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Section I: Surgical Biology Chapter 1: Inflammatory Response references

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Chapter 8: Metabolism and Nutritional Needs of Surgical Patients


  1. Barton RG: Nutrition support in critical illness. Nutr Clin Pract 9:127, 1994. PUBMED Abstract

  2. Biffl WL, Moore EE, Haenel JB, et al: Nutrition support of the trauma patient. Nutrition 18:960, 2002. PUBMED Abstract

  3. Biolo G, Toigo G, Ciocchi B, et al: Metabolic response to injury and sepsis: changes in protein metabolism. Nutrition 13:52S, 1997. PUBMED Abstract

  4. Bisgaard T, Kehlet H: Early oral feeding after elective abdominal surgery—what are the issues? Nutrition 18: 944, 2002. PUBMED Abstract

  5. Brown DC, Conzemius MG, Shofer F, et al: Epidemiologic evaluation of postoperative wound infections in dogs and cats. Vet Surg 33:1302, 1997. PUBMED Abstract

  6. Casale SA, McCarthy RJ: Complications associated with lateral fabellotibial suture surgery for cranial cruciate ligament injury in dogs: 363 cases (1997–2005). J Am Vet Med Assoc 234:229, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

  7. Chan DL, Rozanski EA, Freeman LM: Relationship among plasma amino acids, C-reactive protein, illness severity, and outcome in critically ill dogs. J Vet Intern Med 23:559, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

  8. Chesney D, Sales J, Elton R, et al: Infection after knee arthroplasty: a prospective study of 1509 cases. J Arthroplasty 23:355, 2008. PUBMED Abstract

  9. Chiarelli A, Enzi G, Casadei A, et al: Very early nutrition supplementation in burned patients. Am J Clin Nutr 51:1035, 1990. PUBMED Abstract

  10. Conejero R, Bonet A, Grau T, et al: Effect of a glutamine-enriched enteral diet on intestinal permeability and infectious morbidity at 28 days in critically ill patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome: a randomized, single-blind, prospective, multicenter study. Nutrition 18:716, 2002. PUBMED Abstract

  11. Dossett LA, Dageforde LA, Swenson BR, et al: Obesity and site-specific nosocomial infection risk in the intensive care unit. Surg Infect (Larchmt) 10:137, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

  12. Dowsey MM, Choong PF: Obesity is a major risk factor for prosthetic infection after primary hip arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res 466:153, 2008. PUBMED Abstract

  13. Duschesne JC, Schmieg RE, Simmons JD, et al: Impact of obesity in damage control in laparotomy patients. J Trauma 67:112, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

  14. Goeters C, Wenn A, Mertes N, et al: Parenteral L-alanyl-L-glutamine improves 6-month outcome in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 30:2032, 2002. PUBMED Abstract

  15. Greco DS, Rosychuk AW, Ogilvie GK, et al: The effect of levothyroxine treatment on resting energy expenditure of hypothyroid dogs. J Vet Intern Med 12:7, 1998. PUBMED Abstract

  16. Heyland DK: Enteral and parenteral nutrition in the seriously ill, hospitalized patient: a critical review of the evidence. J Nutr Health Aging 1:31, 2000. PUBMED Abstract

  17. Jeejeebhoy KN: Permissive underfeeding of the critically ill patient. Nutr Clin Pract 19:477, 2004. PUBMED Abstract

  18. Lewis SJ, Egger M, Sylvester PA, et al: Early enteral feeding versus “nil by mouth” after gastrointestinal surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials. BMJ 323:773, 2001. PUBMED Abstract

  19. Lippert AC, et al: Retrospective study of the use of total parenteral nutrition in dogs and cats. J Vet Intern Med 7:52, 1993. PUBMED Abstract

  20. Marks SL, Cook AK, Reader R, et al: Effects of glutamine supplementation of an amino acid-based purified diet on intestinal mucosal integrity in rats with methotrexate-induced enteritis. Am J Vet Res 60:755, 1999. PUBMED Abstract

  21. Mazzaferro E, Hackett T, Wingfield W, et al: Role of glutamine in health and disease. Compend Contin Ed Pract Vet 22:1094, 2000.

  22. Michel KE, King LG, Ostro E: Measurement of urinary urea nitrogen content as an estimate of the amount of total urinary nitrogen loss in dogs in intensive care units. J Am Vet Med Assoc 210:356, 1997. PUBMED Abstract

  23. Michel KE: Interventional nutrition for the critical care patient: optimal diets. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract 13:204, 1998. PUBMED Abstract

  24. Michel KE: Nitrogen metabolism in critical care patients. Vet Clin Nutr 20(suppl):1998.

  25. Nitenberg G: Nutritional support in sepsis: still skeptical? Curr Opin Crit Care 6:253, 2000. PUBMED Abstract

  26. Novak F, Heyland DK, Avenell A, et al: Glutamine supplementation in serious illness: a systematic review of the evidence. Crit Care Med 30:2022, 2002. PUBMED Abstract

  27. O’Toole E, Miller CW, Wilson BA, Mathews KA, Davis C, Sears W: Comparison of the standard predictive equation for calculation of resting energy expenditure with indirect calorimetry in hospitalized and healthy dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 225:58, 2003.

  28. Ogilvie GK, Salman MD, Kesel ML, et al: Effect of anesthesia and surgery on energy expenditure determined by indirect calorimetry in dogs with malignant and nonmalignant conditions. Am J Vet Res 57:1321, 1996. PUBMED Abstract

  29. Remillard RL, Darden De, Michel KE, et al: An investigation of the relationship between caloric intake and outcome in hospitalized dogs. Vet Ther 2:301, 2001. PUBMED Abstract

  30. Stratton RJ, Elia M: Who benefits from nutritional support: what is the evidence? Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 19:353, 2007. PUBMED Abstract

  31. Thatcher CD: Nutritional needs of critically ill patients. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 18:1303, 1996

  32. Walton RS, Wingfield WE, Ogilvie GK, et al: Energy expenditure in 104 postoperative and traumatized injured dogs with indirect calorimetry. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 6:71, 1996.

  33. Wernerman J, Hammarqvist F: Glutamine: a necessary nutrient for the intensive care patient. Int J Colorectal Dis 14:137, 1999. PUBMED Abstract

  34. Wray CJ, Mammen JM, Hasselgren P: Catabolic response to stress and potential benefits of nutrition support. Nutrition 18:971, 2002. PUBMED Abstract

  35. Zaloga GP, Bortenschlager L, Black KW, et al: Immediate postoperative enteral feeding decreases weight loss and improves healing after abdominal surgery in rats. Crit Care Med 20:115, 1992. PUBMED Abstract

  36. Zsombor-Murray E, Freeman LM: Peripheral parenteral nutrition. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 21:512, 1999.

Chapter 9: Wound Healing


  1. Adamsons R, Kahan S: The rate of healing incised wounds of different tissues in rabbits. Surg Gynecol Obstet 130:837, 1970. PUBMED Abstract

  2. Ahrendt GM, Gardner K, Barbul A: Loss of colonic structural collagen impairs healing during intra-abdominal sepsis. Arch Surg 129:1179, 1994. PUBMED Abstract

  3. Ahrendt GM, Tantry US, Barbul A: Intra-abdominal sepsis impairs colonic reparative collagen synthesis. Am J Surg 171:102, 1996. PUBMED Abstract

  4. Ai-Aql ZS, Alagl AS, Graves DT, et al: Molecular mechanisms controlling bone formation during fracture healing and distraction osteogenesis. J Dent Res 87:107, 2008. PUBMED Abstract

  5. Al-Niaimi A, Safdar N: Supplemental perioperative oxygen for reducing surgical site infection: a meta-analysis. J Eval Clin Pract 15:360, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

  6. Apostolidis SA, Michalopoulos AA, Hytiroglou PM, et al: Prevention of blood-transfusion-induced impairment of anastomotic healing by leucocyte depletion in rats. Eur J Surg 166:562, 2000. PUBMED Abstract

  7. Apostolidis SA, Michalopoulos AA, Papadopoulos VN, et al: Effect of ranitidine on healing of normal and transfusion-suppressed experimental anastomoses. Tech Coloproctol 8(suppl 1):S104, 2004. PUBMED Abstract

  8. Ayello EA, Cuddigan JE: Debridement: controlling the necrotic/cellular burden. Adv Skin Wound Care 17:66, 2004. PUBMED Abstract

  9. Barbul A, Efron D: Wound healing. In Brunicardi F, editor: Schwartz’s principles of surgery, vol 1, ed 9, New York, 2010, McGraw-Hill Health Professions Division.

  10. Barnes GL, Kostenuik PJ, Gerstenfeld LC, et al: Growth factor regulation of fracture repair. J Bone Miner Res 14:1805, 1999. PUBMED Abstract

  11. Baskin LS, Sutherland RS, Thomson AA, et al: Growth factors in bladder wound healing. J Urol 157:1288, 1997.

  12. Bertone A: Management of exuberant granulation tissue. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 48:551, 1985.

  13. Bertone A, Sullins K, Stachak T, et al: Effect of wound location and the use of topical collagen gel on exuberant granulation tissue formation and wound healing in the horse and pony. Am J Vet Res 46:1438, 1985. PUBMED Abstract

  14. Bohling MW, Henderson RA: Differences in cutaneous wound healing between dogs and cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 36:687, 2006. PUBMED Abstract

  15. Bohling MW, Henderson RA, Swaim SF, et al: Cutaneous wound healing in the cat: a macroscopic description and comparison with cutaneous wound healing in the dog. Vet Surg 33:579, 2004. PUBMED Abstract

  16. Bohling MW, Henderson RA, Swaim SF, et al: Comparison of the role of the subcutaneous tissues in cutaneous wound healing in the dog and cat. Vet Surg 35:3, 2006. PUBMED Abstract

  17. Bratzler DW, Houck PM: Antimicrobial prophylaxis for surgery: an advisory statement from the National Surgical Infection Prevention Project. Clin Infect Dis 38:1706, 2004. PUBMED Abstract

  18. Bratzler DW, Houck PM: Antimicrobial prophylaxis for surgery: an advisory statement from the National Surgical Infection Prevention Project. Am J Surg 189:395, 2005. PUBMED Abstract

  19. Broughton G, Janis J, Attinger C: The basic science of wound healing. Plast Reconstr Surg 117:12S, 2006. PUBMED Abstract

  20. Burke J: Miximizing appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis for surgical patients: an update from LDS hospital, Salt Lake City. Clin Infect Dis 33:S78, 2001. PUBMED Abstract

  21. Carlson M: Acute wound failure. Surg Clin N Am 77:607, 1997. PUBMED Abstract

  22. Carlson M: Acute wound failure. In Schumpelick V, Kingsnorth A, editors: Incisional hernia, Berlin, 1999, Springer-Verlag, p 101.

  23. Chakraborti S, Mandal M, Das S, et al: Regulation of matrix metalloproteinases: an overview. Mol Cell Biochem 253:269, 2003. PUBMED Abstract

  24. Classen DC, Evans RS, Pestotnik SL, et al: The timing of prophylactic administration of antibiotics and the risk of surgical-wound infection. N Engl J Med 326:281, 1992. PUBMED Abstract

  25. Culver D, Horan T, Gaynes R: Surgical wound infection rates by wound class, operative procedure, and patient risk index. Am J Med 91:152S, 1991. PUBMED Abstract

  26. Cutroneo KR: How is Type I procollagen synthesis regulated at the gene level during tissue fibrosis. J Cell Biochem 90:1, 2003. PUBMED Abstract

  27. Desmouliere A, Geinoz A, Gabbiani F, et al: Transforming growth factor-beta 1 induces alpha-smooth muscle actin expression in granulation tissue myofibroblasts and in quiescent and growing cultured fibroblasts. J Cell Biol 122:103, 1993. PUBMED Abstract

  28. Diegelmann R: Analysis of collagen synthesis. Methods Mol Med 78:349, 2003. PUBMED Abstract

  29. Doblare M, Garcia J, Gomez M: Modelling of bone tissue fracture and healing: a review. Engineering Fracture Mechanics 71:1809, 2004.

  30. Douglas D: The healing of aponeurotic incisions. Br J Surg 40:79, 1952. PUBMED Abstract

  31. Dovi J, Szpaderska A, DiPietro L: Neutrophil function in the healing wound: adding insult to injury? Thromb Haemost 92:275, 2004. PUBMED Abstract

  32. Dronge AS, Perkal MF, Kancir S, et al: Long-term glycemic control and postoperative infectious complications. Arch Surg 141:375, 2006. PUBMED Abstract

  33. Ehrlich HP, Krummel TM: Regulation of wound healing from a connective tissue perspective. Wound Repair Regen 4:203, 1996. PUBMED Abstract

  34. Ellenhorn JD, Smith DD, Schwarz RE, et al: Paint-only is equivalent to scrub-and-paint in preoperative preparation of abdominal surgery sites. J Am Coll Surg 201:737, 2005. PUBMED Abstract

  35. Ellison G: Wound healing in the gastrointestinal tract. Small Anim Semin Vet Med Surg 4:287, 1989.

  36. Eming SA, Krieg T, Davidson JM: Inflammation in wound repair: molecular and cellular mechanisms. J Invest Dermatol 127:514, 2007. PUBMED Abstract

  37. Ethridge R, Leong M, Phillips L: Wound healing. In Townsend C, Beacuhamp R, Evers B, Mattox K, editors: Sabiston textbook of surgery, ed 18, St Louis, 2007, Elsevier Health Sciences.

  38. Fast J, Nelson C, Dennis C: Rate of gain in strength in sutured abdominal wall wounds. Surg Gynecol Obstet 84:685, 1947. PUBMED Abstract

  39. Franz MG, Robson MC, Steed DL, et al: Guidelines to aid healing of acute wounds by decreasing impediments of healing. Wound Repair Regen 16:723, 2008. PUBMED Abstract

  40. Furie B, Furie B: Mechanisms of thrombus formation. N Engl J Med 359:938, 2008. PUBMED Abstract

  41. Gerstenfeld LC, Cho TJ, Kon T, et al: Impaired fracture healing in the absence of TNF-↑ signaling: the role of TNF-↑ in endochondral cartilage resorption. J Bone Miner Res 18:1584, 2003. PUBMED Abstract

  42. Goldman R: Growth factors and chronic wound healing: past, present, and future. Adv Skin Wound Care 17:24, 2004. PUBMED Abstract

  43. Gosain A, DiPietro LA: Aging and wound healing. World J Surg 28:321, 2004. PUBMED Abstract

  44. Gottrup F, Ågren MS, Karlsmark T: Models for use in wound healing research: a survey focusing on in vitro and in vivo adult soft tissue. Wound Repair Regen 8:83, 2000. PUBMED Abstract

  45. Graham M, Blomquist P, Zederfeldt B: The alimentary canal. In Cohen I, Diegelmann R, Lindbald W, editors: Wound healing: biochemical and clinical aspects, Philadelphia, 1992, WB Saunders, p 433.

  46. Graham M, Diegelmann R, Elson C, et al: Collagen content and types in the intestinal strictures of Crohn’s disease. Gastroenterology 94:257, 1988. PUBMED Abstract

  47. Greif R, Akça O, Horn E-P, et al: Supplemental perioperative oxygen to reduce the incidence of surgical-wound infection. N Engl J Med 342:161, 2000. PUBMED Abstract

  48. Grimes J, Schmiedt C, Cornell K, et al: Identification of risk factors for septic peritonitis and failure to survive after gastrointestinal surgery in dogs. J Am Vet Med 238(4):486–494.

  49. Grinnell F: Fibroblast biology in three-dimensional collagen matrices. Trends Cell Biol 13:264, 2003. PUBMED Abstract

  50. Hainau B, Dombernowsky P: Histology and cellular proliferation in human bladder tumors: an autoradiographic study. Cancer 33:115, 1974. PUBMED Abstract

  51. Haley R, Culver D, Morgan W: Identifying patients at high risk of surgical wound infection: a simple multivariate index of patient susceptibility and wound contamination. Am J Epidemiol 121:206, 1985. PUBMED Abstract

  52. Halsted W: Circular suture of the intestine: an experimental study. Am J Med Sci 94:436, 1887.

  53. Hantash B, Zhao L, Knowles J, et al: Adult and fetal wound healing. Front Biosci 13:51, 2008. PUBMED Abstract

  54. Hastings J, VanWinkle W, Barker E, et al: The effect of suture materials on healing wounds of the bladder. Surg Gynecol Obstet 140:933, 1975. PUBMED Abstract

  55. Henry G, Garner W: Inflammatory mediators in wound healing, vol 83, New York, NY, 2003, ETATS-UNIS, Elsevier.

  56. Hicks R: The mammalian urinary bladder: an accommodating organ. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 50:215, 1975. PUBMED Abstract

  57. Hogstrom H, Hagland U, Zederfeldt B: Suture technique and early breaking strength of intestinal anastomoses and laparotomy wounds. Acta Chir Scand 151:441, 1985. PUBMED Abstract

  58. Hogstrom H, Haglund U: Postoperative decrease in suture holding capacity in laparotomy wounds and anastomoses. Acta Chir Scand 151:533, 1985. PUBMED Abstract

  59. Hopf HW, Viele M, Watson JJ, et al: Subcutaneous perfusion and oxygen during acute severe isovolemic hemodilution in healthy volunteers. Arch Surg 135:1443, 2000. PUBMED Abstract

  60. Horan T, Andrus M, Dudeck M: CDC/NHSN surveillance definition of health care-associated infection and criteria for specific types of infections in the acute care setting. Am J Infect Control 36:309, 2008. PUBMED Abstract

  61. Hunt T, Knighton D, Thakral K, et al: Studies on inflammation and wound healing: angiogenesis and collagen synthesis stimulated in vivo by resident and activated wound macrophages. Surgery 96:48, 1984. PUBMED Abstract

  62. Hunt TK, Hopf HW: High inspired oxygen fraction and surgical site infection. JAMA 302:1588, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

  63. Jensen J, Goodson W, Vasconez L, et al: Wound healing in anemia. West J Med 144:465, 1986. PUBMED Abstract

  64. Jensen J, Hunt T, Scheunenstuhl H, et al: Effect of lactate, pyruvate, and pH on secretion of angiogenesis and mitogenesis factors by macrophages. Lab Invest 54:574, 1986. PUBMED Abstract

  65. Jensen LS, Andersen AJ, Christiansen PM, et al: Postoperative infection and natural killer cell function following blood transfusion in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. Br J Surg 79:513, 1992. PUBMED Abstract

  66. Jensen LS, Hokland M, Nielsen HJ: A randomized controlled study of the effect of bedside leucocyte depletion on the immunosuppressive effect of whole blood transfusion in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. Br J Surg 83:973, 1996. PUBMED Abstract

  67. Kilicoglu SS, Kilicoglu B, Erdemli E: Ultrastructural view of colon anastomosis under propolis effect by transmission electron microscopy. World J Gastroenterol 14:4763, 2008. PUBMED Abstract

  68. Kim M, Liu W, Borjesson D, et al: Dynamics of neutrophil infiltration during cutaneous wound healing and infection using fluorescence imaging. J Invest Dermatol 128:1812, 2008. PUBMED Abstract

  69. Kirby JP, Mazuski JE: Prevention of surgical site infection. Surg Clin North Am 89:365, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

  70. Kirshen C, Woo K, Ayello EA, et al: Debridement: a vital component of wound bed preparation. Adv Skin Wound Care 19:506, 2006. PUBMED Abstract

  71. Knighton D, Silver I, Hunt T: Regulation of wound-healing angiogenesis—effect of oxygen gradients and inspired oxygen concentration. Surgery 90:262, 1981. PUBMED Abstract

  72. Kurz A, Sessler DI, Lenhardt R: Perioperative normothermia to reduce the incidence of surgical-wound infection and shorten hospitalization. N Engl J Med 334:1209, 1996. PUBMED Abstract

  73. Lemonnier F, Gautier M, Wolfrom C, et al: Some metabolic differences between human skin and aponeurosis fibroblasts in culture. J Cell Physiol 104:415, 1980. PUBMED Abstract

  74. Li Y, Deeb B, Pendergrass W, et al: Cellular proliferative capacity and life span in small and large dogs. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 51:B403, 1996. PUBMED Abstract

  75. Lichenstein I, Herzikoff S, Shore J: The dynamics of wound healing. Surg Gynecol Obstet 130:685, 1970. PUBMED Abstract

  76. Lieberman JR, Daluiski A, Einhorn TA: The role of growth factors in the repair of bone: biology and clinical applications. J Bone Joint Surg Am 84:232, 2002.

  77. Mangram AJ, Horan TC, Pearson ML, et al: Guideline for prevention of surgical site infection, 1999. Am J Infect Control 27:97, 1999. PUBMED Abstract

  78. Masera R, Staurenghi A, Sartori M, et al: Natural killer cell activity in the peripheral blood of patients with Cushing’s syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol 140:299, 1999. PUBMED Abstract

  79. Mast B: Healing in other tissues. Surg Clin North Am 77:529, 1997. PUBMED Abstract

  80. Matsukawa T, Sessler DI, Sessler AM, et al: Heat flow and distribution during induction of general anesthesia. Anesthesiology 82:662, 1995. PUBMED Abstract

  81. Melling AC, Ali B, Scott EM, et al: Effects of preoperative warming on the incidence of wound infection after clean surgery: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 358:876, 2001. PUBMED Abstract

  82. Meyhoff C, Wetterslev J, Jorgensen L, et al: Perioperative oxygen fraction—effect on surgical site infection and pulmonary complications after abdominal surgery: a randomized clinical trial: rationale and design of the PROXI-Trial. Trials 9:58, 2008. PUBMED Abstract

  83. Mori R, Shaw TJ, Martin P: Molecular mechanisms linking wound inflammation and fibrosis: knockdown of osteopontin leads to rapid repair and reduced scarring. J Exp Med 205:43, 2008. PUBMED Abstract

  84. Munireddy S, Kavalukas SL, Barbul A: Intra-abdominal healing: gastrointestinal tract and adhesions. Surg Clin North Am 90:1227, 2010. PUBMED Abstract

  85. Nelson C, Dennis C: Wound healing: technical factors in the gain of strength in sutured abdominal wall wounds in rabbits. Surg Gynecol Obstet 93:461, 1951. PUBMED Abstract

  86. Nichols R, Condon R, Barie P: Antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery: 2005 and beyond. Surg Infect 6:349, 2005.

  87. Nicholson M, Beal M, Shofer F, et al: Epidemiologic evaluation of postoperative wound infection in clean-contaminated wounds: a retrospective study of 239 dogs and cats. Vet Surg 31:577, 2002. PUBMED Abstract

  88. Nuutinen P, Riekki R, Parikka M, et al: Modulation of collagen synthesis and mRNA by continuous and intermittent use of topical hydrocortisone in human skin. Br J Dermatol 148:39, 2003. PUBMED Abstract

  89. Patronek GJ, Waters DJ, Glickman LT: Comparative longevity of pet dogs and humans: implications for gerontology research. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 52:B171, 1997. PUBMED Abstract

  90. Pierce GF, Mustoe TA, Altrock BW, et al: Role of platelet-derived growth factor in wound healing. J Cell Biochem 45:319, 1991. PUBMED Abstract

  91. Pryor K, Fahey T, Lien C, et al: Surgical site infection and the routine use of perioperative hyperoxia in a general surgical population: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 291:71, 2004.

  92. Qadan M, Akca O, Mahid SS, et al: Perioperative supplemental oxygen therapy and surgical site infection: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Surg 144:359, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

  93. Regan MC, Kirk SJ, Wasserkrug HL, et al: The wound environment as a regulator of fibroblast phenotype. J Surg Res 50:442, 1991. PUBMED Abstract

  94. Richardson DW, Dodge GR: Dose-dependent effects of corticosteroids on the expression of matrix-related genes in normal and cytokine-treated articular chondrocytes. Inflamm Res 52:39, 2003. PUBMED Abstract

  95. Robson M: Wound infection: a failure of wound healing caused by an imbalance of bacteria. Surg Clin North Am 77:637, 1997. PUBMED Abstract

  96. Sanabria A, Dominguez L, Valdivieso E, et al: Prophylactic antibiotics for mesh inquinal hernioplasty. Ann Surg 245:392, 2007. PUBMED Abstract

  97. Sandrini S, Setti G, Bossini N, et al: Steroid withdrawal five days after renal transplantation allows for the prevention of wound-healing complications associated with sirolimus therapy. Clin Transplant 23:16, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

  98. Schmidt-Bleek K, Schell H, Kolar P, et al: Cellular composition of the initial fracture hematoma compared to a muscle hematoma: a study in sheep. J Orthop Res 27:1147, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

  99. Shandall A, Lowndes R, Young H: Colonic anastomotic healing and oxygen tension. Br J Surg 72:606, 1985. PUBMED Abstract

  100. Steed D: Debridement. Am J Surg 187:71S, 2004. PUBMED Abstract

  101. Tadros T, Wobbes T, Hendriks T: Blood transfusion impairs healing of experimental intestinal anastomoses. Ann Surg 215:276, 1992. PUBMED Abstract

  102. Teller P, White T: The physiology of wound healing: injury through maturation. Surg Clin North Am 89:599, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

  103. Thompson SK, Chang EY, Jobe BA: Clinical review: healing in gastrointestinal anastomoses, Part I. Microsurgery 26:131, 2006. PUBMED Abstract

  104. Thornton FJ, Barbul A: Healing in the gastrointestinal tract. Surg Clin North Am 77:549, 1997. PUBMED Abstract

  105. Tibbs MK: Wound healing following radiation therapy: a review. Radiother Oncol 42:99, 1997. PUBMED Abstract

  106. Tobin G: Closure of contaminated wounds: biologic and technical considerations. Surg Clin North Am 64:639, 1984. PUBMED Abstract

  107. Tonnesen MG, Feng X, Clark RAF: Angiogenesis in wound healing. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc 5:40, 2000. PUBMED Abstract

  108. Tyrone JW, Marcus JR, Bonomo SR, et al: Transforming growth factor {beta}3 promotes fascial wound healing in a new animal model. Arch Surg 135:1154, 2000. PUBMED Abstract

  109. Ueno C, Hunt TK, Hopf HW: Using physiology to improve surgical wound outcomes. Plast Reconstr Surg 117(7 suppl):59S, 2006. PUBMED Abstract

  110. Varley C, Hill G, Pellegrin S, et al: Autocrine regulation of human urothelial cell proliferation and migration during regenerative responses in vitro. Exp Cell Res 306:216, 2005. PUBMED Abstract

  111. Weber EWG, Slappendel R, Prins MH, et al: Perioperative blood transfusions and delayed wound healing after hip replacement surgery: effects on duration of hospitalization. Anesth Analg 100:1416, 2005. PUBMED Abstract

  112. Weber WP, Marti WR, Zwahlen M, et al: The timing of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis. Ann Surg 247:918, 2008. PUBMED Abstract

  113. Weiss S, Zimmermann G, Pufe T, et al: The systemic angiogenic response during bone healing. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 129:989, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

  114. Wilmink J, Stolk P, vanWeeren P: Differences in second-intention wound healing between horses and ponies: macroscopical aspects. Equine Vet J 31:61, 1999. PUBMED Abstract

  115. Wilmink J, vanWeeren P, Stolk P, et al: Differences in second-intention wound healing between horses and ponies: histological aspects. Equine Vet J 31:61, 1999. PUBMED Abstract

  116. Wishnow K, Johnson D, Grignon D, et al: Regeneration of the canine urinary bladder mucosa after complete denudation. J Urol 141:1476, 1989. PUBMED Abstract

  117. Witte MB, Barbul A: Repair of full-thickness bowel injury. Crit Care Med 31:S538, 2003. PUBMED Abstract

  118. Wolf NS: Cell replication rates in vivo and in vitro and wound healing as affected by animal age, diet, and species. In Wolf NS, editor: The comparative biology of aging, The Netherlands, 2010, Springer, p 97.

  119. Wong Y, Martin B: A study of light and scanning electron microscopy of the lining epithelium of the guinea pig bladder following artificial ulceration. Am J Anat 150:219, 1977. PUBMED Abstract

  120. Wornom I, Buchman S: Bone and cartilaginous tissue. In Cohen I, Diegelmann R, Lindblad W, editors: Wound healing: biochemical and clinical aspects, Philadelphia, 1992, WB Saunders, p 356.

  121. Worthley L: Shock: a review of pathophysiology and management. Part I. Crit Care Resusc 2:55, 2000. PUBMED Abstract

  122. Xu L, McLennan SV, Lo L, et al: Bacterial load predicts healing rate in neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers. Diabetes Care 30:378, 2007. PUBMED Abstract

Chapter 10: Wound Infections and Antimicrobial Use


  1. Aglietti P, Salvati EA, Wilson PD, Jr, Kutner LJ: Effect of a surgical horizontal unidirectional filtered air flow unit on wound bacterial contamination and wound healing. Clin Orthop Relat Res 101:99, 1974. PUBMED Abstract

  2. Al-Niaimi A, Safdar N: Supplemental perioperative oxygen for reducing surgical site infection: a meta-analysis. J Eval Clin Pract 15:360, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

  3. Amsden GW, Ballow CH, Bertino JS, Kashuba ADM: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anti-infective agents. In Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, editors: Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s principles and practice of infectious diseases, ed 7, Philadelphia, 2010, Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.

  4. Anonymous: Postsurgical infections associated with an extrinsically contaminated intravenous anesthetic agent—California, Illinois, Maine, and Michigan. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 39:426, 1990. PUBMED Abstract

  5. Archer GL: Alteration of cutaneous staphylococcal flora as a consequence of antimicrobial prophylaxis. Rev Infect Dis 13(suppl 10):S805, 1991. PUBMED Abstract

  6. Arduino MJ, Bland LA, McAllister SK, et al: Microbial growth and endotoxin production in the intravenous anesthetic propofol. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 12:535, 1991. PUBMED Abstract

  7. Beal MW, Brown DC, Shofer FS: The effects of perioperative hypothermia and the duration of anesthesia on postoperative wound infection rate in clean wounds: a retrospective study. Vet Surg 29:123, 2000. PUBMED Abstract

  8. Bennett SN, McNeil MM, Bland LA, et al: Postoperative infections traced to contamination of an intravenous anesthetic, propofol [see comment]. N Engl J Med 333:147, 1995. PUBMED Abstract

  9. Berg JN, Wendell DE, Vogelweid C, Fales WH: Identification of the major coagulase-positive Staphylococcus sp of dogs as Staphylococcus intermedius. Am J Vet Res 45:1307, 1984.

  10. Berry CB, Gillespie T, Hood J, Scott NB: Growth of micro-organisms in solutions of intravenous anaesthetic agents [see comment]. Anaesthesia 48:30, 1993. PUBMED Abstract

  11. Brand JM, Kirchner H, Poppe C, Schmucker P: The effects of general anesthesia on human peripheral immune cell distribution and cytokine production. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 83:190, 1997. PUBMED Abstract

  12. Brown DC, Conzemius MG, Shofer F, Swann H: Epidemiologic evaluation of postoperative wound infections in dogs and cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 210:1302, 1997. PUBMED Abstract

  13. Burke JF: Use of preventive antibiotics in clinical surgery. Am Surg 39:6, 1973. PUBMED Abstract

  14. Caywood DD, Wallace LJ, Braden TD: Osteomyelitis in the dog: a review of 67 cases. J Am Vet Med Assoc 172:943, 1978. PUBMED Abstract

  15. Ciepichal J, Kubler A: Effect of general and regional anesthesia on some neutrophil functions. Arch Immunol Ther Exp 46:183, 1998.

  16. Conte JE, Jr, Cohen SN, Roe BB, Elashoff RM: Antibiotic prophylaxis and cardiac surgery: a prospective double-blind comparison of single-dose versus multiple-dose regimens. Ann Intern Med 76:943, 1972. PUBMED Abstract

  17. Crozier TA, Muller JE, Quittkat D, et al: Effect of anaesthesia on the cytokine responses to abdominal surgery [see comment]. Brit J Anaesth 72:280, 1994. PUBMED Abstract

  18. Daude-Lagrave A, Carozzo C, Fayolle P, et al: Infection rates in surgical procedures: a comparison of cefalexin vs. a placebo. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 14:146, 2001.

  19. Dietz A, Heimlich F, Daniel V, et al: Immunomodulating effects of surgical intervention in tumors of the head and neck. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 123(1 Pt 1):132, 2000. PUBMED Abstract

  20. Drew RH: Emerging options for treatment of invasive, multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. Pharmacotherapy 27:227, 2007. PUBMED Abstract

  21. Eugster S, Schawalder P, Gaschen F, Boerlin P: A prospective study of postoperative surgical site infections in dogs and cats. Vet Surg 33:542, 2004. PUBMED Abstract

  22. Frohlich D, Rothe G, Schwall B, et al: Effects of volatile anaesthetics on human neutrophil oxidative response to the bacterial peptide FMLP. Brit J Anaesth 78:718, 1997. PUBMED Abstract

  23. Galley HF, Dubbels AM, Webster NR: The effect of midazolam and propofol on interleukin-8 from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Anesth Analg 86:1289, 1998. PUBMED Abstract

  24. Gibson KL, Donald AW, Hariharan H, McCarville C: Comparison of two pre-surgical skin preparation techniques. Can J Vet Res 61:154, 1997. PUBMED Abstract

  25. Hamilton HW, Hamilton KR, Lone FJ: Preoperative hair removal. Can J Surg 20:269, 1977. PUBMED Abstract

  26. Heldmann E, Brown DC, Shofer F: The association of propofol usage with postoperative wound infection rate in clean wounds: a retrospective study. Vet Surg 28:256, 1999. PUBMED Abstract

  27. Hirsh DC, Smith TM: Osteomyelitis in the dog: microorganisms isolated and susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. J Small Anim Pract 19:679, 1978. PUBMED Abstract

  28. Horan TC, Gaynes RP, Martone WJ, et al: CDC definitions of nosocomial surgical site infections, 1992: a modification of CDC definitions of surgical wound infections. Am J Infect Control 20:271, 1992. PUBMED Abstract

  29. Kaiser AB: Antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery. N Engl J Med 315:1129, 1986. PUBMED Abstract

  30. Kernodle DS, Barg NL, Kaiser AB: Low-level colonization of hospitalized patients with methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci and emergence of the organisms during surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 32:202, 1988. PUBMED Abstract

  31. Kirby JP, Mazuski JE: Prevention of surgical site infection. Surg Clin North Am 89:365, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

  32. Kuehnert MJ, Webb RM, Jochimsen EM, et al: Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections among patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy traced to breaks in infection control and possible extrinsic contamination by propofol. Anesth Analg 85:420, 1997. PUBMED Abstract

  33. Lidwell OM, Lowbury EJ, Whyte W, et al: Effect of ultraclean air in operating rooms on deep sepsis in the joint after total hip or knee replacement: a randomised study. Brit Med J Clin Res 285:10, 1982. PUBMED Abstract

  34. Marcellin-Little DJ, Papich MG, Richardson DC, DeYoung DJ: Pharmacokinetic model for cefazolin distribution during total hip arthroplasty in dogs. Am J Vet Res 57:720, 1996. PUBMED Abstract

  35. Michalopoulos A, Falagas ME: Colistin and polymyxin B in critical care. Crit Care Clin 24:377, 2008. PUBMED Abstract

  36. National Research Council Division of Medical Sciences Ad hoc Committee of the Committee on Trauma: Postoperative wound infections: the influence of ultraviolet irradiation of the operating room and of various other factors. Chapter III Organization, Methods, and Physical Factors of the Study. Ann Surg 160(Suppl 2):19–31, 1964.

  37. Nicholson M, Beal M, Shofer F, Brown DC: Epidemiologic evaluation of postoperative wound infection in clean-contaminated wounds: a retrospective study of 239 dogs and cats. Vet Surg 31:577, 2002. PUBMED Abstract

  38. Offner PJ, Moore EE, Biffl WL: Male gender is a risk factor for major infections after surgery. Arch Surg 134:935; discussion 938, 1999. PUBMED Abstract

  39. Osuna DJ, DeYoung DJ, Walker RL: Comparison of three skin preparation techniques. Part 2: Clinical trial in 100 dogs. Vet Surg 19:20, 1990. PUBMED Abstract

  40. Patel NP, Malangoni MA: Antimicrobial agents for surgical infections. Surg Clin North Am 89:327, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

  41. Peikes H, Morris DO, Hess RS: Dermatologic disorders in dogs with diabetes mellitus: 45 cases (1986–2000). J Am Vet Med Assoc 219:203, 2001. PUBMED Abstract

  42. Petersen SW, Rosin E: Cephalothin and cefazolin in vitro antibacterial activity and pharmacokinetics in dogs. Vet Surg 24:347, 1995. PUBMED Abstract

  43. Pressler BM, Vaden SL, Lane IF, et al: Candida spp. urinary tract infections in 13 dogs and seven cats: predisposing factors, treatment, and outcome. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 39:263, 2003. PUBMED Abstract

  44. Pryor F, Messmer PR: The effect of traffic patterns in the OR on surgical site infections. AORN J 68:649, 1998. PUBMED Abstract

  45. Qadan M, Akca O, Mahid SS, et al: Perioperative supplemental oxygen therapy and surgical site infection: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Surg 144:359; discussion 366, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

  46. Rochat MC, Mann FA, Berg JN: Evaluation of a one-step surgical preparation technique in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 203:392, 1993. PUBMED Abstract

  47. Rosin E, Uphoff TS, Schultz-Darken NJ, Collins MT: Cefazolin antibacterial activity and concentrations in serum and the surgical wound in dogs. Am J Vet Res 54:1317, 1993. PUBMED Abstract

  48. Rubinstein E, Findler G, Amit P, Shaked I: Perioperative prophylactic cephazolin in spinal surgery: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Bone Joint Surg Br 76:99, 1994. PUBMED Abstract

  49. Salman H, Bergman M, Bessler H, et al: Effect of sodium thiopentone anesthesia on the phagocytic activity of rat peritoneal macrophages. Life Sci 63:2221, 1998. PUBMED Abstract

  50. Salo M: Effects of anaesthesia and surgery on the immune response. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 36:201, 1992. PUBMED Abstract

  51. Schroder J, Kahlke V, Staubach KH, et al: Gender differences in human sepsis [see comment]. Arch Surg 133:1200, 1998. PUBMED Abstract

  52. Simmons BP: CDC guidelines on infection control. Infect Control 3(2 suppl):187, 1982. PUBMED Abstract

  53. Smilack JD: The tetracyclines. Mayo Clin Proc 74:727, 1999. PUBMED Abstract

  54. Stubbs WP, Bellah JR, Vermaas-Hekman D, et al: Chlorhexidine gluconate versus chloroxylenol for preoperative skin preparation in dogs. Vet Surg 25:487, 1996. PUBMED Abstract

  55. Vasseur PB, Levy J, Dowd E, Eliot J: Surgical wound infection rates in dogs and cats: data from a teaching hospital. Vet Surg 17:60, 1988. PUBMED Abstract

  56. Vasseur PB, Paul HA, Enos LR, Hirsh DDC: Infection rates in clean surgical procedures: a comparison of ampicillin prophylaxis vs a placebo. J Am Vet Med Assoc 187:825, 1985. PUBMED Abstract

  57. Veber B, Gachot B, Bedos JP, Wolff M: Severe sepsis after intravenous injection of contaminated propofol. Anesthesiology 80:712, 1994. PUBMED Abstract

  58. Whittem TL, Johnson AL, Smith CW, et al: Effect of perioperative prophylactic antimicrobial treatment in dogs undergoing elective orthopedic surgery. J Am Vet Med Assoc 215:212, 1999. PUBMED Abstract

  59. Wichmann MW, Zellweger R, DeMaso CM, et al: Mechanism of immunosuppression in males following trauma-hemorrhage: critical role of testosterone. Arch Surg 131:1186; discussion 1191, 1996. PUBMED Abstract

  60. Wilkens B, Sullivan P, McDonald TP, Krahwinkel DJ: Effects of cephalothin, cefazolin, and cefmetazole on the hemostatic mechanism in normal dogs: implications for the surgical patient. Vet Surg 24:25, 1995. PUBMED Abstract

  61. Zacher AN, Zornow MH, Evans G: Drug contamination from opening glass ampules [see comment]. Anesthesiology 75:893, 1991. PUBMED Abstract

Chapter 11: Evidence-Based Medicine and Outcomes Assessment


  1. Carmines EG, Zeller R: Reliability and validity assessment, Beverly Hills, 1979, Sage.

  2. Cattell RB: The scientific use of factor analysis in behavioral and life sciences, New York, 1978, Plenum Press.

  3. Ferraz MB, Quaresma MR, Aquino LR, et al: Reliability of pain scales in the assessment of literate and illiterate patients with rheumatoid arthritis [see comment]. J Rheumatol 17:1022, 1990. PUBMED Abstract

  4. Goodwin LD, Goodwin WL: Focus on psychometrics: estimating construct validity. Res Nurs Health 14:235, 1991. PUBMED Abstract

  5. Green SB: Hypothesis testing in clinical trials. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 14:785, 2000. PUBMED Abstract

  6. Huskisson EC: Measurement of pain. Lancet 2:1127, 1974. PUBMED Abstract

  7. Jensen MP, Turner JA, Romano JM: What is the maximum number of levels needed in pain intensity measurement? Pain 58:387, 1994. PUBMED Abstract

  8. Kirshner B, Guyatt G: A methodological framework for assessing health indices. J Chron Dis 38:27, 1985. PUBMED Abstract

  9. Kline P: A handbook of test construction, London, 1986, Methuen.

  10. McDowell I, Newell C: Measuring health: a guide to rating scales and questionnaires, New York, 1996, Oxford University Press.

  11. Nunnally JC: Psychometric theory, New York, 1978, McGraw-Hill.

  12. Streiner DL, Norman GR: Health measurement scales: a practical guide to their development and use, New York, 1995, Oxford University Press.

  13. Streiner DL, Norman GR: Health measurement scales: a practical guide to their development and use, New York, 2003, Oxford University Press.

  14. Sudman S, Bradburn NM: Asking questions: a practical guide to questionnaire design, San Francisco, 1982, Jossey-Bass Inc..

  15. Barnett A, van der Pols J, Dobson A: Regression to the mean: what it is and how to deal with it. Int J Epidemiol 34:215–220, 2005. PUBMED Abstract

SECTION II: Surgical Methods and Perioperative Care

Chapter 12: Sterilization


  1. American Society for Healthcare Central Service Professionals: Training manual for health care central service technicians, San Francisco, 2006, American Society for Healthcare Central Service Professionals.

  2. The basics of packaging tutorial, Ridgeway, NJ, 2006, Case Medical Inc.

  3. Choosing a low-temperature sterilization technology. Health Devices 28:430, 1999. PUBMED Abstract

  4. Comprehensive guide to steam sterilization and sterility assurance in health care facilities, Arlington, VA, 2006, ANSI/AAMI.

  5. Comprehensive guide to steam sterilization and sterility assurance in health care facilities, Amendment 2, Arlington, VA, 2009, Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation.

  6. New class 6 indicator monitors steam cycles. OR Manager 24:17, 2008.

  7. Principles and practice of ethylene oxide sterilization, North Hollywood, CA, 1986, ATI Company.

  8. Stedman’s medical dictionary, ed 24, Baltimore, 1982, Williams and Wilkins.

  9. Boscariol M, Moreira A, Mansano R, et al: Sterilization by pure oxygen plasma and by oxygen-hydrogen peroxide plasma: an efficacy study. Int J Pharmaceut 353:170, 2008.

  10. Butt W, Bradley D, Mayhew R, et al: Evaluation of the shelf life of sterile instrument packs. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 72:650, 1991. PUBMED Abstract

  11. Conner R: Perioperative standards and recommended practices, Denver, 2009, AORN Inc.

  12. Favero M, Bond W: Chemical disinfection of medical and surgical materials. In Block S, editor: Disinfection, sterilization, and preservation, ed 5, Baltimore, 2001, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, p 881.

  13. Hughes C, Socola G, Hughes M: The gold standard in sterilizer monitoring. Mater Manag Health Care 18:23, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

  14. Hugo W: A brief history of heat and chemical preservation and disinfection. J Appl Bacteriol 71:9, 1991. PUBMED Abstract

  15. Jacobs P, Kowatsch R: Sterrad Sterilization System: a new technology for instrument sterilization. Endosc Surg Allied Technol 1:57, 1993. PUBMED Abstract

  16. Japp N: Packaging: shelf life. In Reichert M, Young J, editors: Sterilization technology for the health care facility, ed 2, Aspen, MD, 1997, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, p 99.

  17. Joslyn L: Sterilization by heat. In Block S, editor: Disinfection, sterilization, and preservation, ed 5, Philadelphia, 2001, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, p 695.

  18. Kanemitsu K, Imasaka T, Ishikawa S, et al: A comparative study of ethylene oxide gas, hydrogen peroxide gas plasma, and low-temperature steam formaldehyde sterilization. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 26:486, 2005. PUBMED Abstract

  19. Kanemitsu K, Kunishima H, Imasaka T, et al: Evaluation of a low-temperature steam and formaldehyde sterilizer. J Hosp Infect 55:47, 2003. PUBMED Abstract

  20. Kelkar U, Bal A, Kulkarni S: Monitoring of steam sterilization process by biologic indicators—a necessary surveillance tool. Am J Infect Control 32:512, 2004. PUBMED Abstract

  21. Klapes N, Greene V, Langholz A, et al: Effect of long-term storage on sterile status of devices in surgical packs. Infect Control 8:289, 1987. PUBMED Abstract

  22. Kyi M, Holton J, Ridgway G: Assessment of the efficacy of a low temperature hydrogen peroxide gas plasma sterilization system. J Hosp Infect 31:275, 1995. PUBMED Abstract

  23. Mallison G, Standard P: Safe storage times for sterile packs. J Am Hosp Assoc 48:77, 1974. PUBMED Abstract

  24. McKellop H, Shen F, Lu B, et al: Effect of sterilization method and other modifications on the wear resistance of acetabular cups made of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene: a hip-simulator study. J Bone Joint Surg Am 82:1708, 2000. PUBMED Abstract

  25. Medel F, Kurtz S, Hozack W, et al: Gamma inert sterilization: a solution to polyethylene oxidation? J Bone Joint Surg Am 91:839, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

  26. Mitchell S, Berg J: Sterilization. In Slatter D, editor: Textbook of small animal surgery, vol 1, Philadelphia, PA, 2003, Elsevier Science, p 155.

  27. Okpara-Hofmann J, Knoll M, Durr M, et al: Comparison of low-temperature hydrogen peroxide gas plasma sterilization for endoscopes using various Sterrad models. J Hosp Infect 59:280, 2005. PUBMED Abstract

  28. Pongchairerks P, Bhumisirikul W, Bhumisirikul P: Long-term storage of small surgical instruments in autoclaved packages. Asian J Surg 26:202, 2003. PUBMED Abstract

  29. Rutala W: APIC guidelines for selection and use of disinfectants. Am J Infect Control 18:99, 1990. PUBMED Abstract

  30. Rutala W, Weber D: Disinfection and sterilization in health care facilities: what clinicians need to know. Healthcare Epidemiol 39:701, 2004. PUBMED Abstract

  31. Rutala W, Weber D: Guideline for disinfection and sterilization in healthcare facilities, Augusta, GA, 2008, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

  32. Rutala W, Weber D: Infection control: the role of disinfection and sterilization. J Hosp Infect 43:S43, 1999. PUBMED Abstract

  33. Rutala W, Weber D: New disinfection and sterilization methods. Emerg Infect Dis 7:348, 2001. PUBMED Abstract

  34. Schwartz R, Butt W, Bradley D, et al: Safe storage times for sterile instrument packs. Milit Med 157:406, 1992. PUBMED Abstract

  35. Scott E, Gorman S: Glutaraldehyde. In Block S, editor: Disinfection, sterilization, and preservation, ed 5, Philadelphia, PA, 2001, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, p 361.

  36. Silverman G: Sterilization and preservation by ionizing irradiation. In Block S, editor: Disinfection, sterilization, and preservation, ed 4, Philadelphia, PA, 1991, Lea and Febiger, p 566.

  37. Spaulding E: Chemical disinfection and antisepsis in the hospital. J Hosp Res 9:5, 1972.

  38. Spry C: Understanding current steam sterilization recommendations and guidelines. AORN J 88:537, 2008. PUBMED Abstract

  39. Webster J, Radke E, George N, et al: Barrier properties and cost implications of a single versus a double wrap for storing sterile instrument packs. Am J Infect Control 33:348, 2005. PUBMED Abstract
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