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Section I: Surgical Biology Chapter 1: Inflammatory Response references

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Chapter 13: Instrumentation


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  2. Brophy T, Srodon PD, Briggs C, et al: Quality of surgical instruments. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 88:390, 2006. PUBMED Abstract

  3. Bush J, Bayat A: Surgical instruments, sutures and suturing techniques. Br J Hosp Med 68:M142, 2007. PUBMED Abstract

  4. Drake DB, Gear AJL, Mazzarese PM, et al: Search for a scientific basis for continuous suture closure: a 30-yr odyssey. J Emerg Med 15:495, 1997. PUBMED Abstract

  5. Gilmour D: Instrument integrity and sterility: the perioperative practitioner’s responsibilities. J Perioper Pract 18:292, 2008. PUBMED Abstract

  6. Green CJ: Microsurgery in the clinic and laboratory. Lab Anim 21:1, 1987. PUBMED Abstract

  7. Herring IP: Corneal surgery: instrumentation, patient considerations, and surgical principles. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract 18:152, 2003. PUBMED Abstract

  8. Hoyt RF, Jr, Clevenger RR, McGehee JA: Microsurgical instrumentation and suture material. Lab Anim 30:38, 2001. PUBMED Abstract

  9. Hurov L: Handbook of veterinary surgical instruments and glossary of surgical terms, Philadelphia, 1978, Saunders, p 7.

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  11. Klauss G: Ophthalmic surgical instruments. Top Companion Anim Med 23:3, 2008. PUBMED Abstract

  12. Knecht CD, Allen AR, Williams DJ, et al: Fundamental techniques in veterinary surgery, ed 3, Philadelphia, 1987, Saunders, p 2.

  13. Kwan A, Irwin JF, Leuver ME: Surgical instruments as a window into the profession’s past. Yale J Biol Med 81:205, 2008. PUBMED Abstract

  14. Nieves MA, Wagner SD: Surgical instruments. In Slatter D, editor: Textbook of small animal surgery, ed 3, Philadelphia, 2003, Saunders, p 185.

  15. Polk HC, Jr, Cheadle WG, Franklin GA: Principles of operative surgery. In Townsend CM, Jr, editor: Sabiston textbook of surgery: the biological basis of modern surgical practice, ed 16, Philadelphia, 2001, Saunders, p 163.

  16. Price MV, Molloy S, Solan MC, et al: The rate of instrument breakage during orthopaedic procedures. Int Orthop 26:185, 2002. PUBMED Abstract

  17. Raffel T: Surgical supplies and equipment. In Busch SJ, editor: Small animal surgical nursing: skills and concepts, St Louis, 2006, Mosby, p 74.

  18. Singh S, Maxwell D: Tools of the trade. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 20:41, 2006. PUBMED Abstract

  19. Sonsthagen TF: Veterinary instruments and equipment: a pocket guide, St Louis, 2006, Elsevier Mosby, p 415.

  20. Spry CC: Care and handling of basic surgical instruments. AORN J 86(suppl 1):S77, 2007.

  21. Waldock A, Waldock TA: Advancing microsurgical instrumentation into the 21st century. Br J Ophthalmol 83:1317, 1999. PUBMED Abstract

  22. Weber LA: The surgical tray. Dermatol Clin 16:17, 1998. PUBMED Abstract

Chapter 14: Preparation of the Patient, Operating Team, and Operating Room for Surgery


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  3. Al-Allak A, Sarasin S, Key S, et al: Wedding rings are not a significant source of bacterial contamination following surgical scrubbing. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 90:133, 2008. PUBMED Abstract

  4. Alexander J, Fischer J, Boyajian M, et al: The influence of hair-removal methods on wound infections. Arch Surg 118:347, 1983. PUBMED Abstract

  5. Alford D, Ritter M, French M, et al: The operating room gown as a barrier to bacterial shedding. Am J Surg 125:589, 1973. PUBMED Abstract

  6. Amirfeyz R, Tasker A, Ali S, et al: Theatre shoes—a link in the common pathway of postoperative wound infection? Ann R Coll Surg Engl 89:605, 2007. PUBMED Abstract

  7. Anon: Use of disinfectants in hospitals. In Committee BPHLS, editor. Br Med J 1:408, 1965.

  8. Arrowsmith V, Maunder J, Sargent F, et al: Removal of nail polish and finger rings to prevent surgical infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4):CD003325, 2001. PUBMED Abstract

  9. Ayliffe G: The effect of antibacterial agents on the flora of the skin. J Hosp Infect 1:111, 1980. PUBMED Abstract

  10. Ayliffe G: Surgical scrub and skin disinfection. Infect Control 5:23, 1984. PUBMED Abstract

  11. Ayliffe G, Babb J, Bridges K, et al: Comparison of two methods for assessing the removal of total organisms and pathogens from the skin. J Hyg 75:259, 1975. PUBMED Abstract

  12. Beck W: Aseptic barriers in surgery. Arch Surg 116:240, 1981. PUBMED Abstract

  13. Beck W, Collette T: False faith in the surgeon’s gown and surgical drape. Am J Surg 83:125, 1952. PUBMED Abstract

  14. Belkin N: Reduction of airborne contamination through operating room apparel. AORN J 4:75, 1966. PUBMED Abstract

  15. Berg-Perier M, Cederblad A, Persson U: Ultraviolet radiation and ultra-clean air enclosures in operating rooms: UV-protection, economy and comfort. J Arthroplasty 7:457, 1992. PUBMED Abstract

  16. Berg M, Bergman B, Hoborn J: Ultraviolet radiation compared to an ultra-clean air enclosure. J Bone Joint Surg Br 73:811, 1991. PUBMED Abstract

  17. Berkelman R, Holland B, Anderson R: Increased bactericidal activity of dilute preparations of povidone-iodine solutions. J Clin Microbiol 15:635, 1982. PUBMED Abstract

  18. Bethune D, Blowers R, Parker M, et al: Dispersal of Staphylococcus aureus by patients and surgical staff. Lancet 1:480, 1965. PUBMED Abstract

  19. Bhavan K, Warren D: Surgical preparation solutions and preoperative skin disinfection. J Hand Surg Am 34:940, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

  20. Bibel D, Lovell D: Skin flora maps: a tool in the study of cutaneous ecology. J Invest Dermatol 67:265, 1976. PUBMED Abstract

  21. Block SS: Disinfection, sterilization, and preservation, ed 4, Philadelphia, 1991, Lea & Febiger.

  22. Boothe H: Antiseptics and disinfectants. Vet Clin North Am 28:233, 1998. PUBMED Abstract

  23. Boyce J, Pittet D: Guideline for hand hygiene in health-care settings. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 23:S3, 2002. PUBMED Abstract

  24. Bradley C: Treatment of laundry and clinical waste in hospitals. In Russell A, editor: Principles and practice of disinfection preservation and sterilization, ed 4, Malden, MA, 2004, Blackwell Publishing, p 586.

  25. Bryce E, Spence D, Roberts F: An in-use evaluation of an alcohol-based pre-surgical hand disinfectant. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 22:635, 2001. PUBMED Abstract

  26. Character B, McLaughlin R, Hedlund C, et al: Postoperative integrity of veterinary surgical gloves. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 39:311, 2003. PUBMED Abstract

  27. Cimino Brown D, Conzemius M, Shofer F, et al: Epidemiologic evaluation of postoperative wound infections in dogs and cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 210:1302, 1997. PUBMED Abstract

  28. Coelho J, Lerner H, Murad I: The influence of the surgical scrub on hand bacterial flora. Int Surg 69:305, 1984. PUBMED Abstract

  29. Conner R: Perioperative standards and recommended practices, Denver, CO, 2009, AORN, Inc.

  30. Copp G, Slezak L, Dudley N, et al: Footwear practices and operating room contamination. Nurs Res 36:366, 1987. PUBMED Abstract

  31. Cruse P, Foord R: A five-year prospective study of 23,649 surgical wounds. Arch Surg 107:206, 1973. PUBMED Abstract

  32. Dahl J, Wheeler B, Mukherjee D: Effect of chlorhexidine scrub on postoperative bacterial counts. Am J Surg 159:486, 1990. PUBMED Abstract

  33. DeBaun B: Evaluation of the antimicrobial properties of an alcohol-free 2% chlorhexidine gluconate solution. AORN J 87:925, 2008. PUBMED Abstract

  34. Denton G: Chlorhexidine. In Block S, editor: Disinfection, sterilization, and preservation, ed 4, Philadelphia, 1991, Lea and Febiger, p 274.

  35. Dewan P, Van Ru A, Robinson R, et al: The use of an iodophor-impregnated plastic incise drape in the abdominal surgery—a controlled clinical trial. Aust N Z J Surg 57:859, 1987. PUBMED Abstract

  36. Dineen P: An evaluation of the duration of the surgical scrub. Surg Gynecol Obstet 129:1181, 1969. PUBMED Abstract

  37. Dodds R, Barker S, Morgan N, et al: Self protection in surgery: the use of double gloves. Br J Surg 77:219, 1990. PUBMED Abstract

  38. Dodds R, Guy P, Peacock A, et al: Surgical glover perforation. Br J Surg 75:966, 1988. PUBMED Abstract

  39. Edmiston CJ, Krepel C, Seabrook G, et al: Preoperative shower revisited: can high topical antiseptic levels be achieved on the skin surface before surgical admission? J Am Coll Surg 207:233, 2008. PUBMED Abstract

  40. Edwards P, Lipp A, Holmes A: Preoperative skin antiseptics for preventing surgical wound infections after clean surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3):CD003949, 2004. PUBMED Abstract

  41. Ellenhorn J, Smith D, Schwarz R, et al: Paint-only is equivalent to scrub-and-paint in preoperative preparation of abdominal surgery sites. J Am Coll Surg 201:737, 2005. PUBMED Abstract

  42. Facility Guidelines Institute: Guidelines for design and construction of health care facilities, Washington, DC, 2006, The American Institute of Architects.

  43. Faoagali J: Comparison of immediate, residual, and cumulative antibacterial effect of Novaderm R, Novasrub R, Betadine Surgical Scrub, Hibiclens, and liquid soap. Am J Infect Control 23:337, 1995. PUBMED Abstract

  44. Fogg D: Bacterial barrier of latex and vinyl gloves; AIDS attributed to bone allograft; disciplining problem employee. AORN J 49:1101, 1989. PUBMED Abstract

  45. Galle P, Homesley H, Rhyne A: Reassessment of the surgical scrub. Surg Gynecol Obstet 147:215, 1978. PUBMED Abstract

  46. Garibaldi R, Maglio S, Lerer T, et al: Comparison of nonwoven and woven gown and drape fabric to prevent intraoperative wound contamination and postoperative infection. Am J Surg 152:505, 1986. PUBMED Abstract

  47. Geelhoed G, Sharpe K, Simon G: A comparative study of surgical skin preparation methods. Surg Gynecol Obstet 157:265, 1983. PUBMED Abstract

  48. Gibson K, Donald A, Hariharan H, et al: Comparison of two pre-surgical skin preparation techniques. Can J Vet Res 61:154, 1997. PUBMED Abstract

  49. Goldenheim P: In vitro efficacy of povidone-iodine solution and cream against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Postgrad Med J 69:S62, 1993. PUBMED Abstract

  50. Gottardi W: Iodine and iodine compounds. In Block S, editor: Disinfection, sterilization, and preservation, ed 4, Philadelphia, 1991, Lea and Febiger, p 152.

  51. Groschel D, Pruett T: Surgical antisepsis. In Block S, editor: Disinfection, sterilization, and preservation, ed 4, Philadelphia, 1991, Lea and Febiger, p 642.

  52. Grove G, Zerweck C, Heilman J, et al: Methods for evaluating changes in skin condition due to the effects of antimicrobial hand cleansers: two studies comparing a new waterless chlorhexidine gluconate/ethanol-emollient antiseptic preparation with a conventional water-applied product. Am J Infect Control 29:361, 2001. PUBMED Abstract

  53. Guzel A, Ozekinci T, Ozkan U, et al: Evaluation of the skin flora after chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine preparation in neurosurgical practice. Surg Neurol 72:207, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

  54. Ha’eri G, Wiley A: The efficacy of standard surgical face masks: an investigation using “tracer particles.” Clin Orthop Relat Res 148:160, 1980. PUBMED Abstract

  55. Hambraeus A, Bengtsson S, Laurell G: Bacterial contamination in a modern operating suite. J Hyg 80:169, 1978. PUBMED Abstract

  56. Hambraeus A, Malmborg A: The influence of different footwear on floor contamination. Scand J Infect Dis 11:243, 1979. PUBMED Abstract

  57. Hann J: The source of the “resident” flora. Hand 5:247, 1973. PUBMED Abstract

  58. Helgeland K, Heyden G, Rolla G: Effect of chlorhexidine on animal cells in vitro. Scand J Dent Res 79:209, 1971. PUBMED Abstract

  59. Hobson H: Surgical facilities and equipment. In Slatter D, editor: Textbook of small animal surgery, Philadelphia, 2003, Elsevier Science, p 179.

  60. Hsieh H-F, Chiu H-H, Lee F-P: Surgical hand scrubs in relation to microbial counts: systemic literature review. J Adv Nurs 55:68, 2005.

  61. Hughes S, Anderson F: Infection in the operating room. J Bone Joint Surg Br 81:754, 1999. PUBMED Abstract

  62. Humphreys H, Marshall R, Ricketts V, et al: Theatre over-shoes do not reduce operating theatre floor bacterial counts. J Hosp Infect 17:117, 1991. PUBMED Abstract

  63. Jacobson C, Osmon D, Hanssen A, et al: Prevention of wound contamination using DuraPrep solution plus Ioban drapes. Clin Orthop Relat Res 439:32, 2005. PUBMED Abstract

  64. Kac G, Masmejean E, Gueneret M, et al: Bactericidal efficacy of a 1.5min surgical hand-rubbing protocol under in-use conditions. J Hosp Infect 72:135, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

  65. Kampf G: How effective are hand antiseptics for the postcontamination treatment of hands when used as recommended? Am J Infect Control 36:356, 2008. PUBMED Abstract

  66. Kampf G, Ostermeyer C, Kohlmann T: Bacterial population kinetics on hands during 2 consecutive surgical hand disinfection procedures. Am J Infect Control 36:369, 2008. PUBMED Abstract

  67. Kaul A, Jewett J: Agents and techniques for disinfection of the skin. Surg Gynecol Obstet 152:677, 1981. PUBMED Abstract

  68. Korniewicz D, Laughon B, Butz A, et al: Integrity of vinyl and latex procedure gloves. Nurs Res 38:144, 1989. PUBMED Abstract

  69. Kundsin R, Walter C: The surgical scrub—practical consideration. Arch Surg 107:75, 1973. PUBMED Abstract

  70. Larson E: Guideline for use of topical antimicrobial agents. Am J Infect Control 16:253, 1988. PUBMED Abstract

  71. Larson E, Morton H: Alcohols. In Block S, editor: Disinfection, sterilization, and preservation, ed 4, Philadelphia, 1991, Lea and Febiger, p 191.

  72. Larson R, Aiello A, Heilman J, et al: Comparison of different regimens for surgical hand preparation. AORN J 73:412, 2001. PUBMED Abstract

  73. Lemarie R, Hosgood G: Antiseptics and disinfectants in small animal practice. The Compendium 17:1339, 1995.

  74. Leonas K: Effect of laundering on the barrier properties of reusable surgical gown fabrics. Am J Infect Control 26:495, 1998. PUBMED Abstract

  75. Letts R, Doermer E: Conversation in the operating theater as a cause of airborne bacterial contamination. J Bone Joint Surg Am 65:357, 1983. PUBMED Abstract

  76. Lilly H, Lowbury E: Disinfection of skin: an assessment of some new preparations. Br Med J 3:674, 1971. PUBMED Abstract

  77. Lineaweaver W, Howard R, Soucy D, et al: Topical antimicrobial toxicity. Arch Surg 120:267, 1985. PUBMED Abstract

  78. Lineaweaver W, McMorris S, Soucy D, et al: Cellular and bacterial toxicities of topical antimicrobials. Plast Reconstr Surg 75:394, 1985. PUBMED Abstract

  79. Loeb M, Wilcox L, Smaill F, et al: A randomized trial of surgical scrubbing with a brush compared to antiseptic soap alone. Am J Infect Control 25:11, 1997. PUBMED Abstract

  80. Lowbury E, Lilly H: The effect of blood on disinfection of surgeons’ hands. Br J Surg 61:19, 1974. PUBMED Abstract

  81. Lowbury E, Lilly H: Gloved hand as applicator of antiseptic to operation sites. Lancet 2:153, 1975. PUBMED Abstract

  82. Lowbury E, Lilly H: Use of 4% chlorhexidine detergent solution (Hibiscrub) and other methods of skin disinfection. Br Med J 1:510, 1973. PUBMED Abstract

  83. Lowbury E, Lilly H, Bull J: Disinfection of the hands: removal of transient organisms. Br Med J 2:230, 1964. PUBMED Abstract

  84. Lozier S, Pope E, Berg J: Effects of four preparations of 0.05% chlorhexidine diacetate on wound healing in dogs. Vet Surg 21:107, 1992. PUBMED Abstract

  85. Marples R: Effects of soaps, germicides and disinfectants on the skin flora. In Skinner E, Carr J, editors: The normal microbial flora of man, London, 1973, Academic Press.

  86. McCue S, Berg E, EA S: Efficacy of double-gloving as a barrier to microbial contamination during total joint arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg 63:811, 1981. PUBMED Abstract

  87. McLure H, Mannam M, Talboys C, et al: The effect of facial hair and sex on the dispersal of bacteria below a masked subject. Anaesthesia 55:173, 2000. PUBMED Abstract

  88. McMurry L, Oethinger M, Levy S: Over-expression of marA, SoxS, or acrAB produces resistance to triclosan in laboratory and clinical strains of Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett 15:166, 1998.

  89. Mead P, Prories S, Hall P, et al: Decreasing the incidence of surgical wound infections. Arch Surg 121:458, 1986. PUBMED Abstract

  90. Mitchell N, Gamble D: Clothing design for operating-room personnel. Lancet 2:1133, 1974. PUBMED Abstract

  91. Moen M, Noone M, Kirson I: Povidone-iodine spray technique versus traditional scrub-paint technique for preoperative abdominal wall preparation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 187:1434, 2002. PUBMED Abstract

  92. Montes L, Wilbourne W: Location of bacterial skin flora. Br J Dermatol 81:23, 1969. PUBMED Abstract

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  94. Morton H: Relationship of concentration and germicidal efficiency of ethyl alcohol. Ann N Y Acad Sci 53:191, 1950. PUBMED Abstract

  95. Moylan J: The importance of gown and drape barriers in the reduction of the incidence of post-operative wound infection. NATNEWS 23:10, 1986. PUBMED Abstract

  96. Moylan J, Balish E, Chan J: Intraoperative bacterial transmission. Surg Gynecol Obstet 121:731, 1975. PUBMED Abstract

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  98. Moylan J, Kennedy B: The importance of gown and drape barriers in the prevention of wound infection. Surg Gynecol Obstet 151:465, 1980. PUBMED Abstract

  99. Mulberry G, Snyder A, Heilman J, et al: Evaluation of a waterless, scrubless chlorhexidine gluconate/ethanol surgical scrub for antimicrobial efficacy. Am J Infect Control 29:377, 2001. PUBMED Abstract

  100. Muller W, Jiru P, Mach R, et al: The use of disposable gown and drape materials in the operating theatre and its influence on the postoperative wound infection rate. Wien Klin Wochenschr 101:837, 1989. PUBMED Abstract

  101. Namura S, Nishijima S, McGinley K, et al: A study of the efficacy of antimicrobial detergents for hand washing: using the full-hand touch plates method. J Dermatol 20:88, 1993. PUBMED Abstract

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  111. Osuna D, DeYoung D, Walker R: Comparison of three skin preparation techniques. Part 2: Clinical trial in 100 dogs. Vet Surg 19:20, 1990. PUBMED Abstract

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  118. Pereira L, Lee G, Wade K: An evaluation of five protocols for surgical handwashing in relation to skin condition and microbial counts. J Hosp Infect 36:49, 1997. PUBMED Abstract

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  126. Ritter M: Operating room environment. Clin Orthop Relat Res 369:103, 1999. PUBMED Abstract

  127. Ritter M, Eitzen H, French M: Comparison of horizontal and vertical unidirectional (laminar) air-flow systems in orthopedic surgery. Clin Orthop Relat Res 129:205, 1977. PUBMED Abstract

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  129. Ritter M, Eitzen H, Hart J, et al: The surgeon’s garb. Clin Orthop Relat Res 153:204, 1980. PUBMED Abstract

  130. Ritter M, French M, Eitzen H: Evaluation of microbial contamination of surgical gloves during actual use. Clin Orthop Relat Res 117:303, 1976. PUBMED Abstract

  131. Ritter M, French M, Hart J: Microbiological studies in a horizontal wall-less laminar air-flow operating room during actual surgery. Clin Orthop Relat Res 97:16, 1973. PUBMED Abstract

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