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A graduate of the University of Virginia, his first entry into politics came when he was appointed by Senator Joe McCarthy as assistant counsel of a U.S. Senate Homeland Security Subcommittee. He was a proponent of civil rights and equal opportunity for African-Americans, and also had the support of Hispanics in his bid for the Democratic Presidential nomination when he ran against Eugene McCarthy of Minnesota. Shortly after winning the California primary in 1968, he was assassinated; FTP, name this brother of John F. Kennedy.
A: Robert F. Kennedy (prompt on Kennedy, accept RFK, Bobby Kennedy)

FTPE, identify these other things about RFK's assassination.

10: He was Kennedy's assassin.

A: Sirhan Sirhan

10: Sirhan Sirhan was angry that Kennedy had supported this nation in the Six-Day War.
A: Israel

10: RFK was assassinated in this hotel in Los Angeles.
A: Ambassador Hotel

The modern day name for this property was originally coined by William Rankine. The Lagrangian of a dynamic system is equal to the difference between this quantity and the kinetic energy in a system. This property is only dependent on the position of an object, and its value can be arbitrarily defined, because only changes in this property are significant. When this quantity is differentiated with respect to position the negative force is obtained. Traditionally, the total work done on a system will equal the negative change in this quantity. FTP, what is this type of energy, the analogue of kinetic energy in mechanical systems?

A: potential energy

FTPE, name these types of forces

10: Following an inverse square law, this universal force attracts two point masses and the modern definition was formulated by Newton.

A: gravitational force

10: This radial force keeps an object spinning in uniform circular motion.
A: centripetal force

10: This force is a mathematical conception used to analyze non-inertial reference frames
A: fictitious or pseudo force

It is thought that only a third of adults are able to use it in certain situations corresponding with the areas necessary to the life of the user, and tests that suggest that few people are able to think using it may be biased towards the intelligent children on whom the tests were based. It is characterized by the ability to see shades of gray and think abstractly and comes about in adolescence, but develops throughout life. FTP, name this last stage in Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development.

A: Formal Operational or Formal Operations

FTPE, given a developmental theory, name its creator.

10: Psychosexual development

A: Sigmund Freud

10: Psychosocial development
A: Erik Erikson

10: Moral development
A: Lawrence Kohlberg

The Eastern Roman Emperor Isaac Angelus made an alliance with the Ayyubids to impede the progress of this event, which was prompted by the deaths of Baldwin IV and his son. The Ayyubids didn't even have to do anything, though, because through an accident one of the main leaders died. It was left to his allies to seize Acre with King Guy and then launch an attack on Jerusalem itself, which despite tactical success at Arsuf led nowhere due to logistical issues on the Crusaders' side. FTP name this Crusade of the late twelfth century, launched against the Ayyubid Sultanate by Philip Augustus of France and Richard the Lionhearted.

A: Third Crusade

Name these other things about that fun guy in charge of the Ayyubids FTPE.

10: The first and most powerful of the Ayyubid Sultans was this Kurd.

A: Salah al-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (accept Saladin)

10: Saladin was the successor to this man, the most powerful of the Zengids and the target of the Second Crusade.
A: al-Malik al-Adil Nur ad-Din Abu al-Qasim Mahmud ibn-'Imad ad-Din Zengi

10: Saladin died in this capital city, founded by the Umayyads and which serves as the modern capital of Syria.
A: Damascus

Our Gang, a political satire featuring Trick E. Dixon, followed on his best selling work. His most famous alter ego was created in My Life As A Man by another alter ego, Peter Tarnopol. Yet another one is influenced by an artist who masters the Wagner scale of Sturm und Drang in poop. The former, Nathan Zuckerman, is said to have made his last appearance in this author's most recent book, Exit Ghost. FTP name this Jewish-American writer of Portnoy's Complaint.

A: Philip Roth

FTPE name these other Roth books.

10: This alternate history novel posits a world in which Charles Lindbergh wins the 1940 election and is resolved by a deus ex machina.

A: The Plot Against America

10: Nathan Zuckerman narrates this book about a racially confused professor named Coleman Silk, made into a 2003 movie with Anthony Hopkins and Nicole Kidman.
A: The Human Stain

10: One of Roth's few books involving himself, this novel talks about the fictional Roth's trip to Israel to go to the trial of war criminal John Demjanjuk.
A: Operation Shylock: A Confession

Frank Dicksee, Frank Cowper, Arthur Hughes, and John William Waterhouse have depicted it in paintings. Its title comes from another poem written by Alain Cartier. An unknown speaker asks the narrator why he is "So haggard and woe-begone". The title figure "found me roots of relish sweet, And honey wild, and manna dew". In a dream, the narrator sees "pale kings and princes too", who tell the narrator that the title figure "Hath thee in thrall!" The narrator then awakes "on the cold hill's side", and is left "alone and palely loitering". FTP, name this ballad by John Keats about the title fairy, who seduces a knight.

A: La Belle Dame sans Merci

Identify the Keats poem from lines, FTPE:

10: "'Beauty is truth, truth beauty,—that is all / Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know.'"

A: Ode on a Grecian Urn

10: "O Goddess! hear these tuneless numbers, wrung / By sweet enforcement and remembrance dear"
A: Ode to Psyche

10: "Her head was serpent, but ah, bitter-sweet! / She had a woman’s mouth with all its pearls complete"
A: Lamia

A computational algorithm with this name involves a randomwalk and then a subsequent analysis of the solutions generated that obey some property. The more famous application of the name was made possible by a law passed by Florestan I in 1854. Thirty-and-forty, baccarat, and blackjack are all played at the tables of, FTP, which Monaco district that borders the French town of Beausoleil and which is the site of much of the circuit of the Monaco Grand Prix?

A: Monte Carlo

FTPE name these Monaco royals from the House of Grimaldi.

10: Prince of Monaco for fifty-six years, this man brought Monaco into the United Nations and abolished capital punishment.

A: Rainier III

10: This star of Rear Window and To Catch a Thief married Rainier in 1956 in what was then called the "Wedding of the Century".
A: Grace Kelly (prompt on partial name, accept Grace, Princess of Monaco)

10: Rainier and Grace's son, this man in the current prince of Monaco and has fathered two known children out of wedlock. He is also bald.
A: Albert II

Some of the minor characters in this work include Telegin, nicknamed "Waffles" because of his pockmarked face, and Maria Vasilevna, the title character's mother. Astrov is a country doctor whom the author constantly describes as "eccentric" and "strange", but he also somehow manages to win the hearts of both Sonya and Yelena. At the end, the title character attempts to shoot Professor Serebryakov after the Professor announces that he wants to sell his estate. Based off "The Wood Demon", a previous work by the same author, this is, FTP, what play by Anton Chekhov?

A: Uncle Vanya

FTPE name these other works by Anton Chekhov from descriptions.

10: Treplyov shoots himself after tearing up his manuscript in this play, which also features a scene in which Konstantin shoots the title creature and offers it to Nina.

A: The Seagull

10: Irina, the youngest of the titular group, desires to go back to Moscow in this play, but after her wish is denied she marries the Baron.
A: Three Sisters

10: In this short story Dmitri Gurov is fascinated by Anna Sergeyevna, a young woman who habitually walks along the coast of Yalta with her pet.
A: The Lady with the Dog

Markovnikov's rule states that in hydrohalogenation reactions involving these, the hydrogen bonds to the carbon with the most hydrogens and the halogen bonds to the carbon with the fewest. A member of this group of compounds is also a plant hormone which promotes the ripening of fruit. Commonly synthesized by cracking petroleum, they also serve as important monomers to form many plastics. Their presence results in sp2 bonds as seen in both cis and trans isomers. FTP name this group of organic compounds, contrasted with alkanes, that contain a carbon-carbon double bond.

A: Alkene

Name these other functional groups FTPE

10: Carbon bonded to an oxygen bonded to a hydrogen

A: Alcohol

10: Carbon double-bonded to an oxygen
A: Carbonyl (prompt on ketone or aldehyde)

10: Carbon bonded to a sulfur bonded to a hydrogen
A: Thiol or Sulfhydryl (accept Mercaptan even though it is not IUPAC)

A large number of highly innovative techniques were utilized in its recording, including one of the first uses of automatic double tracking. According to one of the band members, the Beach Boys' album Pet Sounds was a major influence, especially in terms of the orchestral arrangements. Images of Aleister Crowley, Edgar Allan Poe, Karl Marx and a host of other famous people from throughout history are portrayed on the cover. Some of the songs on the album were covered by Joe Cocker and his backing band, such as "With a Little Help From My Friends." FTP, name this 1967 concept album by the Beatles, featuring such classics as "She's Leaving Home", "Fixing a Hole", "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds," and "A Day in the Life".

A: Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band

1967 was a watershed year in classic rock. FTPE, name these other artists from 1967 releases.

10: This group's "Are You Experienced?" included such hits as "Purple Haze", "Foxey Lady", "Red House" and "Fire".

A: The Jimi Hendrix Experience

10: This group's "Disraeli Gears" featured "Sunshine of Your Love", "Strange Brew" and "Tales of Brave Ulysses".
A: Cream

10: This Motown singer's adaptation of a 1965 Otis Redding hit, "Respect", became her signature song.
A: Aretha Franklin


Prebattle concerns were voiced by Sir Henry Rawlinson, who believed that the attacking side's doctrine was completely wrong and that a "bite and hold" approach was necessary. "Bite and hold" would have prevented the attackers from securing an advantageous position had they been able to exploit the Ovillers gap, though. Unfortunately, the day the gap appeared, the first of July, saw the attacking British suffer 60,000 losses and so prevented them from irrupting into the German rear. FTP name this battle of the Western Front in World War I, fought to draw German troops away from Verdun.
A: Battle of the Somme

Name these other battles of World War I FTPE.

10: This September 1914 campaign saw the end of the Schlieffen Plan as French and British troops rallied on the outskirts of Paris.

A: First Battle of the Marne

10: Named after the French commander in chief, this 1917 campaign saw the mutiny of French troops after failures at the Second Battle of the Aisne.
A: Nivelle Offensive (accept equivalents)

10: This series of battles in 1918 saw the German army launch one last push but get thrown back by the Allies, aided by America, at places like Belleau Wood and Chateau-Thierry.
A: Operation Michael (accept Spring Offensive or variants, Second Battle of the Marne (both required), Kaiserschlacht)

Hong-Yee Chiu claimed that the full name of these objects were "clumsily long" and created their contracted name for convenience. The official name has been proven inaccurate, as only a small percentage of these actually emit radio waves. Recent studies have shown that the energy behind them may come from the uniting and breaking of magnetic field lines anchored to supermassive cores. Previous theories based the energy source of these objects on properties similar to those of active galaxies, which are powered by supermassive black holes. FTP, name these extremely bright and distant compact halos, the active nuclei of young galaxies.

A: Quasars (accept Quasi-Stellar Radio Source)

Identify these other luminous occurrences in the universe, FTPE.

10: Though not nearly on the scale of a quasar, this event is defined as bright enough when passing Earth to be noticed by someone not actively looking for it.

A: Great Comet

10: This event happens if a star at the end of its life is massive enough to collapse upon itself and create a shock wave that spreads its envelope.
A: Supernova

10: This is so bright that it can be seen across the universe, making it possibly the most luminous occurrence in the universe.
A: Gamma-ray burst

He was advised to "draw many lines" by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, his mentor at the University of Paris. After leaving the University, he became a devoted copyist, often visiting the Louvre to copy paintings. His transition from historical subjects to contemporary ones also came at the Louvre through a meeting with Edouard Manet in 1864. After a stint in the National Guard during which he fought in the Franco-Prussian War, he joined a group of young artists in creating one of the first Impressionist exhibitions. During this period he painted such works as the anti-semitic "Portraits, at the Stock Exchange", but he is more famous for creating paintings portraying ballet dancers in motion. FTPE name this French artist who created works such as "The Dance Class".

A: Edgar Degas

Name these ballet dancers FTPE

10: This man of Georgian descent was one of the founders of American ballet. His 1954 staging of The Nutcracker is responsible for making that ballet a Christmas tradition.

A: George Balanchine

10: This Russian ballet dancer's most famous performance was The Dying Swan, a portion of Saint-Saens' Carnival of Animals. Although her small legs were considered technically inferior to other dancers of the time, she enthralled audiences with her slight figure.
A: Anna Pavlova

10: Sometimes called the greatest living ballet dancer, he debuted professionally as a soloist in Giselle in the Soviet Union, but later defected to the United States and became athe main dancer of the American Ballet Theatre.
A: Mikhail Baryshnikov

A particular type of L-series with an alternating Dirichlet character of period 4, this function is defined to be the sum of an alternating series where the nth term is equal to the reciprocal of 2n+1 raised to the xth power. This function can be rewritten in a variety of ways and may be related explicitly to both the Hurwitz zeta function and gamma function. The value of this series when x=2 is equal to the eponymous Catalan constant. This useful function plays an important role in analytical calculus, especially in the field of complex analysis. FTP, what is this Dirichlet L-series named after the second letter of the Greek alphabet?

A: Dirichlet beta function or Catalan beta function

Name these mathematical constants given their approximate value and significance.

5: Appearing in a variety of physical phenomena, this constant is the base of the natural logarithm and roughly equal to 2.718

A: Napier's constant, Euler's constant, or e

10: The base unit of the complex number system, this number has a value equal to the root of negative one.
A: imaginary unit or i

15: This mathematical constant is the value of the Riemann zeta function at x=3 and roughly equal to 1.202.
A: Apery's Constant

It currently has some 12 million followers in the world, and 5 million in the United States, where it first began. The Strangites [STRANGE-ites], Bickertonites, and Rigdonites were all separate movements led by the followers of its founder after his death in Carthage, Illinois. However, the best-known group of his supporters eventually settled on the shores of the Great Salt Lake. FTP, name this religion, founded by Joseph Smith, which has the greatest number of adherents in Utah.

A: Mormonism (accept variations such as Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, LDS Church, Mormon Church, etc.)

FTPE, name these other American utopian societies.

10: An offshoot of the Quakers, they settled in New York. Their name comes from the fact that they trembled in God's presence.

A: Shakers

10: Founded in 1841 by George Ripley, people in this town had literary societies, reading clubs, and worked for ten hours each day. The society later failed, however, because of the spread of smallpox and the lack of finances to continue supporting the inhabitants.
A: Brook Farm Institute of Agriculture and Education

10: This town was established by the Rappites, who had left Germany and settled in Indiana. It began as an experiment to create an ideal community but failed because the townspeople, who had taken a vow of celibacy, could not sustain a large enough population in the town.
A: New Harmony

In Burmese myth the holy monk Mun-Ha was always accompanied by a white one named Sinh, while in Norse myth Freyja's chariot was drawn by two grey ones. While under torture, the Knights Templar were forced to confess to worshipping them, perhaps a result of Pope Gregory IX?s denunciation of black ones as Satanic. The Egyptian deity Bast was the protector of these animals, and Bubastis, a city devoted to Bast, featured a necropolis where hundreds of mummified forms of these animals were buried. After dying, the souls of Siamese kings were said to be passed on to the Siamese type of, FTP, what animal?

A: Cat

Name these other animals from mythology, FTPE.

10: One of these creatures was the middle child of Angrboða and Loki, he grew so much that he could wrap himself around the world and grab his tail. He will kill and be killed by Thor at Ragnarök.

A: Sea Serpent (accept Snake)

10: This bird is associated with Mother goddesses such as Ishtar, Venus, and Isis. It usually represents peace and love, and it is considered a good omen if a white one flies overhead.
A: Dove

10: The haunches of the Questing Beast are of this animal. Narasimha, one of the avatars of Vishnu, was half-man half-this animal when he killed the demon Hiranyakashipu.
A: Lion

The main antagonist in this war's greatest victories managed to secure the support of Capua, but as he lingered in the south, sallying only seldom against the rapidly tightening rings of enemy armies, his victories were undone by operations in the outer empire, including Ilipa, which were won by the son of one of the consuls whom that antagonist had humbled early in the war. That son, Scipio Africanus, would go on to land in Africa and face down with the Carthaginian army in 202 BC and win at Zama. FTP name this conflict in the classical Mediterranean, fought between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian army under Hannibal Barca.

A: Second Punic War (prompt on Punic War)

FTPE name these things about conflicts occurring in the aftermath of the Second Punic War.

10: Rome fought a second war against this Hellenic power, led by Philip V, from 200 to 196 after Philip refused to allow this country to become a Roman protectorate.

A: Kingdom of Macedonia

10: At this battle in 197 BC, the Second Macedonian War was decided in Rome's favor when Philip allowed his left wing to become disorganized while moving down a slope towards the Romans, who seized the initiative and first annihilated that flank, then swung in to overwhelm the right wing.
A: Battle of Cynoscephalae

10: A fleeing Hannibal Barca induced this power to fight Rome after Macedon lost the war; at the Battle of Magnesia in 190 BC, Antiochus the Great's forces were narrowly defeated by a Roman-Pergamene army and was forced to sign the Peace of Apamea in 188 BC, conceding most of Asia Minor and reducing this empire to Syria and Babylonia.
A: Seleucid Empire (accept variants)

Valentin is slain after he condemns the title character for impregnating his sister. At the beginning of this work, the title character almost commits suicide before hearing the sound of an Easter celebration outside, which prompts him to go out on a walk with his assistant, Wagner. A poodle follows him home after the walk and eventually turns into a devil, who tells the title character that in exchange for anything he wants in his life on Earth, he must serve the devil in hell. That devil, Mephistopheles, helps the title character win the affections of Gretchen, who eventually drowns her child and is convicted of murder. FTP, name this two-part drama by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe based off a German legend.

A: Faust

Goethe wasn't the only one to adapt the Faust story. FTPE identify these other people who created works of literature based on the legend.

10: His 1947 novel Doktor Faustus narrates the life of composer Adrian Leverk�hn. Other works by this man include "Death in Venice" and "The Magic Mountain."

A: Thomas Mann

10: His "The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus," along with "The Jew of Malta" and "Tamburlaine the Great," cemented his reputation as one of the greatest Elizabethan playwrights before Shakespeare.
A: Christopher Marlowe

10: In 1851 he wrote a play entitled "Der Doktor Faust," although he is more famous for a poem about the Lorelei.
A: Heinrich Heine

In 2000 a controversy arose over whether examples of this species were to be called Manospondylus gigas instead due to its discovery by Cope thirteen years before it was classified as we now know it today. Tarbosaurus bataar has been thought to be a smaller growth stage of this dinosaur, or perhaps a different species in the same genus. The largest and most famous example of it was called "Sue" and weighed over six tons. FTP name this North American dinosaur, one of the largest land predators in history.

A: Tyrannosaurus rex (prompt on incomplete answers)

FTPE name these other large theropods.

10: This largest of the theropods featured prominently in the 2001 movie Jurassic Park III and has a large dorsal fin on its back.

A: Spinosaurus aegyptiacus

10: Discovered in Argentina, this theropod and member of the Carcharodontisauridae was one meter longer than T. rex.
A: Giganotosaurus carolinii

10: Another member of the tyrannosaurid family, this Albertan dinosaur with a name meaning "frightful lizard" was similar to Gorgosaurus and was probably an anagenetic ancestor of T. rex.
A: Daspletosaurus torosus

It has been vehemently argued against because, according to critics, its use does not have the same emotional effect as pieces in the standard harmonic structure, and also because audiences will hear structure in a piece regardless of whether or not that structure is actually there, defeating the artistic purpose of music with this property. Despite these criticisms, composers such as Krzysztof Penderecki (CHRIS-toff PEN-der-ETS-kee), Karlheinz Stockhausen, and principally Arnold Schoenberg composed a vast number of pieces in this style. FTP, name this property of music, which designates music that lacks a central key.

A: Atonality

Many musical works of the past century are atonal. FTPE, name some of them.

10: This Schoenberg song cycle, considered to be his most influential atonal work, was composed prior to his development of the twelve-tone technique. It was adapted from a French cycle of poems by Albert Giraud with the same name.

A: Pierrot Lunaire (accept Pierrot in the Moonlight or equivalents)

10: This first opera of Alban Berg is an adaptation of Georg Buchner's play of a similar name. By the end of the opera, the title character, angry at his wife's infidelity, stabs her, and he later drowns himself.
A: Wozzeck

10: Though never completely abandoning traditional tonality, this Bartok piece uses highly nonstandard tonal variation. Its title is somewhat contradictory, as the compositional type for which it is named is usually for a solo instrument with some accompaniment, not for the ensemble of instruments implied by the rest of the title.
A: Concerto for Orchestra

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