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Section I: Surgical Biology Chapter 1: Inflammatory Response references

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Chapter 6: Shock


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  21. Dellinger RP, Levy MM, Carlet JM, et al: Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008. Crit Care Med 36:296, 2008. PUBMED Abstract

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  26. Evans GO: Plasma lactate measurements in healthy beagle dogs. Am J Vet Res 48:131, 1987. PUBMED Abstract

  27. Fahy BG, Sheehy AM, Coursin DB: Glucose control in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med 37:1769, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

  28. Finfer S, Chittock DR, Su SY, et al: Intensive versus conventional glucose control in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med 360:1283, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

  29. Francis AH, Martin LG, Haldorson GJ, et al: Adverse reactions suggestive of type III hypersensitivity in six healthy dogs given human albumin. J Am Vet Med Assoc 230:873, 2007. PUBMED Abstract

  30. Giunti M, Otto CM: Intraosseous catheterization. In Silverstein DC, Hooper K, editors: Small animal critical care medicine, ed 1, St Louis, 2008, Saunders Elsevier, pp 263.

  31. Gunn SR, Pinsky MR: Implications of arterial pressure variation in patients in the intensive care unit. Curr Opin Crit Care 7:212, 2001. PUBMED Abstract

  32. Hall KE, Powell LL, Beilman GJ: Measurement of tissue oxygen saturation levels using portable near-infrared spectroscopy in clinically healthy dogs. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 18:594, 2008.

  33. Hameed SM, Cohn SM: Gastric tonometry: the role of mucosal pH measurement in the management of trauma. Chest 123:475S, 2003. PUBMED Abstract

  34. Hammond TN, Holm JL: Limited fluid volume resuscitation. Compend Contin Educ Vet 31:309, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

  35. Harper AM: Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow: influence of the arterial blood pressure on the blood flow through the cerebral cortex. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 29:398, 1966. PUBMED Abstract

  36. Haskins S, Pascoe PJ, Ilkiw JE, et al: Reference cardiopulmonary values in normal dogs. Comp Med 55:156, 2005. PUBMED Abstract

  37. Hess JR, Brohi K, Dutton RP, et al: The coagulopathy of trauma: a review of mechanisms. J Trauma 65:748, 2008. PUBMED Abstract

  38. Hochreiter M, Kohler T, Schweiger AM, et al: Procalcitonin to guide duration of antibiotic therapy in intensive care patients: a randomized prospective controlled trial. Crit Care 13:R83, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

  39. Hoffmann JJ: Neutrophil CD64: a diagnostic marker for infection and sepsis. Clin Chem Lab Med 47:903, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

  40. Houston DM, Ribble CS, Head LL: Risk factors associated with parvovirus enteritis in dogs: 283 cases (1982–1991). J Am Vet Med Assoc 208:542, 1996. PUBMED Abstract

  41. Hughes D, Rozanski ER, Shofer FS, et al: Effect of sampling site, repeated sampling, pH, and PCO2 on plasma lactate concentration in healthy dogs. Am J Vet Res 60:521, 1999. PUBMED Abstract

  42. Iwabuchi T, Watanabe K, Kutsuzawa T, et al: Lactate in the cerebrospinal fluid and pressure-flow relationships in canine cerebral circulation. Stroke 4:207, 1973. PUBMED Abstract

  43. King LG: Postoperative complications and prognostic indicators in dogs and cats with septic peritonitis: 23 cases (1989–1992). J Am Vet Med Assoc 204:407, 1994. PUBMED Abstract

  44. Kumar A, Parrillo JE: Shock: classification, pathophysiology, and approach to management. In Parillo JE, Dellinger RP, editors: Critical care medicine, ed 3, Philadelphia, 2007, Mosby.

  45. Kumar A, Roberts D, Wood KE, et al: Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock. Crit Care Med 34:1589, 2006. PUBMED Abstract

  46. Lagutchik MS, Ogilvie GK, Hackett TB: Increased lactate concentrations in ill and injured dogs. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 8:117, 1998.

  47. Leach RM, Treacher DF: The pulmonary physician and critical care. 6. Oxygen transport: the relation between oxygen delivery and consumption. Thorax 47:971, 1992.

  48. Levi M, van der Poll T, Buller HR: Bidirectional relation between inflammation and coagulation. Circulation 109:2698, 2004. PUBMED Abstract

  49. Levy MM, Fink MP, Marshall JC, et al: 2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS International Sepsis Definitions Conference. Intensive Care Med 29:530, 2003. PUBMED Abstract

  50. Lima A, Bakker J: Noninvasive monitoring of peripheral perfusion. Intensive Care Med 31:1316, 2005. PUBMED Abstract

  51. Long KM, Kirby R: An update on cardiovascular adrenergic receptor physiology and potential pharmacological applications in veterinary critical care. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 18:2, 2008.

  52. Lotze MT, Zeh HJ, Rubartelli A, et al: The grateful dead: damage-associated molecular pattern molecules and reduction/oxidation regulate immunity. Immunol Rev 220:60, 2007. PUBMED Abstract

  53. Marik PE, Bankov A: Sublingual capnometry versus traditional markers of tissue oxygenation in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 31:818, 2003. PUBMED Abstract

  54. Marino PL: The ICU book, ed 3, Philadelphia, 2007, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  55. Martinez-Albarran M, Perez-Molina JJ, Gallegos-Castorena S: Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein serum levels as markers of infection in a pediatric population with febrile neutropenia and cancer. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 26:414, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

  56. Mason DJ, O’Grady M, Woods JP, et al: Assessment of lithium dilution cardiac output as a technique for measurement of cardiac output in dogs. Am J Vet Res 62:1255, 2001. PUBMED Abstract

  57. Mazzaferro AM: Oxygen therapy. In Silverstein DC, Hooper K, editors: Small animal critical care medicine, ed 1, St Louis, 2008, Saunders Elsevier, pp 78.

  58. McMichael M: Ischemia-reperfusion injury: assessment and treatment, Part II. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 14:242, 2004.

  59. McMichael M, Lees GE, Hennessey J: Serial plasma lactate concentration in 68 puppies aged 4 to 80 days. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 15:17, 2005.

  60. McMichael M, Moore RM: Ischemia-reperfusion injury pathophysiology, Part I. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 14:231, 2004.

  61. Mittleman Boller E, Otto CM: Septic shock. In Silverstein DC, Hooper K, editors: Small animal critical care medicine, ed 1, St Louis, 2008, Saunders Elsevier, pp 459.

  62. Miyamoto T, Fujinaga T, Yamashita K, et al: Changes of serum cytokine activities and other parameters in dogs with experimentally induced endotoxic shock. Jpn J Vet Res 44:107, 1996. PUBMED Abstract

  63. Moeniralam HS, Bemelman WA, Romijn JA, et al: Origin of endotoxemia influences the metabolic response to endotoxin in dogs. J Surg Res 73:47, 1997. PUBMED Abstract

  64. Mosher P, Ross J Jr, McFate PA, et al: Control of coronary blood flow by an autoregulatory mechanism. Circ Res 14:250, 1964. PUBMED Abstract

  65. Muir W: Trauma: physiology, pathophysiology, and clinical implications. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 16:253, 2006.

  66. Nel M, Lobetti RG, Keller N, et al: Prognostic value of blood lactate, blood glucose, and hematocrit in canine babesiosis. J Vet Intern Med 18:471, 2004. PUBMED Abstract

  67. Nemzek JA, Agrodnia MD, Hauptman JG: Breed-specific pro-inflammatory cytokine production as a predisposing factor for susceptibility to sepsis in the dog. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 17:368, 2007.

  68. Neyrinck AP, Liu KD, Howard JP, et al: Protective mechanisms of activated protein C in severe inflammatory disorders. Br J Pharmacol 158:1034, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

  69. Oh JS, Kim SU, Oh YM, et al: The usefulness of the semiquantitative procalcitonin test kit as a guideline for starting antibiotic administration. Am J Emerg Med 27:859, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

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  71. Parsons KJ, Owen LJ, Lee K, et al: A retrospective study of surgically treated cases of septic peritonitis in the cat (2000–2007). J Small Anim Pract 50:518, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

  72. Patel SA, Simon MC: Biology of hypoxia-inducible factor-2alpha in development and disease. Cell Death Differ 15:628, 2008. PUBMED Abstract

  73. Peyton JL, Burkitt JM: Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency in a dog with septic shock. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 19:262, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

  74. Prittie JE, Barton LJ, Peterson ME, et al: Pituitary ACTH and adrenocortical secretion in critically ill dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 220:615, 2002. PUBMED Abstract

  75. Rabuel C, Mebazaa A: Septic shock: a heart story since the 1960s. Intensive Care Med 32:799, 2006. PUBMED Abstract

  76. Rady MY: Possible mechanisms for the interaction of peripheral somatic nerve stimulation, tissue injury, and hemorrhage in the pathophysiology of traumatic shock. Anesth Analg 78:761, 1994. PUBMED Abstract

  77. Rand JS, Kinnaird E, Baglioni A, et al: Acute stress hyperglycemia in cats is associated with struggling and increased concentrations of lactate and norepinephrine. J Vet Intern Med 16:123, 2002. PUBMED Abstract

  78. Rau S, Kohn B, Richter C, et al: Plasma interleukin-6 response is predictive for severity and mortality in canine systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Vet Clin Pathol 36:253, 2007. PUBMED Abstract

  79. Razminia M, Trivedi A, Molnar J, et al: Validation of a new formula for mean arterial pressure calculation: the new formula is superior to the standard formula. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 63:419, 2004. PUBMED Abstract

  80. Reinhart K, Bloos F: The value of venous oximetry. Curr Opin Crit Care 11:259, 2005. PUBMED Abstract

  81. Reinhart K, Rudolph T, Bredle DL, et al: Comparison of central-venous to mixed-venous oxygen saturation during changes in oxygen supply/demand. Chest 95:1216, 1989. PUBMED Abstract

  82. Rivers E, Nguyen B, Havstad S, et al: Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. N Engl J Med 345:1368, 2001. PUBMED Abstract

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  84. Ruthrauff CM, Smith J, Glerum L: Primary bacterial septic peritonitis in cats: 13 cases. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 45:268, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

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  86. Scheinman MM, Brown MA, Rapaport E: Critical assessment of use of central venous oxygen saturation as a mirror of mixed venous oxygen in severely ill cardiac patients. Circulation 40:165, 1969. PUBMED Abstract

  87. Schutzer KM, Haglund U, Falk A: Cardiopulmonary dysfunction in a feline septic shock model: possible role of leukotrienes. Circ Shock 29:13, 1989. PUBMED Abstract

  88. Schutzer KM, Larsson A, Risberg B, et al: Lung protein leakage in feline septic shock. Am Rev Respir Dis 147:1380, 1993. PUBMED Abstract

  89. Silverstein DC, Pruett-Saratan A, 2nd, Drobatz KJ: Measurements of microvascular perfusion in healthy anesthetized dogs using orthogonal polarization spectral imaging. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 19:579, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

  90. Silverstein DC, Waddell LS, Drobatz K: Vasopressin therapy in dogs with dopamine-resistant hypotension and vasodilatory shock. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 17:399, 2007.

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  92. Taylor RW, Jr, Calvin JE, Matuschak GM: Pulmonary artery catheter consensus conference: the first step. Crit Care Med 25:2064, 1997. PUBMED Abstract

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  94. Van den Berghe G, Wouters P, Weekers F, et al: Intensive insulin therapy in the critically ill patient. N Engl J Med 345:1359, 2001. PUBMED Abstract

  95. Van der Linden P, Rausin I, Deltell A, et al: Detection of tissue hypoxia by arteriovenous gradient for PCO2 and pH in anesthetized dogs during progressive hemorrhage. Anesth Analg 80:269, 1995. PUBMED Abstract

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  103. Prittie J: Optimal endpoints of resuscitation and early goal-directed therapy. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 16:329, 2006.

Chapter 7: Bleeding and Hemostasis


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  2. Abraham E, Reinhart K, Opal S, et al: Efficacy and safety of tifacogin (recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor) in severe sepsis: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 290:238, 2003. PUBMED Abstract

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  7. Alwood AJ, Downend AB, Brooks MB, et al: Anticoagulant effects of low-molecular-weight heparins in healthy cats. J Vet Intern Med 21:378, 2007. PUBMED Abstract

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  22. Bateman SW, Mathews KA, Abrams-Ogg AC, et al: Diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation in dogs admitted to an intensive care unit. J Am Vet Med Assoc 215:798, 1999. PUBMED Abstract

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  24. Bauer KA, Rosenberg RD: The pathophysiology of the prethrombotic state in humans: insights gained from studies using markers of hemostatic activation. Blood 70:343, 1987. PUBMED Abstract

  25. Bauer KA, Rosenberg RD: Role of antithrombin III as a regulator of in vivo coagulation. Semin Hematol 28:10, 1991. PUBMED Abstract

  26. Becker DM, Philbrick JT, Bachhuber TL, et al: D-dimer testing and acute venous thromboembolism. Arch Intern Med 156:939, 1996. PUBMED Abstract

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  28. Bernard GR, Ely EW, Wright TJ, et al: Safety and dose relationship of recombinant human activated protein C for coagulopathy in severe sepsis. Crit Care Med 29:2051, 2001. PUBMED Abstract

  29. Bernard GR, Vincent JL, Laterre PF, et al: Efficacy and safety of recombinant human activated protein C for severe sepsis. N Engl J Med 344:699, 2001b. PUBMED Abstract

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  31. Bick RL, Arun B, Frenkel EP: Disseminated intravascular coagulation: clinical and pathophysiologic mechanisms and manifestations. Haemostasis 29:111, 1999. PUBMED Abstract

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  33. Bick RF: Clinical relevance of antithrombin III. Semin Thromb Haemost 8:276, 1982.

  34. Bick RL, Haas SK: International consensus recommendations: summary statement and additional suggested guidelines. Med Clin N Am 82:613, 1998. PUBMED Abstract

  35. Bliss SP, Bliss SK, Harvey HJ: Use of recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator in a dog with chylothorax secondary to catheter-associated thrombosis of the cranial vena cava. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 38:431, 2002. PUBMED Abstract

  36. Bode AP, Fischer TH: Lyophilized platelets: 50 years in the making. Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol 35:125, 2007. PUBMED Abstract

  37. Bode AP, Lust RM, Read MS, et al: Correction of the bleeding time with lyophilized platelet infusions in dogs on cardiopulmonary bypass. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 14:38, 2008. PUBMED Abstract

  38. Boffard KD, Riou B, Warren B, et al: Recombinant factor VIIa as adjunctive therapy for bleeding control in severely injured trauma patients: two parallel randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trials. J Trauma 59:8, 2005. PUBMED Abstract

  39. Boisvert AM, Swenson CL, Haines CJ: Serum and plasma latex agglutination tests for detection of fibrin(ogen) degradation products in clinically ill dogs. Vet Clin Pathol 30:133, 2001. PUBMED Abstract

  40. Boswood A, Lamb CR, White RN: Aortic and iliac thrombosis in six dogs. J Small Anim Pract 41:109, 2000. PUBMED Abstract

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  42. Boutet P, Heath F, Archer J, et al: Comparison of quantitative immunoturbidometric and semiquantitative latex-agglutination assays for D-dimer measurement in canine plasma. Vet Clin Pathol 38:78, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

  43. Brainard BM, Meredith CP, Callan MB, et al: Changes in platelet function, hemostasis, and prostaglandin expression after treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with various cyclooxygenase selectivities in dogs. Am J Vet Res 68:251, 2007. PUBMED Abstract

  44. Brainard BM: Viscoelastic coagulation monitoring. In Proceedings of the 15th International Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Symposium (VECCS), San Antonio, Texas, 2009, pp 501.

  45. Brazzell JL, Borjesson DL: Evaluation of plasma antithrombin activity and D-dimer concentration in populations of healthy cats, clinically ill cats, and cats with cardiomyopathy. Vet Clin Pathol 36:79, 2007. PUBMED Abstract

  46. Breuhl EL, Moore G, Brooks MB, et al: A prospective study of unfractionated heparin therapy in dogs with primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 45:125, 2009. PUBMED Abstract

  47. Brinkhous KM, Hedner U, Garris GB, et al: Effect of recombinant factor VIIa on the hemostatic defect in dogs with hemophilia A, hemophilia B, and von Willebrand disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 86:1382, 1989. PUBMED Abstract

  48. Brohi K, Singh J, Heron M, et al: Acute traumatic coagulopathy. J Trauma 54:1127, 2003. PUBMED Abstract

  49. Brohi K, Cohen MJ, Ganter MT, et al: Acute traumatic coagulopathy: initiated by hypoperfusion, modulated through the protein C pathway? Ann Surg 245: 812, 2007. PUBMED Abstract

  50. Brohi K, Cohen MJ, Ganter MT, et al: Acute coagulopathy of trauma: hypoperfusion induces systemic anticoagulation and hyperfibrinolysis. J Trauma 64:1211, 2008. PUBMED Abstract

  51. Brookenthal KR, Freedman KB, Lotke PA, et al: A meta-analysis of thromboembolic prophylaxis in total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 16:293, 2001. PUBMED Abstract

  52. Brooks M, Dodds WJ, Raymond SL: Epidemiologic features of von Willebrand’s disease in Doberman pinschers, Scottish terriers, and Shetland sheepdogs: 260 cases (1984–1988). J Am Vet Med Assoc 200:1123, 1992. PUBMED Abstract

  53. Brooks M, Catalfamo J: Buccal mucosal bleeding time is prolonged in canine models of primary hemostatic disorders. Thromb Haemost 70:777, 1993. PUBMED Abstract

  54. Brooks M, Raymond S, Catalfamo J: Severe, recessive von Willebrand’s disease in German wirehaired pointers. J Am Vet Med Assoc 209:926, 1996. PUBMED Abstract

  55. Brooks M: Transfusion of plasma and plasma derivatives. In Feldman BF, Zinkl JG, Jain NC, editors: Schalm’s veterinary hematology, ed 5, Philadelphia, 2000, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, pp 838.

  56. Brooks M: Von Willebrand disease. In Feldman BF, Zinkl JG, Jain NC, editors: Schalm’s veterinary hematology, ed 5, Philadelphia, 2000, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, pp 509.

  57. Brooks M, Spagnoletti-DeWilde, LS: Feline factor XII deficiency. Compend Contin Educ 28:148, 2006.

  58. Brooks MB, Catalfamo JL: Platelet dysfunction. In Bonagura JD, Twedt DC, editors: Kirk’s current veterinary therapy, ed 14, St Louis, 2009, Saunders Elsevier, pp 292.

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