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Biodiversity Conservation Measures for Plantations in the Production Landscape

Observation

Provide for heterogeneity of landscape elements

Avoids landscape transformation.

Maintain essential corridors of natural vegetation within plantations

Increases heterogeneity of landscape but may be a possible fire hazard

Variation of age structure between plantation compartments/stands

Increases heterogeneity of landscape

Avoid sensitive environmental areas and high conservation areas

 Protects habitats.

Leave natural vegetation patches throughout the productive system's matrix

 Increases heterogeneity of landscape

Designate no planting zones in the landscape to ensure heterogeneity

 Ensures heterogeneity and increases connectivity in overall landscape.

Elimination of exotics from sensitive/critical areas

Restoration of critical natural ecosystem

Avoid carpet planting of large areas, and intersperse stands with native vegetation

 Avoids large-scale ecosystem transformation.

Avoid planting in riparian areas

Protects aquatic environment, prevents erosion and runoff into streams and rivers

Annex 2: Major Related Projects Financed by the Bank and/or other Agencies



Argentina: Argentina GEF Sustainable Forestry Development
The important marine and coastal zone ecosystems are considered under the Consolidation and Implementation of the Patagonia Coastal Zone Management Programme for Biodiversity Conservation implemented with UNDP support. Wetlands biodiversity conservation is partly addressed by the medium size Management and Conservation of Wetland Biodiversity in the Esteros del Ibera. This project is complementary to these efforts in that it seeks to incorporate biodiversity into areas of more intense human activities where these global values are generally considered in a cursory manner, if at all, by the productive sectors and public planning and governance sectors.
The proposed activities of the SFD project are complementary to several initiatives that the GEF and other donors have in Argentina. It also builds on projects in the forestry and biodiversity sectors that provide relevant lessons-learned and other input to improve design and implementation.
The first IBRD loan for the forestry sector that finalized in early 2006 was executed successfully by SAGPyA as evaluated by the Bank during routine supervision (ICR is still under preparation at this time) and generated important advances in plantation research, community agro-forestry and forestry extension. The new loan will build upon this experience by integrating environmental and social sustainability as a cross-cutting theme for sectoral strengthening in addition to economic growth.
The experience of the Biodiversity Conservation Project (GEF-IBRD) has been reviewed for the preparation of the SFD project and several activities included seek to generate complementary approaches and links including a link between the Native Forests Database and the Planted Forests Database to be updated under the SFD. This will permit better landscape, production, and biodiversity planning and monitoring at national and provincial levels.
The important marine and coastal zone ecosystems have been addressed under the Consolidation and Implementation of the Patagonia Coastal Zone Management Programme for Biodiversity Conservation implemented with UNDP support. Core areas of the Protected Areas System of Argentina have been strengthened through the ongoing National Parks component of the Biodiversity Conservation Project. Wetlands biodiversity conservation is partly addressed by the medium size Mangement and Conservation of Wetland Biodiversity in the Esteros del Ibera. These projects help protect the underlying core matrix within which biodiversity is to be conserved in conjunction with the surrounding productive areas that are focus of mainstreaming and buffer-zone activities.
This project is complementary to these efforts in that it seeks to incorporate biodiversity into areas of more intense human activities where these global values are generally considered in a cursory manner, if at all, by the productive sectors and public planning and governance sectors. The projects entitled In-situ Conservation of Andean Crops and their Wild Relatives and the global Enabling Sustainable Dryland Management through Mobile Pastoral Custodianship seekto improve sustainability of productive agricultural and livestock activities. Regionally The SFD project complements these by focusing on the plantation forestry sector.
The mainstreaming program supported by GEF in Uruguay, Integrated Natural Resources and Biodiversity Management will provide lessons in the areas of livestock production and more intensive mechanized agriculture also applicable to productive sectors in Argentina while the SFD project will provide lessons applicable to the Uruguayan context also engaged in an expansion of plantation forestry.
In regard to other donor financed projects, the preparation has coordinated with both the Province of Misiones and the Spanish Cooperation Agency (AECI) regarding the Yvy Maraey Araucaria Project to be carried out in the province for the conservation of biodiversity and sustainable development. The project will also include pilot activities in carbon sequestration, small-farmer conservation and production, and municipal strengthening.





TableA2.1. Status of Related Bank Projects

Project Name

Amount

($ Million)

Financer

Project ID

Country

Status

Latest IP

Rating

Latest DO Rating

Forestry Development Project

16.0

IBRD

P006040

Argentina

Closed

Satisfactory

Satisfactory

Public-Private Mechanisms for Biodiversity Conservation in the Valdivian Forest

0.75

GEF

P058299

Chile

Closed

Satisfactory

Satisfactory

Biodiversity Conservation Project

10.0

GEF

P039787

Argentina

Open

Satisfactory

Satisfactory

Integrated Natural Resources and Biodiversity Management

30.0

GEF

P070653

Uruguay

Open

Satisfactory

Satisfactory

Santiago Foothills: Mountain Ecosystem Conservation MSP

0.73

GEF

P070654

Chile

Open

Satisfactory

Satisfactory

Native Forests and Protected Areas

19.5

IBRD

P040808

Argentina

Open

Moderately Satisfactory

Moderately Satisfactory

Paraguay Forestry Development

25.0

IBRD

P085335

Paraguay

Proposed

N/A

N/A

Biodiversity Mainstreaming and Institutional Consolidation

22.0

GEF

P094715

Brazil

Proposed

N/A

N/A


Table A2.2. Other Major Related Projects in the Project Area

Name

Amount
(US$ Million)


Financier

Years

Start Date

Country

Araucaria/Yvy Maraey Project

0.3 M

Spanish Cooperation Agency AECI

3

2007

Argentina

Improving competitivity of small and medium enterprise of the forest industry sector.

18.5 M Euros

European Union

4

2004

Argentina

Caburei Project – National Parks Administration strengthening.


0.6 M

Japan International Cooperation Agency

3

2004

Argentina

Esteros de Ibera Wetlands Conservation

0.9 M

GEF-UNDP

4

2002

Argentina

Patagonian Coastal Conservation


4.5 M

GEF-UNDP

6

2002

Argentina

Sustainable Tourism in Biosphere Reserves and Ramsar Sites


0.13 M

UNDP

1

2005

Argentina

In-situ conservation of Andean Crops


0.938 M

GEF-UNDP

3

2005

Argentina

Sustainable Development of Arid and Semi-arid zones of Argentina


1.5 M

GTZ

3




Argentina

The proposed project is to be partially-blended with an IBRD loan for the Sustainable Forestry Development Project. Both the loan and GEF project are under preparation by the Secretariat of Agriculture, Livetock, and Fisheries (SAGPyA, for its acronym in Spanish) with the assistance of the World Bank. This offers an ideal opportunity to introduce biodiversity conservation within the institutional and productive sectors not typically associated or sensitive to these issues. The SAGPyA mandate covers the livestock, agriculture, forestry, aquaculture, and food sectors for the GoA providing many opportunities for learning and replication from the initiatives of the proposed GEF incremental investment within Bank, donor, and government supported efforts in this agency.


Several NGOs in the country and region have ongoing initiatives that involve mainstreaming including the grasslands programs supported by Aves Argentinas (also linked to BirdLife International’s Important Bird Areas program) and Fundacion Vida Silvestre Argentina; the Social Pact and Sustainable Soy initiatives of World Wildlife Fund within the Alto Parana Atlantic Forest ecoregion (Paraguay, Brazil, Argentina); and Fundacion Habitat’s work with plantation companies in Argentina and Chile. The Chilean experiences and programs in biodiversity and forestry are also relevant from the NGO (such as CIPMA) and academic perspectives (U. de Chile) as well as private sector initiatives.
Finally, the project will benefit from important ecorregional planning efforts that have been jointly advanced between non-governmental, academic, and government technical agencies such as INTA (that also has ongoing research and extension programs in forestry and biodiversity). In particular the ecorregional or biodiversity “visions” prepared for Patagonia and Alto Parana Atlantic Forest have been of particular use in providing guidance regarding key areas for biodiversity conservation.

Annex 3: Results Framework and Monitoring



Argentina: Argentina GEF Sustainable Forestry Development

Results Framework

Project Development Objective

Outcome Indicators

Use of Outcome Information


1. IBRD Project Development Objective: Improve plantation production and management, foster rural development and enhance the environmental values of plantation forestry in Argentina.
2. Global Environment Objective: Increased integration of biodiversity-responsible practices and policies into the plantation-forestry sector at the national level and in select provinces.

(To be monitored through the IBRD project.)


New forestry policies, regulatory frameworks, and/or promotion programs incorporate biodiversity conservation and sustainable use concepts at the federal level and in at least 3 provinces, from baseline 0;


Eco-regional planning tools are in use in 3 provinces and at the federal level, from baseline 0;
70,000 ha in key areas benefiting from improved plantation management practices that incorporate biodiversity-responsible practices, from baseline 0.
Monitoring shows amelioration of threats to and improvements in ecosystem biodiversity (habitats of globally-important biodiversity indicator species) in production landscape

Project management will evaluate process at mid-term to ensure that biodiversity-responsible practices are to be included in new draft policies and frameworks. If insufficient progress is detected, appropriate modifications will be made to activities under the relevant project component in order to achieve the PDO by project end.


The government will monitor the long-term impact of policies and regulations on biodiversity conservation in plantations to determine the need for further policy adjustments, new regulations, or further research.

Intermediate Results

One per Component

Results Indicators for Each Component

Use of Results Monitoring

Component 1: Federal, provincial, and local forestry institutions have tools, policy framework, and training necessary to foster biodiversity conservation into the forestry sector


Biodiversity planning maps for 7 provinces planning and evaluating plantation projects in selected ecosystems of global importance developed with stakeholders and adopted at Federal and Provincial levels
100% of designated representatives of national forest agency, 7 provincial environmental and/or forestry agencies, and participating extensionists trained to evaluate and supervise environmental impact assessments for biodiversity.
5 of 7 provincial environmental and/or forestry agencies employing strengthened biodiversity regulations in environmental impact assessment (EIAs).
3 of 7 provincial governments have new draft policies for incorporating biodiversity concerns into plantation-forestry concerns.
New draft federal legislation to replace law 25.080 incorporates biodiversity concerns, as do associated new drafts of regulations.

Project management will evaluate progress in creating tools, frameworks, and training opportunities necessary to stimulate biodiversity mainstreaming. Should progress in any aspect be lacking, the project will reallocate resources to speed up development.
Government officials will evaluate the long-term impact of tools, frameworks, and training developed under the project on biodiversity-responsible practices in the plantation forestry to determine priorities for national policy and budgetary allocations.


Component 2: Best management practices for incorporating biodiversity conservation into plantation forestry are developed, validated, and disseminated.


Roundtables established in 7 Provinces, by EOP, have incorporated biodiversity conservation into discussions for policy development.
Best practices including native seedbank, ecosystem toolkits, and economic analysis developed for plantation ecosystems.
Best practices disseminated to 3,500 forestry-sector stakeholders through extension programs in 7 provinces, an international conference, and university-level programs on biodiversity conservation and plantations.

Increase in biodiversity levels, no. of small- and medium-producers incorporating biodiversity conservation in plantation landscapes by end of project.


Seed bank networks established in order to foment increase of no. of nurseries providing native spp. from 18 to 36.

Project management will evaluate progress made under this component and, if necessary, redirect project activities at mid-term to better support the development of best practices.
The Government of Argentina and Bank project team will analyze lessons learned for replicability in other parts of Argentina and in other countries.

Component 3: Small, medium, and large producers adopt best-practices for biodiversity-responsible plantation forestry

At least 20,000 hectares of small and medium producers have been supported in implementing agro-forestry (Misiones) or best management practices for biodiversity conservation (Patagonia and Mesopotamia).
Changes in levels of biodiversity awareness as surveyed in targeted subproject areas in Y02 and Y04 increases 50% over baseline.
At least 50,000 hectares of large plantations (>1000 ha) are incorporating biodiversity-responsible practices and planning within ecoregions of global importance.
Baseline studies and public discussions for establishment of of 7 new protected areas in the productive landscape.

At mid-term project management will evaluate the progress in and impact of assistance to small, medium, and large producers to determine if a shift in strategy is needed.
The Bank team will evaluate the applicability of strategies developed under this project for other biodiversity mainstreaming and similar projects.
The government will monitor the long-term effects of work with different-scale producers to validate strategies and techniques used and employ these lessons in other initiatives.

Component 4: Effectively managed mainstreaming program strengthens institutional monitoring and evaluation capacities.


Project management system working efficiently, according to World Bank rules and national law. To be measured by output indicators such as audits, disbursement reports, reports, etc.
SAGPyA incorporates monitoring and evaluation efforts into ongoing programs.

The Government of Argentina and Bank team will continuously monitor management effectiveness in order to remedy problems detected and/ or reallocate resources as necessary.
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