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Comparative study of Formal and Non-Formal schools in rural areas of Multan.
October 2013



Ali house St.# 9, Police Line . # 1 Multan


Comparative study of Formal and Non-Formal schools in rural areas of Multan.
Introduction/ background
Due to population explosion and swiftly increasing demand for education even developed countries are unable to overcome the prevailing challenges through formal system of education. Most of the developing countries are in miserable situation regarding level of education and literacy. Attacking poverty has become an international concern for placing in the paradigm of ‘education and learning for sustainable development’ in consideration of the reality that almost half of the world’s population live in poverty. Pakistan is the sixth populous country in the world and unfortunately, more than half of the population is living below the poverty line. Educated and well off urban population lives not so very differently from their counterparts in other countries of similar income range, or even of their counterparts in Western countries. However, the poor and rural inhabitants of Pakistan are being left behind (World Bank, 2002). Due to scarce resources and financial constraints developing countries are unable to deal with the radical demand for education and consequently non-formal education (NFE) seems blessing to meet this challenge of poverty alleviation.

Education, as a fundamental human right, is considered very important and strategic for developing their human resources. The right to education imposes an obligation upon countries to ensure that all children and citizens have opportunities to meet their basic learning needs. Pakistan, the second largest country in South Asia, is sixth most populous country in the world with a population of 176 million, of which approximately 61 percent lives in rural areas.

Literacy rate of Pakistan is nearly 54 percent: 65.25% for men, and 41.75% for women. While the rural (44% overall, 58% for men, and 29% for women) literacy rate indicates the alarming situation of the rural population. Embarrassing situation of literacy especially in rural areas of Pakistan is the result of low financial priority to education as well as ill-conceived non-consistent policies in the past.


The first process was to identify the target areas where the research should be conducted. Keeping in view that these areas selected randomly techniques. The areas which was identified that’s detail is given below.

  • Targeted Union Councils.

5 union council were selected in this research which’s mentioned below.

  1. Binda Sandeela

  2. Saley Mahey

  3. Buch Khusru Abad

  4. Lutf Abad

  5. Qasim Bela

20 formal and 20 non-formal schools were selected during research which detail has been mentioned.

At least 2250 students in Formal schools and 620 students are getting education in Non-Formal schools.

Sr. no

Union Council Name

Formal School

Non-Formal schools


Binda Sandeela




Saley Mahey




Buch Khusru Abad




Lutf Abad




Qasim Bela



10 teams by Roshni organization moved to data collection in these areas to investigate the real differences between Formal and non-Formal education. Team’s details are below.

  • Teams

Team 1

Samar Ali

Aysha bukhari

Team 2

Hamza Ahmed

Rabia Fatima

Team 3

Muhammad Safdar

Aliya Batool

Team 4

Muhammad Akram

Muazma Jamshed

Team 5

Muhammad Afzal

Nimra bibi

Team 6

Shahzad Ahmad

Aleeza Nazeer

Team 7

Talib Hussain

Aqeela Saeed

Team 8

Arif Hussain

Samra Naveed

Team 9

Mumtaz Tahir

Nadia Batool

Team 10

Mazhar Abbas

Tahira Parveen


  1. To Expand and improve inclusive child care and education for deserving children.

  2. To ensure the provision of quality education for all children especially girls at their door step in secure manner.

The study used survey approach of the descriptive research to find out the opinion of various personnel (students, teachers and Community) in 5 union councils of Multan.

  • Population and Sampling

The population consisted of Non-Formal School’s 95 students, 20 teachers and Formal school 157 students and 20 teachers were selected to investigate the education status. Over all 350 community members of above mentioned U/Cs selected during the research through random sampling.

To draw the opinions of the particular respondents, three questionnaires were developed to differentiate the formal and Non-formal education

1. Questionnaire for students. 2. Questionnaire for teachers.

3. Questionnaire for Community

  • Data Analysis

In close ended statement regarding problems and issues of Formal schools 99% students opines that books were not provided well in time, 87% are of the view that class rooms were not available and there was no arrangement of co-curricular activities. The major problem of student’s parents was that their earnings are not sufficient to pay the fee. 87% students said that Teachers of formal schools are not briefed about their duties and responsibilities and orientation workshops are not arranged for them. 7% opined that non availability of class rooms is another problem for them. Timings of formal schools were not suitable. But Timing of the NFBE Schools may be increased and adjusted in accordance with students’ availability.

67% students, teachers 73% and 85% community were disagreed with the statement that physical facilities like electricity, toilets, classrooms and furniture are available at the Formal schools.

85% community and 63% students were not satisfied with the formal schools results on the other hand 15% students and 34% community were not satisfied with non-formal schools results that`s a huge difference between both.

34% students of Non-Formal Schools and 87% students of Formal students said that teachers behavior is not good with students.

45% sudents of Formal schools and only 13% students of Non-Formal schools said that teacher come late in school.

According to the community 55% boundry walls of formal and 10% of non-formal schools are not in well position. Thay said that It a dangerous for our children.

Majority of the students, teachers and Community are of the view that black board, charts and pictures are not used during teaching learning process in formal schools. Meanwhile the Dominant majority of the respondents are satisfied with the non-formal teaching process, teaching learning environment, teaching methodologies, regularity of teachers and students, checking of home work, evaluation of students and teachers work, supervision of schools.

According to the students only 10% homework checked daily in formal schools meanwhile 100% checked in Non-Formal Schools.

Majority of the respondents said that formal schools have long distance meanwhile non-formal schools are near to their home. Non-formal schools giving good environment, good results and 100% secure according to the parents of students. Formal schools teacher are not much interested to build the child future.

If we analyze the cost of per child then it is estimated that 1 child cost is at least 67000 in formal educations on the other hand Non-formal child cost is only 2866 PKR. After that the results are not very well to appreciate.

The main and specific thing was that community said that their children are 100% secure in non-formal Schools and 75% are in formal secure. According to the community Non-formal schools have 95% good result meanwhile at least 70% is in formal schools that`s why they prefer non-formal school for their children`s.

  • Conclusion.

Formal schools have slowest staff, insufficient compensation of teachers and insufficient resources were there, there is no proper environment to seek knowledge, they are not going to build the capacity of students also they are going to trained a good environment. The proper attention of teachers is not in formal schools, On the other hand those non-formal schools are playing dynamic role in national development by uplifting socio, economic status of masses especially in the rural area. Non-formal schools are also playing vital role in discriminating gender disparity by providing equal opportunities of education to male and the female as well. Community is satisfied with the education of girls and boys because they know that their children are secure and safe and non-formal education also have good achievement. All facilities are available there, teacher has sufficient time to educate the students and also these schools have good environment. Students participation is very well and appriciatable. But Provision of budget was insufficient hence; budget may be increased and used appropriately.

  • Suggeaions.

  • To conduct Professional and vocational trainings in non-formal schools.

  • Appoint extra teachers in existing Non-formal schools for good quality. Where enrollment is more than 40 learners.

  • To provide the basic education to orphans, poor and low income students families through non-formal education.

  • Arrange exposure / exchange visits for confidence building .

  • Especially provide the basic needs to non-formal schools because they are playing a vital role in education and capacity building of students.

  • Create spaces at schools and community level for extensive debates on basis education, its nature and delivery.

  • Non-formals schools are backbone for our country so it`s compulsory to establish more schools for better society.

Roshni Organization Multan

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