Ana səhifə

Radioactivity Neutralization Methods

Yüklə 12.18 Mb.
ölçüsü12.18 Mb.
1   ...   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   ...   26

Areva to Add Uranium Recovery Operation
By Annette Cary, Herald staff writer August 22, 2008 

Areva plans to add newly developed technology to its Richland plant to remove valuable enriched uranium from waste produced there and from waste shipped from other nuclear producers to the plant.

The new technology to recover enriched uranium is a "green process" that relies on a form of carbon dioxide, Areva said.
This week, Areva and the University of Idaho signed an agreement to work together to use a jointly developed process to remove enriched uranium from ash left from reducing the volume of contaminated debris by incineration. The incinerated debris includes items such as gloves and rags from the production of fuel for commercial nuclear power reactors.
Areva plans to add $2.5 million of equipment to its Richland plant this year. Work will be done in-house, and the equipment can be operated with its current staff.
The plant has about 35 tons of ash in Richland that otherwise would need to be disposed of as low-level radioactive waste. Incineration already has reduced the waste volume by a factor of 25 to 1, according to Areva.
Areva calculates that the ash on site now contains more than 2 tons of enriched uranium worth about $5 million in today's market. The recovered uranium can be used at the Richland plant and the ash that remains will have had its radioactive content removed, said Chuck Perkins, the Areva Richland site manager.
The ash at the plant should be processed fairly quickly, Perkins said, and by 2009 the plant will be ready to receive ash from other producers of nuclear fuel, either in the United States or internationally.
"By recovering such a valuable energy resource that otherwise could have been lost to disposal, and by using an environmentally sensitive process to do it, it's a win-win result for our planet and for Areva." said Joe Zwetolitz, an Areva NP vice president, in a statement.
The process relies on a liquid-like form of carbon dioxide called "supercritical" and other common chemicals to extract and purify the enriched uranium. Carbon dioxide reaches its supercritical state at a pressure of 1,000 pounds per square inch and a temperature of about 88 degrees. It is chemically inert and relatively inexpensive compared to other solvents, according to Areva.
The carbon dioxide will be recycled in a closed-loop system to minimize any discharges to the environment. Any risk would be more related to routine industrial operations than to radiation, Perkins said.
The recovery process was developed after four years of work by Areva engineer Syd Koegler, a University of Idaho alumnus, and Chien Wai, a University of Idaho chemistry professor. They have applied for a joint patent.
Before the new process is added to Areva's Richland plant, Areva will require an amendment to its license issued through the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
Already, Areva is recycling the hydrofluoric acid that is a byproduct of the material it manufactures into fuel. It sells it for use in the glass industry in the Mid-Columbia.
Read more here:

Israeli Discovery may Convert Radioactive Waste into Clean Energy
By Karen Kloosterman – March 18, 2007

A chunk of black, lava-like rock is the result of the process invented by Israeli firm Environmental Energy Resources (EER) to transform radioactive waste into an inert, safe substance. The laws of conservation of energy and mass say that energy or mass cannot be created or destroyed – only change form. With the help of Russian scientists EER has taken the laws of science and turned them into a useful invention for mankind – a reactor that converts radioactive, hazardous and municipal waste into inert byproducts such as glass and clean energy.

The problem of radioactive waste is a global one, and getting increasingly worse. All countries in the industrialized world are waking up to the need for safer hazardous waste disposal methods.
“In the beginning, nobody believed that we could do it,” says Itschak Shrem, chairman of investment company Shrem, Fudim and Keiner representing EER at a press briefing announcing the innovation last week in Tel Aviv.
Shrem, himself an invoker of small miracles through the founding of one of Israel’s most lucrative venture capital funds – Polaris (now Pitango) – points to a chunk of black, lava-like rock sitting on the table in front of everyone’s coffee cups.
The journalists cautiously eye Shrem as he assures them that the shiny dark material, emitted from EER’s pilot waste treatment reactor near Karmiel in the north, is safe to touch.
“It also makes a good recyclable material for building and paving roads.” he assures them. Earlier, Shrem told ISRAEL21c that EER can take low-radioactive, medical and municipal solid waste and produce from it clean energy that “can be used for just about anything”.
Using a system called plasma gasification melting technology developed by scientists from Russia’s Kurchatov Institute research center, the Radon Institute in Russia, and Israel’s Technion Institute – EER combines high temperatures and low-radioactive energy to transform waste.
“We go up to 7,000 degrees centigrade and end at 1,400 centigrade.” says Moshe Stern, founder and president of the Ramat Gan-based company.
Shrem adds that EER’s waste disposal reactor does not harm the environment and leaves no surface water, groundwater, or soil pollution in its wake. The EER reactor combines three processes into one solution: It takes plasma torches to break down the waste; carbon leftovers are gasified, and inorganic components are converted to solid waste. The remaining vitrified material is inert and can be cast into molds to produce tiles, blocks or plates for the construction industry.
EER’s Karmiel facility (and its other installation in the Ukraine) has a capacity to convert 500 to 1,000 kilograms of waste per hour. Other industry solutions, the company claims, can only treat as much as 50 kilograms per hour and are much more costly.
According to the journal Research Studies (Business Communications, Inc.), “The production of nuclear weapons/power in the US has left a 50-year legacy of unprecedented volumes of radioactive waste and contaminated subsurface media and structures… Nuclear waste generators include the national laboratories, industrial research facilities, educational and medical institutions, electrical power utilities, medical diagnostics facilities, and various manufacturing processes.”
In the US alone, Research Studies predicts that this year’s market for radioactive waste-management technologies in America will cap $5.5 billion.
EER was founded in 2000 and has maintained a low profile until revealing its reactor last week.
“We spent our time on R&D and building up the site in Israel which we started constructing in 2003. We realized that nobody was going to believe us unless we started doing the process physically. They always said it sounded too good to be true, so we had to prove it to them.” said Shrem.
Back in 2004, the Ukrainian government put out a tender searching for a solution that would provide safer hazardous waste disposal methods. At that time, the country was looking for a way to treat its low-radioactive waste zones resulting from the Chernobyl explosion. EER sent in their proposal, and their technology won the bid.
According to Stern, the former Soviet Union was the first to build nuclear plants. Over the years they have generated “huge amounts of low-radioactive waste. They came to us looking for a solution.” he said.

The Chernobyl nuclear meltdown on April 26, 1986 – was beyond a doubt the largest civil nuclear explosion in the world and one still linked to thousands of deaths. More than 20 years after the explosion, tens of kilometers around the reactor is still highly radioactive; and some 30,000 radioactive homes remain buried along with household appliances, food and clothing, explained Stern.

“The European community is afraid of what is happening there.” notes Stern, warning that it is time for the clean up to begin, even if it means making only a small dent in the massive pile. “The low-radioactive waste is slowly contaminating the water and will continue to do so over the 300 years it takes to break down.”
And since new conventions have been set by The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal, first-world countries are no longer permitted to traffic their hazardous waste to third-world nations – forcing Western countries to drum up immediate and responsible solutions.
With a strict eye over its operations by Israel’s Ministry of Environmental Protection, EER revealed its proof-of-concept to Israeli and foreign dignitaries in Aeblin, near Karmiel last week, showing how it can take mountains of municipal waste and reduce it to a pile of black rubble.
“We are not burning. This is the key word.” Shrem said. “When you burn you produce dioxin. Instead, we vacuum out the oxygen to prevent combustion.”
EER then purifies the gas and with it operates turbines to generate electricity. EER produces energy – 70% of which goes back to power the reactor with a 30% excess which can be sold.
“In effect, we are combining two of the most exciting markets in the US – the environment and clean energy.” says Stern, “We also reduce the carbon footprint.”
The cost for treating and burying low-radioactive nuclear waste currently stands at about $30,000 per ton. The EER process will cost $3,000 per ton and produce only a 1% per volume solid byproduct.
In the US, EER is working to treat low-radioactive liquid waste and recently contracted with Energy Solutions, the largest American company in the field with 75% of the US market.
Based on the financial forecasts, EER is certainly giving a fresh meaning to the expression – one man’s garbage is another man’s treasure. But in EER’s case, ones man’s hazardous waste may very well be EER’s goldmine.
Las Vegas energy expert Robert Nelson (see his has found this patent:
US Patent No: 8,373,087 Plasma torch for use in a waste processing chamber
The invention is a plasma torch for insertion through an opening in the wall of a waste processing chamber. The plasma torch of the invention is characterized by comprising a coaxial sleeve having an upper end and a lower end. The sleeve surrounds at least the portion of the outer surface of the torch that is located in the opening, thereby forming an insulating chamber between the outer surface if the torch and the inner surface of the sleeve. At least a portion of the portion of the coaxial sleeve that surrounds at least the portion of the outer surface of the torch that is located in the opening in the wall of the processing chamber is porous or permeable to a heat exchanging fluid. The torch comprises an inlet for introducing the heat exchanging fluid into the insulating chamber. When the plasma torch is inserted through the opening, a gap exists between the processing chamber wall and the coaxial sleeve. Thus the coaxial sleeve and the insulating chamber shield the outer surface of the plasma torch from a significant amount of the heat that radiates from the processing chamber wall and from inside the processing chamber and the heat exchanging fluid that flows through the inlet exits the insulating chamber into the processing chamber.

Methods to Influence Radioactivity Decay
Mr. Alexander V. Frolov. Russia

Extracted from

The Plan
It is planned to produce experiments to investigate several methods to influence radioactivity decay.
This method uses a new theory of aether activity.
Important for commercial aspect: We have to organize patenting and license sales.

Experiment 1

Rotation of current

Prof. Butusov offered to rotate coil of wire with electric current. It was tested by Mr. Frolov, 2002.

New stage is tests with rotation of electric current created in HTSC material (superconductor disk).
It was tested by Frolov in University of St. Petersburg. It is a cavitation method to influence radioactivity. We have gotten positive results: During 10 hours of cavitation process in a 5-kilowatt cavitator we detected 20% decrease of radioactivity in the liquid material and around the device also.
We have tested effects for the case of rotation of ionized liquid. The method also can be described to be rotation of plasma. In this case also there is rotating electric current of ions of the liquid. It is one more variant of the idea proposed by Prof. Butusov.

Results of Experiments in 2006

Experiment 2

Academican Ignatiev experimented with rotation of ExH field composition to get Pointing vector and propulsion force for aerospace applications . In this case we can get directed aether flow S. Activity of any radioactive material should be changed in area of this S-flow.
Experiment 3

Method invented by Ivanov’s Russian Patent No. 2172865. It is also the method to produce aether flow that is known and named Pointing vector S=ExH
How it works?
All methods described above are related with controlled disturbance of aether. The authors offered also the technologies for space propulsion units. Considering radioactivity of matter can be decreased by means of changes of aether density we can estimate influence radioactivity decay in the planned experiments.
10% reduction in 10 hours is fact. 100% normalization in 100 hours is estimated effect.
Financial Plan (Euro)





Prototype building and experimenting

6 months





6 months




Sales of licenses



50 Mil. Euro

Proposal for investor

Funds required 100,000 Euro.


Investor 51%

Founder 39 %

Author 5 %

Top managers 5%

Exit strategy is sale of company to hydrogen energy corporation.
Founder is

Alexander V. Frolov Russia, 300053, Tula

7-910-948-2509 7-920-794-4448 Skype alexfrolov2509

Tests on Superconductor Gravitational Effects
Mr. Alexander V. Frolov, Russia

Extracted from

This method can be used to reduce the level of radioactivity of any radioactive material placed in the area of an artificial gravity field.
1. Theoretical background
The high-density fluctuations in Bose condensate is laboratory scale case to confirm theoretical conclusions about gravitational field cut-off frequency26. This experimental work was organized to examine if some resonance effects in 10-100 MHz range can be detected as mass (weight) anomalies.
2. Previous experimental data
Basically experimental approach in this area of research was described in27 by Podkletnov:
1. The superconductor material was YBa2Cu2O7-x disk of 145 mm diameter and 6 mm high.

2. The effect is detected as 0.05% - 0.07% mass (weight) changes. It was detected for the case of non-rotating High-Temperature Conductivity Superconductor (HTCS) disk, which is levitating in a 50-106 Hz electromagnetic field.

3. Rotation of the disk increased the effect. Important fact is that during change of rotation velocity of the HTCS disk the effect was about 2-4% – that is maximum data.

4. In the case of constant rotation velocity (about 5,000 RPM) the effect was detected with about 0.3% - 0.5% change of the weight.

5. The effect was detected also for the case of rotation of the HTCS disk after the electromagnetic field of solenoids was off.
Other experiment of 1995 was described by Podkletnov28. Two-phase material of the disk: In the operational mode the upper layer of the disk is superconductive; the layer below is not superconductive. So, in this case the area of the phase transition between two layers was created especially.
One more important step in understanding of the effect was made by G. Modanese29, who assumed that mechanical rotation of the HTCS disk produces motion of Bose condensate like electric current in HTCS material.
Next experiment by Podkletnov and Modanese was described as ‘impulse gravity generator’30. They used 50,000 anperes at 1 megavolts electric discharge onto an HTCS target to create non-dissipative ‘force beam’ or gravity wave. This experiment is a new step in understanding of the process since Podkletnov’s idea of ‘shielding of gravity’ is changed to conception of force action against gravity. This action is possible as a result of artificial gravitational wave or impulse.
Static tests mainly were not effective. But an important example is an experiment by John Schnurer31. The effect was detected in the case on non-rotating HTCS disk, which was levitating above a permanent magnet. The effect was detected only during change of HTCS material phase from superconductor to non-superconductor phase (heating above TK). This phase transition usually takes several seconds (2-3 seconds) when the effect can be detected.
Experiment with rotating HTCS ring described in32 is example of gravimagnetic field produced by a spinning superconductor. The results were presented at a one-day conference at ESA's European Space and Technology Research Centre (ESTEC) in the Netherlands 21 March 2006. This experiment is the gravitational analogue of Faraday's electromagnetic induction experiment in 1831.
One more important aspect of experimenting with HTCS materials is their low temperature in a superconductive state. This temperature is much lower than the environmental temperature and by this way the intensive heat transport present in all experiments. For the case of precise measurements flows of air produced by the temperature difference can be screened but there is an aspect named as thermogravitation.

For example, in the Dotto ring33 experiment it was demonstrated that intensive heat transfer along the ring produce gravimagnetic effects. For the present experimental task it is not a critical aspect since this effect is static, i.e., it produces permanent force.

3. Related theories
Analysis of previous experimental and theoretical data allows assuming that gravity-related effects result from changes of density of the Bose condensate. The maximum effect can be estimated for the case of correct frequency of oscillations of the external field, which resonate with natural high-density fluctuations in Bose condensate. In the case of correct frequency we can estimate full compensation of the natural gravity field. Assume that the natural gravity field is not a single-frequency oscillation process. Complex frequency structure of the natural gravity field requires determining several main resonance frequencies to obtain full compensation.
Single-phase transition in HTCS material34 also is the case of change of the Bose condensate density (from maximum value to zero). Since in this case the change of the phase from superconductor to non-superconductor is gradual then the effects is weak and detected during several seconds. The experiment described in35 is one of the methods to produce rapid change of the phase in all Bose condensate of the HTCS target to create a short but powerful gravitational pulse.
The nature of this gravitational pulse can be described here as a longitudinal wave in aether. By this approach we can see an analogy with similar Tesla experiments. Also we can see that impulse gravity generator by Podkletnov and Modanese36 is development of Morton beam generator37, which used an electric spark between a charged ball and metal plate to produce ‘Morton force beam’. Powerful force effect in HTCS case38 can be explained by coherent behavior of Bose condensate that produce ‘laser effect’ since it is similar to coherent photon emission in laser.
Analysis of experimental data allows assuming that:
1. Bose condensate currents in stationary HTCS disks involve aether in motion relative lattice in matter of the HTCS disk. This relative motion generates a gravimagnetic field, which is responsible for the weight changes.
2. Rotation of the HTCS disk with Bose condensate currents produce more powerful effects due to an increase of the relative velocity between Bose condensate and lattice of the matter of the disk.
3. Change of rotation velocity of the HTCS disk (i.e. deceleration or acceleration) produce maximum relative velocity between matter lattice and moving Bose condensate due to its inertial properties. Here is clear analogy with electromagnetic induction effects.
4. Phase transition from HTCS condition to non-superconductive phase is the case of maximum change of the Bose condensate density (zero – maximum or maximum – zero) that is responsible for generation of single aether density wave.
5. Special material of the HTCS disk39 with two-phase layers demonstrated more powerful effects. It can be explained since in such a disk there is a boundary layer between superconductive and non-superconductive areas. External electromagnetic field make this layer produce high-frequency phase transitions that generate high-frequency aether density waves.
6. Impulse gravity generators40 produce a more powerful effect than a Morton beam generator due to coherent behavior of the Bose condensate. The nature of this effect is the same longitudinal aether wave discovered by Tesla.
7. Experimental data from the ESTEC41 is confirmation of the above suggestions. Any rotation of mass by Einstein produces a gravimagnetic field that can be explained by aether dynamical theory. A spinning superconductor produces a more powerful effect than non-superconductive matter due to the physical properties of Bose condensate.
4. Conclusions
Considering matter as vortexes in aether it is possible to explain most of gravitational phenomena. For example, the inertial property of mass can be explained by the behavior of aether, which is connected with this mass. Old theory42 by Fatio (1690) and Le Sage (1700) can be confirmed in modern experiments. So called “gravitational waves” or “gravitational impulses” can be created as aether density waves, which are longitudinal waves. Bose condensate in superconductor can be presented as a special physical state of matter when matter is connected with aether in different extent than usually. Phase transition of matter between superconductive state and non-superconductive state release or connect (join) some amount of aether and thus phase transitions can be organized with high frequencies to generate high frequency aether density waves. In the case of resonance (predicted in43 range of frequencies is 10-100 megahertz) the compensation of natural gravity forces can be obtained experimentally.
1   ...   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   ...   26

Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur © 2016
rəhbərliyinə müraciət