population:
City of Leipzig: 491,000 inhabitants (1999; administrative area 01.01.1999)
14 towns/municipalities (Südraum Leipzig): 107,000 inhabitants (1998)
This indicator is available only on the higher (statistical) level. The indicator „gross value production“ (1996) is used for the case study:
City of Leipzig: 0.031 million DM
14 towns/municipalities (Südraum Leipzig): 0.023 million DM
Germany: 0.039 million DM
c) % of population with higher education (1998):
This indicator is not available. We use percentage of employees with higher education.
City of Leipzig: 16.1 %
14 towns/municipalities (Südraum Leipzig): 9.6 %
d) Population by age structure:
age groups (%)
18 - <50
50 - <65
City of Leipzig (administrative area 1999)
e) Active population by activity sectors (1997):
total active population
activity sector % I
City of Leipzig (area 31.12.1998)
f) Number of cars/ 1,000 inhabitants (1997):
City of Leipzig: 366
14 towns/municipalities (Südraum Leipzig): 519
g) Regional functionality/ productive specialisation:
The region „Südraum Leipzig“ is undergoing a fundamental process of structural transformation from an old industrialised monostructured region based on surface mining of lignite and basic industry to a region with a broader modern branch profile with high technological power and chemical industry, industrial services, commerce and public services. New branches are developing step by step.
h) Type of political administration:
The region „Südraum Leipzig“ is not an autonomous administrative region. In a broader sense it is more a „mental“ region, which represents the traditional old industrialised and mining area southern of Leipzig. The region belongs administratively to the county Leipziger Land. In 1996 the local administration union „Communal Platform Südraum Leipzig“ was founded. Members of the union are 14 towns and municipalities of the county Leipziger Land and the city of Leipzig (only the southern city districts). The local administration union represents not a political administration but a union of intraregional co-operation (urban - surrounding countryside) for regional development purposes.
i) Main actors in the process of development:
Because of the dramatic economic and structural changes during the last decade a wide range of actors exists in the region (see below). The main actors are:
- Regional and local authorities (Regional Planning Association, district headquarter, office of the county president, municipal/town/city councils)
- Local administration union “Communal Platform Südraum Leipzig“
- SL Südraum Leipzig GmbH (regional development agency)
- Economic, cultural, scientific et.al. associations
- Entrepreneurs and firms
- Regional „AGENDA-Group“ and its working groups
j) Development model:
The recent development model is framed by the official planning institutions on different hierarchical levels:
State Saxony - State Development Plan
Region Western Saxony - Regional Plan
Municipalities - Land Use Plan
A „Lignite Plan“ (Braunkohlenplan) is a special official planning document for the region „Südraum Leipzig“. This plan contents the development of surface lignite mining and the transformation steps for the surface mines shut down (and their surroundings) in a new landscape and land use.
Beside the official plans the local administration union „Communal Platform Südraum Leipzig“ has initiated the elaboration of a „Regional Development and Action Concept for the Region Südraum Leipzig“. It will be finished in the year 2000. The main regional and local actors are incorporated in the elaboration of this development concept.
III. Characteristics of the region „Südraum Leipzig“
III.1. Situation, historical overview, topics
The region „Südraum Leipzig“ is a part of the „Central German Economic Region Halle-Leipzig-Dessau“ and includes the major part of the county Leipziger Land.1 The region „Südraum Leipzig“ includes 14 towns and municipalities and an area of 450 square kilometres. It borders on the southern districts of the city of Leipzig and is situated at the borders of the states Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia (Figure 1). The region has about 107,000 inhabitants. The population density is 243 inhabitants per square kilometre. According to this density a major part of the region „Südraum Leipzig“ is characterised as an agglomeration area (State Development Plan of Saxony) and belongs to the agglomeration region of Leipzig.
The region „Südraum Leipzig“ is not a rural area in the classical meaning. Within the last 100 years it has developed from a country with predominantly rural settlements to an industrial and mining region. Basis were extensive lignite deposits, which were quarried in lignite surface mining. On this basis large sites of chemical industry, power industry and briquette factories developed (for example the sites Böhlen, Lippendorf, Espenhain, Thierbach). They were the main employers for the southern region’s population but also for employees from Leipzig, who commuted to the large enterprises. With the industrialisation of the southern region close economic interconnections with the city of Leipzig developed (for instance engineering for the mines, chemical industry).
Until 1990 3.2 thousand million tons of lignite have been quarried in the region „Südraum Leipzig“. Because of surface mining more than 250 square kilometres of landscape and 70 settlements have been devastated. The inhabitants of those settlements were removed, mainly to the cities and towns (Leipzig, Borna).
Large changes of land use were related to mining (Table 1). Especially large areas of arable land and forests were devastated. Today, one quarter of the territory of the region „Südraum Leipzig“ are areas which are affected by surface mining.
Table 1: Land use changes in the region „Südraum Leipzig“
Floodplains (and other)
Source: Berkner: Die beieinträchtigten Oberflächengewässer mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Pleiße. HTWK-Beiträge.Sonderheft.
Statistisches Landesamt des Freistaates Sachsen; calculations by USBECK GmbH
Lignite surface mining, chemical industries and power industries caused not only heavy landscape damages but also heavy air and water pollution. This resulted in the development of a committed ecological movement, particularly in the region „Südraum Leipzig“.
Since 1990 almost every lignite surface mining site, the briquette factories and most of the old chemical factories and power plants have been closed. Therefore, more than half of all jobs of the region were lost. At the same time, diverse measures to reorganise the regional economy, to promote environmental reconstruction and to improve infrastructure have been initiated.
The main regional development topic is to transform the region from a monostructured region of mining and basic industry with large damages of environment and landscape to a modern centre of lignite based power industry (new power plant Lippendorf), chemical industry (basic synthetic materials; firm system Buna-Böhlen-Leuna) and a broad modern branch profile. This economic model has to be connected with high environmental standards and attractive housing and leisure conditions. In the course of this, the reconstruction of landscape after mining and the genesis of several lakes in the direct neighbourhood to the city of Leipzig plays a major role.
This transformation process calls for an integrative perspective, taking into account the economical, social, political and cultural dimension. It also requires the co-operation between the 14 towns and municipalities of the region „Südraum Leipzig“ and the city of Leipzig (in the sense of „rural“-urban partnership). For this purpose the local administration union „Communal Platform Südraum Leipzig“ was founded. The transformation process requires also the inclusion and involvement of many regional and local protagonists and actors as well as support by the state of Saxony, the Federal Government and the EU.
The transformation of the economy and the labour market, selected aspects of settlement structure and the planning culture will be viewed below.
III.2. Settlement structure
According to the hierarchical system of urban centres, the city of Leipzig is the highest urban centre in Western Saxony. It carries out a broad functional spectrum for the whole region (policy, administration, economy, infrastructure, services, culture, education, science...). The system of urban centres of the region „Südraum Leipzig“ is characterised by one middle sized centre (Borna), 7 lower sided centres and 3 small sized centres (Figure 2).
Borna is situated in the central part of the (new configured, 01.01.1999) county Leipziger Land and will be again the new seat of the county administration (formerly in Leipzig). Borna has about 20,000 inhabitants. The temporary loss of the seat of county administration (as a result of the saxonian county reform in 1994) led to a clear functional, economic (working places) and also demographic weakening of the town. This could be demonstrated by interregional (with other middle sized centres of Western Saxony) as well as regional comparisons in a detailed study (Usbeck 1998). Actually the town of Borna cannot yet fulfil all conditions as a middle sized centre of its region. Especially in the function as a job centre it requires a clear strengthening in the following years. The amount of jobs (per 1,000 inhabitants = 335) is to low, compared with other western saxonian middle sized centres. It is to low not only for the own population but also for the population of the rural settlements in the countryside. This situation makes Borna to one of the communities with the highest unemployment rate in the county Leipziger Land. In addition it has an above standard rate of outcommuters in comparison to other middle side centres of Western Saxony.
Markkleeberg is the largest town in the region „Südraum Leipzig“ (about 23,000 inhabitants). the town is classified as a lower centre within the system of centre categories and performs maintenance functions for the surrounding countryside. The town borders directly to the city of Leipzig and makes profit from this neighbourhood. It has an attractive situation for housing and an attractive landscape, so in recent years it developed to an attractive domicile for Leipzig’s population. Between 1990 and 1997 the town had an increase of 2,060 inhabitants (Figures 3-5). Markkleeberg could not only gain a considerable population growth but also an extension of its function as an important job centre. For several years the town has a constant incommuting surplus with the other parts of the region „Südraum Leipzig“ as well as with the city of Leipzig. This can be estimated as a clear indicator for growing economic stability of Markkleeberg and its growing position for job services also for the rural settlements of the region.
After the 1989 changes the number of population reduced also in the region „Südraum Leipzig“ (approximately -6 %) as well as in the city of Leipzig (about -16 %). This is the result of interregional outmigration (especially 1989-1992), suburbanization (outmigration from Leipzig and Borna to the urban surrounding countryside) and natural population loss. Some aspects of the process of suburbanization (started in 1992/93) should be outlined: Figure 3 shows a ring of municipalities in the urban surrounding countryside of Leipzig with highest population growth rates based on a immigration surplus of city population. Only the northern part of the region „Südraum Leipzig“ (Markkleeberg, Großpösna, Mölbis, Zwenkau) could make profit from population growth via suburbanization. This is a result of the neighbourhood to the city of Leipzig and its fast accessibility, an outstanding supply of attractive housing land and an outstanding increase of housebuilding in these municipalities (Figure 4). In contrast, there have been serious population losses in the core area of the region „Südraum Leipzig“ (Borna and northern/western surrounding area). Negative migration and natural population rates are going on. It is closely connected with the complicated ongoing long term transformation process in the regional economy and landscape structure of this old industrialised and mining area of the region. The middle sized centre Borna has been confronted with the suburbanization process also in the last years. Highest outmigration rates of all medium sized centres of Western Saxony since 1993 are typical for its situation. Especially the municipalities south of Borna (attractive landscape and supply of housing areas) could make profit from suburbanization tendencies in the town of Borna. A consequence of and a precondition for the suburbanization process is the rapid increase of individual cars and traffic. 519 private cars per 1,000 inhabitants are registered in the region. This is one of the highest values of all saxonian regions.
III.3. Economic structural change
The economical development in the region „Südraum Leipzig“ can be shown in three main phases since 1990 (Figure 6):
1. Phase of radical change
2. Phase of transformation
3. Phase of getting a new economic and image profile
The phase of radical change was shaped by integrated plant-break ups, privatisation, liquidations of firms and by the elimination of large old locations and traditional inter- and intraregional economic relationships (also between the city of Leipzig and the region). Since 1990 the region „Südraum Leipzig“ had a loss of more than 42,000 jobs (-56 %), especially due to the closure of lignite surface mining sites and due to the closure of coal-using power economy and lignite based chemical enterprises (see figures 7, 8).
The city of Leipzig was afflicted with a loss of more than 130,000 jobs (-41 %) in this period also. At the same time a radical change of the job structure (from production oriented to service oriented activities) has taken place, so that the chances for miners and traditional industrial workers for getting new jobs decreased.
The change of the regional commuting relation system reflects the phase of radical change very clearly: The region „Südraum Leipzig“ changed from an incommuting region to an outcommuting region during few years. A surplus of incommuters of about 12,000 people (high share from the city of Leipzig) during the 80es is confronted with an outcommuting surplus of about 4,000 persons in 1998 (Figure 7). The region „Südraum Leipzig“ loses about 3,300 commuters (9,300 outcommuters are confronted with 6,000 incommuters from Leipzig) to the city of Leipzig.
Two thirds of the southern regions` jobs are concentrated at the locations Borna, Böhlen, Espenhain and Markkleeberg. Three of four employees are commuters to work here. Most of the Markkleeberg’s incommuters are from Leipzig, on the other hand most of the incommuters to Borna, Böhlen and Espenhain are comming from the municipalities of the region „Südraum Leipzig“. This reflects on the one hand the strong job relationships between the higher centre Leipzig and the middle sized centre Markkleeberg (urban-urban relations), on the other hand the importance of job centres in the central part of the region for the surrounding settlements. To a large extend employees from other parts of the county Leipziger Land or from the neighbouring counties Altenburger Land (Thuringia) and Muldentalkreis (MTL) commute to work into the locations of the southern region. The commuting balance of account with those regions is positive (Figure 9).
In the phase of transformation considerable economic impulses could be set against the phase of radical change:
- Large investments have been done into a modern power economy and chemical industry (location Böhlen-Lippendorf; chemistry triangle Böhlen-Buna-Leuna) and into modernisation of a lignite mining site (lignite for the new power station) (Figure 10);
- Expenditure of about 1.2 thousand million DM for employment measures to reconstruct and renaturalise the old mining land and the old industrial sites;
- There have been investments into creation and strengthening of infrastructure (motorway A 38, road net, development of new business locations, waste water treatment...);
- The Espenhain Campus was built with a medium term development as a centre for research application and communication (multimedia, telecommunication)
- Potentials, disincorporated from former integrated plants (Kombinate), established themselves in certain technology branches and developed specific competencies (engineering consultancies, environmental technology and reconstruction, measuring and control engineering, telecommunication, telematics)
During the phase of transformation a new branch structure has developed in the region „Südraum Leipzig“. Physically it is demonstrated by the step by step-settlement of new business locations, and partly the resettlement of the old industrial sites as well. In addition, the disincorporation and creation of companies must be mentioned. Actually less than 6 % of all companies in the region „Südraum Leipzig“ can be assigned to the formerly important branches mining/power maintenance/processing industries. In contrast, almost half of all companies are from the commercial and catering trade branch. The business-related service sector, being about 10 %, is still relatively weak in the region (Figure 11).
Today besides a few larger companies (Figure 8), the business structure of the region is shaped by small and middle scale firms (average business size of 11 employees). Their area of integration (interrelation) is mainly limited to local and regional associated areas. In addition, as the branch structure has shown, they are focussing mainly on commerce and catering trade. This branch structure is partly based on a still available high purchase power of former and actual miners. Therefore, the actual structure will be not able to take a weight in long terms and requires supply and strengthening by innovative enterprises of modern branches.
Corporate R&D-potentials are insufficiently existent at present. Co-operations with colleges, research institutes (not university related) or development consultancies in the city of Leipzig and other higher urban centres are still relatively rare. On the other hand, available opportunities and offers are not yet tailor-made to company and market-related conditions. New built Espenhain Campus can and is going to establish relations between urban scientific institutions and regional economy and, at the same time, is functioning as a modern centre of communication and multimedia information transfer.
The starting conditions for a closer connection between science and economy in the region are relatively favourable. On the one hand, the region „Südraum Leipzig“ is situated in direct neighbourhood to the higher order centre Leipzig with is many research institutions. On the other hand, the southern regions employees have a good qualification level (10 % got a college grade, in some core branches up to 20 %; broad basis of skilled workers with qualification and experiences in production and service jobs; see figure 12).
Parallel to the successive conclusion of the transformation phase and the development of a new branch structure the phase of getting a new economic profile and image of location and companies starts slowly. A large part of the companies is actually in the phase of stabilisation and protection of competencies. The firms and locations are forming new regional and interregional relationships (networking). In this future process also the region-urban(centre)-relationships and co-operation of firms and locations will play an important role (regional economic circular course, regional value production chains), but because of the described radical economic changes, the regional economy of the „Südraum Leipzig“ is just at the beginning of this process.
The structural change and transformation in the region is not yet come to an end. The region „Südraum Leipzig“ has the highest unemployment rate of Western Saxony (22 %), and, in contrast to the neighbouring regions of Saxony and Thuringia, in comparison to the last year the rate raised further (Figure 13).
III.4. Planning culture and main actors
The region „Südraum Leipzig“ is a part of the planning region Western Saxony. The official planning levels, institutions and instruments have already been mentioned in chapter II. In the following the so called informal planning level of the region and its activities and actors will be emphasised.
Because of the dramatic economic and structural change a wide range of initiatives and actors have been established in the last decade. Engaged people, associations, politicians, entrepreneurs and local/regional administrations belong to them (actors). Beside the official planning procedures and documents (duty of administration) these actors are engaged in initiatives and projects for regional development.
Since 1990 four large regional conferences took place in the region. A large number of workshops with integrated and specific topics of regional development in the region „Südraum Leipzig“ have been organised in partnership and co-operation with actors from the city of Leipzig during this time. In completion to the official plans specific competitions (architecture, design, culture) play an important role. The region „Südraum Leipzig“ takes part in the federal competition „Regions of the Future“ with special emphasis on an integrated sustainable regional development. For this purpose a regional „AGENDA-Group“ was founded with several working groups according to the main projects for regional development. Actually the competition includes 7 special projects for the region but also common projects with the city of Leipzig. Both partners are developing for instance a common project for EXPO 2000 (restructuring of a former surface mine to a lake with facilities for sports and leisure time as a recreation area). All projects are oriented by the regional plan and by the land use plans of the municipalities and contribute to their realisation.
Figure 14 shows the official and informal planning levels and actors relevant to the region „Südraum Leipzig“. Some of them shall be characterised in few sentences.
The most important actor is the local administration union „Communal Platform Südraum Leipzig“. It was founded in 1996. Members are 14 towns and municipalities of the region „Südraum Leipzig“ and the city of Leipzig with its southern districts. All members are influenced by the effects of the former surface lignite mining. Their aim is the development of the old industrialised and mining region in the common interest. They have the task to develop a new regional economy and infrastructure and to reconstruct the affected natural landscape. The Communal Platform Südraum Leipzig is an instrument and organisation for the common discussion and co-ordination of the main development problems and projects and for the presentation of the region outwards. The main common development tasks are:
- Improvement of infrastructure (traffic lines, technical infrastructure)
- Economic development and life quality
- Water economical reconstruction
- Landscape design
- Promotion of tourism
- Availability of land.
For realisation of its own aims, for improvement of intraregional co-operation and for realisation of the state development plan and the regional plan the Communal Platform Südraum Leipzig is working out a regional development and action concept. Another measure is the elaboration of a regional marketing concept including a regional information system.
The SL Südraum Leipzig GmbH was founded 1997. This organisation is a kind of regional development agency. It reflects the efforts of the communes, of the regional firms and of the saxonian government for the development of the region by economic prosperity, ecological sustainability and social stability.
The main tasks are:
- Co-ordination of concepts for renewal of the region on the basis of existing plans,
- Co-ordination of spatial development projects,
- Land use management for reconstruction and reuse of old industrial sites including promotion of settlement,
- Reconstruction and development of contaminated mining locations and marketing for their use as economic site or for environmental, housing and leisure purposes.
The SL Südraum Leipzig GmbH is engaged in the development of regional marketing, in the development of modern information and communication facilities for the region but also in the design of a new landscape in a high quality.
The Economic Association Südraum Leipzig represents about 30 firms of the region and is competent for all aspects of economic regional development. The association is a companion of the SL Südraum Leipzig GmbH and contributed to the construction of the Espenhain Campus and of a commercial location in Mölbis. The members are very engaged in the work of the regional AGENDA-group and its working groups.
The Espenhain Campus GmbH - Institute for Innovation and Regional Change is a scientific research oriented initiative if regional actors. The aim is applied research of regional structural change and the conversion of the results by pilot projects. The Espenhain Campus is a nodal point of networking of the region „Südraum Leipzig“ with scientific institutions of the region and the city of Leipzig with the following functions:
- Transfer of knowledge
- R&D in co-operation with regional actors
- Co-ordination and scientific support for special regional projects.
The main scientific topics are:
- Region and Innovation,
- Information and communication
- Energy and environment
- New forms of construction.
Beside the mentioned Communal Platform Südraum Leipzig the so called „Green Belt Leipzig“ (Grüner Ring Leipzig) is a specific form of co-operation between the city of Leipzig and the municipalities of the surrounding countryside. The city of Leipzig and 13 municipalities are joined in this organisation for a voluntary and having equal rights co-operation. Six municipalities (from the northern part) of the region „Südraum Leipzig“ are members of the „Green Belt Leipzig“, that was founded at an urban-countryside-conference in 1996. The main aims are co-ordination and promotion of nature conservation, landscape development, recreation and sustainable economy in the urban surrounding countryside. Regional and communal administrations, associations, chambers, firms and people of the region are engaged in several working groups. The members of the 4. Urban-countryside conference (1998) decided a regional action concept for the territory of the „Grüne Ring Leipzig“: It contains common and communal specific aims, measures and projects. For the region „Südraum Leipzig“ such measures are interalia reconstruction of former mining areas (EXPO 2000 project), measures for nature conservation and for the development of tourism.
Arbeitsämter Altenburg, Leipzig, Oschatz: Arbeitsmarktberichte 1998 und 1999.
Berkner, A.: Die beeinträchtigten Oberflächengewässer mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Pleiße. HTWK-Beiträge, Sonderheft, Leipzig 1998
Bundesanstalt für Arbeit: Unterlagen zu den sozialversicherungspflichtig Beschäftigten und Pendlern der Stadt Leipzig und des Landkreises Leipziger Land 1997 und 1998 (unveröff.)
Die Innovationsgemeinschaft. Wie der Südraum Leipzig seine Innovations-Willigkeit und -Fähigkeit steigern will. Antrag des Südraums Leipzig zur Teilnahme an dem Wettbewerb InnoRegio des Bundesministeriums für Bildung und Forschung, 1999
Grüner Ring Leipzig: Das Regionale Handlungskonzept des Grünen Ringes Leipzig. Leipzig 1998
Industrie- und Handelskammer zu Leipzig: IHK zugehörige Unternehmen im Südraum Leipzig nach Branchengruppen 1997 (unveröff.)
Initiative für Beschäftigung im Südraum Leipzig: Konferenzmaterialien der Konferenz „Zukunft der Arbeit“ am 28.04.1999 in Espenhain
SL Südraum Leipzig GmbH: Zukunftsregion Südraum Leipzig. Beitrag zum Ideenwett-bewerb im bundesweiten Wettbewerb „Regionen der Zukunft“, Espenhain 1999
Statistisches Bundesamt: Kreiszahlen. Ausgewählte Regionaldaten für Deutschland, Ausgabe 1998. Hannover 1999
Statistisches Landesamt des Freistaates Sachsen: Statistische Berichte zur Bevöl-kerungsentwicklung der Gemeinden für die Jahre 1990 ff.
Usbeck GmbH: Der Wirtschaftsstandort Borna. Ergebnisse einer Standortanalyse und Unternehmensbefragung. Studie im Auftrag der Stadt Borna, Engelsdorf 1998
Usbeck GmbH: Regionalmarketingkonzept für den Südraum Leipzig. Erarbeitung einer regionalen Datenbank. Bearbeitet von der USBECK GmbH im Auftrag des Kommuna-len Forums Südraum Leipzig, Engelsdorf 1999
Further statistical information of the region „Südraum Leipzig“ one can find via internet: http://www.suedraum-leipzig.de