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Paál, László

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Paál, László (Ladislas) (Zám, 30 July 1846 - Charenton, France, 4 March 1879) – Painter. As a student at Arad (now in Romania), he started painting under the direction of Péter Nagy and, later of Pál (Paul) Bőhm. He also met the famous painter Mihály (Michael) Munkácsy. He went to Vienna to read Law in 1864, but he was really interested in painting. His early figurative works there reflect the traditional approach. During his trip to Holland in 1870, he came under the influence of the Dutch Masters, and developed his own coloristic language; he perceived nature as a large color block. Munkácsy invited him to Düsseldorf, Germany, in 1871. Afterward, he went to London, then to France and, in 1872, he settled in Barbizon, France. Here, his rigid draftsmanship changed into a more relaxed approach. He painted nothing but landscapes, especially forests. He painted the trails, the clearings and the quiet, moody interiors of the Fontainebleau woods. His pessimistic outlook on life, due to a family misfortune and ill health, darkened the tonality of his later works and dulled his colors. On occasion, his dynamic brushwork hinted at his romantic soul; but the general mood of his paintings, brightened only by the occasional dramatic highlights, seemed foreboding. His life-work includes Noon (Dél) (1870); Cloudy Weather (Borús idő) (1871); Landscape with Cows (Tehenek a fák alatt) (1872); Depth of the Forest (Erdő mélye) (1873); Swamp of Frogs (Békák mocsara) (1875); Forest Path (Erdei út) (1876), and Inside the Forest (Erdő belseje) (1877). He died after a long illness and his works were auctioned off in Paris in 1880. As his paintings did not reach Hungary until 1902, he did not influence the work of contemporary Hungarian painters. After 1902, a number of exhibitions of his works took place in Budapest. Paál was an outstanding figure of Hungarian painting in the 19th century, its first plein air advocate. His lifework is related to the Barbizon School. A memorial plaque was placed on the wall of his residence in Barbizon. – B: 0872, 0883, 1140, 1445, 1031, T: 7677.→Munkácsy, Mihály.
Paál, Zoltán (Ózd, 1913 - 1982) – Factory worker. He was born into a family of laborers from Ózd. After completing his primary school, he became a factory worker at the Ózd Works. His ancestors were the Palóc (derived from Avars or Khabars in the Carpathian Basin; their center was Ipolyság [now Šahy, Slovakia], north of Budapest). In January 1945 he was coerced into forced labor, captured by the advancing Soviet Army, and carried off to the Soviet Union. He befriended a Soviet soldier, Salavare Tura, (the shaman of the Mansi/Voguls of the then Soviet Union), who recognized the marks of the “initiated” in Paál, so Tura handed over to him a copy of the Arvisura Heritage in runic script with the obligation to write it down, transliterated into Hungarian, in twenty to thirty years. Tura’s grandfather had preserved the thousand-year-old Hun collection of Arvisura, meaning “telling the truth”, originally kept in Buda. Since all runic scripts were endangered after the conversion of Hungarians to Christianity in the 10-11th century AD, the sons of the blinded Vászony: Prince Endre (Andrew), Béla and Levente rescued the collection by taking it to the Bashkirs. Finally, the collection came to be in the custody of the Mansi. The Chief-Shaman considered that the time was right to return the collection to the Hungarians. Paál fulfilled his commission and thus considerably enriched the ancient knowledge of Hungarians with the Arvisura. – B: 1068,1893, T: 7456.→Arvisura; Hungarian Runic Script.

Pacséry, Imre (Emeric) (Őrszállás, now Stanišić, Serbia, part of former Southern Hungary in the Carpathian Basin, 10 December 1900 - Budapest, 25 January 1980) – Physician and specialist in industrial health. He obtained his Medical Degree from the University of Budapest in 1924. From 1924 to 1928 he was a physician at the National Institute for Social Insurance (Országos Társadalombitositó Intézet – OTI). In 1928-1929 he carried out research on a Rockefeller scholarship at Harvard University. From 1930 to 1934 he worked as a medical secretary for the OTI Board of Directors. In 1934 he organized the National Lead-Testing Station. Between 1934 and 1949 he was Head of the OTI Department of Industrial Health. From 1973 he was an industrial physician and consultant for the Budapest District XIV Clinic. As a specialist in industrial health issues, he dealt with lead poisoning, injuries caused by aromatic nitro- and amino-compounds, cancer diseases connected with work, and illnesses brought about by harmful substances. He is regarded as the pioneer of Industrial Health Research in Hungary. The number of his published scientific papers amounts to 60, such as: The Methodology of Industrial Health Investigations (Az iparegészségügyi vizsgálatok metodikája) with L. Magos (1960). – B: 1730, 1731, 1160, T: 7456.

Pácz, Aladár (Csókás, 11 January 1882 - 1938) – Chemical engineer. After finishing his secondary studies in Hungary, it is believed that he obtained a Ph.D. in Chemistry in Berlin, by the time he was 23. His residence in Hungary was in Salgótarján, near the Czechoslovak border. He emigrated to the United States by ship from Fiume, Hungary (now Rijeka, Croatia), on 11 June 1905. He settled in Cleveland in 1906. He worked at the General Electric Company and, in 1908, he patented his first invention. By 1909 he was working at the Company’s Nela Park facility, where he experimented with a new carbon paste for attaching carbon filaments to lead wires. He also worked on molybdenum-tungsten support-wires for tungsten filament lamps. This led to the development of the C-218 in 1915, and it was patented in 1922. He discovered the wolfram filament, which kept its shape in incandescent lamps; thereby the filaments do not bend during the life of the lamp. This invention spread all over the world. In 1920 he left General Electric. His home was near Nela Park, Cleveland, Ohio, which became a business center established by him. It was there that he developed aluminum alloys in 1927. He discovered that silicon can be alloyed with aluminum in the presence of sodium chloride. Thus he created the alpax, from which later the excellent and widespread alloy silumin was developed. This can be alloyed as easily as any other aluminum alloy, but its coefficient of thermal expansion is smaller; it does not contract as much on cooling; its static strength and dilation is greater than any other aluminum alloy. Besides, it is easily tractable, cheap, and can be cast within a wide range of temperature; this type of aluminum was used in Zeppelin airships, motor blocks, etc. Pácz was granted 46 U.S. patents and, in addition, at least one Austrian, four British, nine Canadian and four German patents. The most important achievement of Aladár Pácz was the wire that he developed, which minimized drooping and sagging. The non-sag tungsten wire filament is used worldwide by manufacturers of lamps; another one is his invention of a new aluminum alloy. Later in his life, he traveled to Europe periodically. His place of death is unknown. – B: 1123, 1126, 1160, 1749, T: 7390, 7103.
Paczolay, Gyula (Julius) (Ercsi 2 November 1930 - ) – Chemical engineer, linguist, proverb specialist. He attended secondary schools in Kunszentmiklós and Újpest (1941-1949), and graduated as a Chemical Engineer from the University of Veszprém in 1953. He was a Production Engineer at the Inota Aluminum Smelter (1953-1956), and later, Research Fellow at the Research Institute for Non-Ferrous Metals, Budapest (1956-1963). He was on scholarship at Milan Polytechnic, Italy (1962-1963). In 1992 he retired as Associate Professor of Physical Chemistry at Veszprém University. From 1972 on, he has been engaged in the comparative study of proverbs, giving lectures at international folklore and Finno-Ugric congresses in Göttingen, Jyväskylä, Melbourne, Mysore, Nairobi, Peking, Rome, Syktyvkar, Tartu, Tokyo, etc. His works include Sciences and Systems (Tudományok és rendszerek) (1973); A Comparative Dictionary of Hungarian, Estonian, German, English, Finnish and Latin proverbs, with an appendix in Cheremiss and Zyryan (1987); Hungarian and Japanese Proverbs (1994); European, Far-Eastern, and some Asian Proverbs (1994); European Proverbs in 55 Languages with Equivalents in Arabic, Persian, Sanskrit, Chinese and Japanese (1997); Tivadar Duka (Duka Tivadar) (1998); 1000 Hungarian Proverbs with English, Estonian, Finnish and German Translations (2000), and János Baranyai Decsi and his Adagia, the first Hungarian Proverb Collection from 1598 (2000). He is the holder of the Maarjamaa Cross of the Estonian Republic (2002). – B: 0874, 0880, T: 7683.
Padányi, Victor (Vatta, County Borsod, 26 January 1906 - Melbourne, VIC, Australia, 3 December 1963) – Historian, writer. He completed his higher studies at the Teachers’ Colleges of the Universities of Szeged and Budapest, and he obtained his Ph.D. in History from the University of Szeged. In Hungary, he dealt with didactic-political problems. In 1945 he moved to Germany, where he lived for six years in Oberammergau. In 1951 he emigrated to Australia, and worked in Melbourne as a high school teacher. In his studies he dealt with the origin and ancient history of the Hungarian people. His writings appeared in books and as articles in Hungarian newspapers abroad. His major works include The Great Tragedy (A nagy tragédia) textbook (1952, 1977); Vérbulcsú (1954); Vászoly, play (1955); Space and History (Tér és Történelem) (1955); Rákóczi (1961); The Spiritual Identity of the Sumerian and Hungarian Languages (A szumír magyar nyelv lélekazonossága) (1962); Dentumagyaria (1963, 1989); The Only Escape (Egyetlen menekvés) (1967), and Historical Studies (Történelmi tanulmányok) (1972). He was one of the few Hungarian historians in exile. In 1964, the Australian Victor Padányi Society was founded in his memory. – B: 1672, 7456, T: 7103.→Bobula, Ida; Badiny Jós, Ferenc.
Pagan Religious World Medieval Hungarian Chronicles and fragments of folk traditions preserve the ancestral folk-religion. The most ancient one is the cult of the Mother Earth; its memory is preserved in ancient incantations. The tradition of the Ukkon cup is the remnant of the Old God (Öregisten) religion. The number “three” preserves the traditions of the Moon Cult: Little Blessed Lady, Blessed Lady, and Great Blessed Lady. The union of the giant Ukkon, or otherwise Ménrót (Nimrod), and the Moon Goddess cult is the origin of the Divine Twins myth. The Spring and Autumn Sun God cults mirror Hunor and Magor. Finally, the tradition of the Turul Bird represents elements of the Fire Cult.

Hungarians, after their conversion to Christianity in the 10-11th century A.D., transformed the local heathen illustrations and endowed them with Christian symbolisms. Some of these are preserved in medieval Hungarian cathedrals, and also in small village churches, especially in those built during the Árpád Dynasty. At Ják, and at other Romanesque churches, the remnants of Medieval Hungarian Christian culture differ from those of the Italian, German and other Christian cultures. Archeological findings, Hungarian codices, folk prayers preserved many such ancient traditions, transplanting them into Christian concepts. – B: 1020, T: 7682.→Turul; Madonna the Great.

Page (Apród) – Originally, young boys of noble lineage, who were predestined for knighthood, were raised at the court of a highborn noble or a prince. Their education and development of chivalric skills were the obligations of the lord, who accepted them into his court. The page was a nobleman, but he had to perform certain non-humiliating services. In case of war, the older pages were duty-bound to accompany their masters to camp. Later, in certain guilds, it became customary to call their apprentices pages. The term Apród (page) remained in use for the longest time, in connection with legally trained candidates. – B: 0942, T: 3233.
Páger, Antal (Anthony) (Makó, 29 January 1899 - Budapest, 14 December 1986) - Actor. He was discovered at a performance for connoisseurs of art, after which Zsigmond (Sigismund) Andor put him under contract as a dancer/comedian in Székesfehérvár. He went on to perform in Kecskemét, Pécs, Nagyvárad and Szeged. Páger’s popularity derived from his operetta performances, where he displayed his great sense of humor, dancing skills, and ability for caricature. The 1930s saw him perform at the King and Comedy Theaters (Király Színház, Vígszínház) in Budapest. Near the end of World War II, he emigrated with his family to Argentina, where he occupied himself with painting. His works were exhibited in several galleries. In August 1956 he returned to Hungary and became a member of the Comedy Theater (Vígszínház), Budapest. As the decades passed, his theatrical style became simplified and more suggestive. His theatrical range was considerable: he was equally at home in classics, modern pieces, tragedies, comedies, humorous plays, grotesque works, and numerous incarnations of “common man” types. The roles he played in old age reflected his deep humanity. Páger’s main roles were: Liliom in Ferenc (Francis) Molnár’s Liliom; Turay in Play’s the Thing (Játék a kastélyban); János Kántor in János (John) Kodolányi’s Earthquake (Földindulás); Big Daddy (Atyus) in Williams’ Cat On a Hot Tin Roof; Zoltán in J. Bókay’s The Wife (A feleség), and Cebukin in Chechkov’s The Three Sisters (Három nővér). There are some 170 feature and TV films to his credit, including Piri Knows Everything (Piri mindent tud) (1932); Azure Express (1938); Rosewood Cane (Rózsafabot) (1940); A Night in Transylvania (Egy éjszaka Erdélyben) (1941); The Two Lives of Auntie Mici (Mici néni két élete) (1962); Lark (Pacsirta) (1963); The Conquest (Honfoglalás), (TV, 1963); The Regent (A kormányzó) (1969); Médea (1971); Philemon and Baucis (1978); Heavenly Hosts (Mennyei seregek) (1983), and Lost Paradise (Elveszett paradicsom) (1986). He also appeared in more than forty television films. In 1964 he shared the prize for best male performance at the Cannes Film Festival. Antal Páger was a Kossuth Prize recipient in 1965, and received the title of Outstanding Artist in 1963. – B: 0883, 1439, T: 7688.→Molnár, Ferenc; Kodolány, János.

Paget, János (John Paget esquire) (Thorpe Satchville, Leicester, England, 1808 - Aranyosgyéres, now Ghiris, Transylvania in Romania, 10 April 1892) – Travelogue writer, author, and owner of a large estate. He obtained a Medical Degree from the University of Edinburgh; thereafter, he went on a study trip to Paris and Italy, where, in 1835, he met Baroness Polyxena Wesselényi, a widow (formerly married to Baron László Bánffy). She accompanied him to Hungary, where he married her, settled in Gyéres (former name of Aranyosgyéres), and worked on a large estate. In 1835 and 1836 he traveled in Transylvania and other parts of Hungary; he wrote a book about his experiences on this journey. In 1847 Paget was given Hungarian citizenship, and he made the acquaintance of Count István Széchenyi, the “Greatest Hungarian”. During the 1848-1849 Revolution and War of Independence from Habsburg oppression, he joined General Bem and served as one of his aide-de-camps but, after the fall of the Revolution, he was forced to flee to England. Only in 1855 was he able to return again and, on his estate at Aranyosgyéres, he established a model farm, using modern methods. He was a founding member of the Transylvanian Economic Circle and, as such, he did a lot for the development of wine production and viticulture in Hungary. He translated several Hungarian works into English. His chief published work is Hungary and Transylvania (1839). – B: 0883, T: 7456.→Széchenyi, Count István; Bem, József.
Páhán, István (Stephen) (Nagykőrös 22 August 1922 - Nagykőrös, 11 January 2002-burial date) – Teacher of Physics. He was born into a teacher’s family. He graduated from the Reformed High School at Nagykőrös in 1940. His higher studies were at the University of Debrecen, where he obtained a B.Sc. Degree in Mathematics and Physics. He was taken prisoner of war in 1945. After his return, he became a substitute teacher at the Reformed High School of Nagykőrös, and from 1951, an appointed teacher of Physics at the same school. From 1966 he was Supervisor for the Instruction of Physics in County Pest. For 16 years, together with Elemér (Elmer) Sass, he edited and performed the popular TV classes on Physics. He was the founder of the County Pest groups of the Loránd Eötvös Physics Society. In 1982 he organized a successful Physics Conference at Nagykőrös. He was a recipient of the Sándor Mikola Prize, the TV Nivó Prize, the János Apáczai Csere Prize, and he received the title of Outstanding Teacher. – B: 1747, T: 7103.
Painted Wooden Ceiling – Medieval Hungarian records indicate that the ceilings of aristocratic manor houses, castles and, on rare occasions, some country houses were painted. Unfortunately, these painted ceilings became so rare that researchers were able to study only the painted ceiling of the Kornis Castle at Szentbenedek. However, some painted church ceilings survived. The oldest known Hungarian painted ceilings in the Carpathian Basin originated in the 15th and 16th centuries. These were ordered as a favor of patronage. From the end of the 16th century, there was more demand for such folk mementos, reflecting the taste of the era. Traveling members of the larger master artist groups painted these ceilings. Several types were known. The ceiling structures were made with a main beam similar to the ceiling of a peasant house. The wooden ceiling was often fastened to the church’s roof-beams. These ceilings were generally divided by staves into wooden squares and were called coffered ceilings. The painters/carpenters of the individual master groups probably used a sample book. There are many churches with painted ceiling in many parts of Hungary. One of the most beautiful of these painted coffered ceilings can be seen at the Reformed Church in Dévaványa in South-Western Hungary. Another interesting example is in the Unitarian Church in Énlaka in Transylvania (now Inlăceni, Romania), which even contains a script in ancient Hungarian runic writing: “Egy az isten, Georgyius Musnai diakon(us)" (There is one God, [by] Georgyius Musnai Deacon). Their motives originated in the late Gothic period and the Renaissance decorative era. Usually the flower ornaments survived. The peculiarities of a few workshops or the style of one or two generations are recognized only in these. – B: 1134, T: 3240.→ Hungarian Runic Script.

Painting in Hungary – Beginnings. In Hungary, the art of painting began simultaneously with the building of churches. The Basilica of Székesfehérvár was decorated with mosaics; the wall paintings of the Benedictine Monastery in Pécsvárad are related to the Benedictine Art Studio of Montecassino, Italy. The Byzantine-style wall paintings of the Crypt of Feldebrő have been estimated by some to be derived from the beginning of the 11th century; according to others, they originate from the 12th. The frescoes, which decorate the triumphal arch of the Maria Church in Sopron-Bánfalva, are dated from this time, as well as the paintings of the Apostles in the church of Hidegség (with a Roman apse). In the early phase of book-copying, decorated initials and other illustrations were painted to decorate the codices but, at the end of the 12th century, in the Pray-Codex, there are ink drawings to be found and, in the Gut-Keled Bible from the 11th century, elaborate miniature graphics were used for the purpose of book decoration. The statues of the saints, standing in pairs in the chapel of Gizella in Veszprém, show a great deal of Hungarian influence on the Italian masters, who followed the contemporary Byzantine style. The frescoes in the church in Vizsony, illustrating Christ’s life, are excellent examples of the medieval church interior (illustrative) decoration. In Transylvania (Erdély, now in Romania) and Northern Hungary (now Slovakia), besides the religious wall paintings, people also preferred the illustrations of the Legend of King St. László I (Ladislas, 1077-1095). The evolution of commerce and the population growth in the cities of Northern Hungary set in motion a great movement in the field of the arts. In the Middle Ages, the Illuminated Chronicle (Képes Krónika, about 1370) stands out as a monumental work, with 139 miniatures and initials, illuminated by the court artist of King Lajos (Louis the Great, 1342-1382), possibly Miklós Hertulfia. These miniatures influenced the first Hungarian fresco-painter known by name, John Aquila, who already presided over a large studio in the second half of the 14th century. In the art of fresco painting, the illustration of feelings and sentiments became very important. At that time, the artists painted religious themes that had human subject matter and also began painting realistically about the life of that period. Besides fresco painting, another artistic form emerged that became popular: miniature painting. At the end of the century, the panel painting also increased in popularity. The first panel painter was the great master, Tamás (Thomas) Kolozsvári, who painted the winged altar of the Garamszentbenedek church (1427). In the 15th century, the scenes from the Bible almost assumed a secondary place because these pictures were changed to depict real-life illustrations. Later, in the reign of King Zsigmond (Sigismund of Luxembourg, 1387-1437), miniature painting became very popular and extended up to the time of King Mátyás I (Matthias Corvinus, 1458-1490), who offered patronage to and supported the shops for book illustration and book printing. The frescoes painted by Italian artists in the 16th century were a preferred style in Hungary, used for decorating the walls of castles. Some of the most famous panel paintings and triptychs of northern Hungary (in Slovakia since 1920), and Transylvania (in Romania since 1920) are dated from the 16th century. In the early Renaissance, Hungarian painting was exposed to serious changes and a great deal of destruction was caused by the Turkish occupation and the ceaseless fighting (1526-1686). Under such conditions, from the middle of the 16th century to the end of the 17th, works of art became understandably rare, and only the art of miniature decorations on codices, and letters containing crests or coats of arms were available. In the late Renaissance, painting became universal and the most flourishing branch was that of fresco painting (murals). At this time the wall decorations of the castles included life-size portraits, and series of portraits of famous people and historical personalities such as kings, dignitaries and clergyman. Besides the figurative painting, ornamental painting gained importance, especially the letters patent granting armorial bearings, letters patent of nobility and painted ceilings and arches. Both styles became very popular in Transylvania, where the masters of the time developed a specifically Hungarian ornamental style. In the 17th century, historical painting, genre painting, portrait and landscape painting were the most often used artistic expression. Of the historical paintings, the most popular scenes were those illustrating the battles between the Turks and Hungarians. At this time, many Hungarian artists were working abroad in foreign countries. Portrait painting became one of the most popular styles at the beginning of the 18th century. Ádám Mányoki was a Hungarian master, who painted in Baroque style the famous portrait of Reigning Prince Ferenc Rákóczi II (1705-1711). Another famous artist of the century was the Austrian, István Dorffmeister, living in Sopron, whose major works were painted on the walls of numerous churches in the Transdanubian region.

First flourishing. As a result of the cultural and industrial developments of 19th to 20th century Europe, painting became one of the most developed branches of art in Hungary. An original and varied development occurred, including modern, contemporary art forms. In the 19th century, Miklós (Nicholas) Barabás was the first artist who did pioneering work. The second half of the century proved to be the most fruitful for painting. The first representatives of the Romanticist trend were Mihály (Michael) Zichy, one of the most talented artists of the age, and Mór (Maurice) Than. Viktor Madarász represented the genre of Hungarian historical painting. Bertalan (Bartholomew) Székely painted in the spirit of the Resistance against Austrian rule, even after the Compromise of 1867; his famous paintings include his Self-portrait (Önarckép), and historical compositions, such as Women of Eger (Egri Nők) and Outbreak of Count Zrinyi (Zrinyi kirohanása). Károly (Charles) Lotz was the master of frescoes. Gyula (Julius) Benczúr created great historical canvases: Recapture of Buda Castle (Budavár visszavétele); Farewell of László (Ladislas) Hunyadi (Hunyadi László búcsúja), etc. Mihály (Michael) Munkácsi became famous for his Jesus tableaus: Ecce homo, Christ before Pilate (Jézus Pilátus előtt), and Golgotha. He was the first who depicted simple folk life: Wood-carrying Woman (Rőzsehordó asszony); Death Cell (Siralomház); Lint-dressing Makers (Tépéscsinálók). László (Ladislas) Pál painted excellent landscapes; Géza Mészöly depicted typical Hungarian countryside scenes. Pál (Paul) Szinyei Merse was the first who discovered the plein-air painting, independently from French painters. Árpád Feszty painted the monumental, life-size cyclorama: Entry of the Magyars into the Carpathian Basin in 896 (Magyarok bejövetele), now exhibited
at the Ópusztaszer National Memorial Park.

A major change in painting was introduced by the appearance of the painters of the Nagybánya School (Colony) (since 1920, Baia Mare, Romania,), founded in 1896, by the Munich-based Simon Hollósy, with the collaboration of Károly (Charles) Ferenczy, Béla Iványi-Grünwald, István (Stephen) Réti, János (John) Thorma, and for a shorter period, István (Stephen) Csók. The activity of this school opened a new period in Hungarian painting, rendering it independent from the Munich school, tying it to the native Hungarian soil and achieving individual freedom for the artists. The Trianon Peace Dictate of 1920 put an end to the artists’ activity in Nagybánya with the incoming Romanian rule in Transylvania.

Early in the 20th century, the painters of the Alföld School adopted a distinct style: it was folk-based and peasant inspired; their ability to see the realities of life became deeper. The representatives of this school are István (Stephen) Nagy, as well as József (Joseph) Koszta and János (John) Tornyai. The so-called “naïve painters” of the 1920s also featured peasants and workers, e.g. Péter Benedek, Elek (Alec) Győri and János (John) Gajdos. After 1920, the art of Róbert Berény represented the direction of art-life in the whole interwar period: it became the Post-Nagybánya School (or Gresham circle), to which István (Stephen) Szünyi and Aurél Bernáth also belong.

The Colony, The Eight, was formed in 1909 by a group of early Avant-Garde artists, who declared: “We believe in nature. We draw from it with our reason” (i.e. a rational selection from nature). They followed humaneness, artistic humility and moderation. The philosopher Georg (György) Lukács best understood their Weltanschauung. The head of the group was Károly (Charles) Kernstok, an open minded radical and freemason. The other members were: Róbert Berény, Dezső (Desider) Czigány, Béla Czóbel, Ödön (Edmund) Márffy, Dezső Orbán, Bertalan (Bartholomew) Pór and Lajos (Louis) Tihanyi. Later on, two of these, Béla Czóbel and Ödön Márffy, joined the great international current of the École de Paris.

The Gödöllő Art Colony showed a strong tendency toward religious symbolism combined with a strong social conscience. Its members were: Leo Belmonte, Endre (Andrew) Frecskai, Árpád Juhász, Aladár Kőrösfői Kriesch, Rezső (Rudolph) Mihály, Sándor (Alexander) Nagy, his wife Laura Kriesch, Ervin Raáb, Jenő (Eugene) Remsey, erenc (Francis) Sidló, Mariska and Carla Undi, and István (Stephen) Zichy, to mention only the more important members.

After 1930 there was a tendency by Hungarian artists to orientate toward Italy, following the similar trend in economic and political spheres. As a result, Italian Neoclassicism appeared. Young Hungarian artists were sent to Rome. By the mid-1930s, this developed into the Rome School; its shining star was Vilmos (William) Aba Novák. The style of this school developed into the official art policy. The Socialist Artists’ Group with its programmed art was the Communist counterpart of the Rome school during the Soviet military occupation of Hungary for forty-five years.

Expressionism, emphasizing free expression of an artist’s emotional reactions and his inner world (instead of representing the natural appearance of things) became the most favored school among young Hungarian artists of the 20th century. It had a national characteristic, the experience of crisis caused by the dismemberment of Historic Hungary and the desire for novelty. The greatest figure of Hungarian expressionism was Gyula (Julius) Derkovits. Others included István (Stephen) Dési Huber and a former member of The Eight, Károly (Charles) Kernstok; József (Joseph) Egry may perhaps be included here as well.

Avant-garde artists in the 1930s, mainly young painters, were represented by Jenő (Eugene) Barcsay and Lajos (Louis) Vajda. Barcsay was for Hungarian constructivism filled with expressionism, while Vajda was all for Hungarian surrealism, depicting the work of the subconscious mind, only expressing the artist’s imagination. They differed from each other, but they were imbued with the atmosphere of another school:

The Szentendre School, barely 20 km north of the Hungarian Capital: an artists’ colony, formed by Béla Iványi-Grünwald in 1926; its members meant to continue the artistic approach of the Nagybánya School, but deviated from this later on; it reached its zenith in the late 1930s, representing a medley of different styles and directions, existing side by side, bound by a common experience and atmosphere: the town of Szentendre (St. Andrew). The young avant-garde artists active here included, among others, Imre Ámos.

The depressed economic conditions of the early 1930s, with an equally stagnant situation in the world of art brought about the creation of the first “National Art Exhibition” in 1933, to improve the artists’ life financially; all the various groups and schools participated, all with their separate hanging committees. Since it was a great success, it led to annual art exhibitions. The number of art associations also grew during this period. The regional art centers with their own colonies, like those of Szentendre, Gödöllő, Szolnok, and the Schools of Art at Miskolc and Kecskemét, also began to flourish. The painters of Szolnok and later, the painters of Kecskemét concentrated on painting nature, people, village- and town life. József Rippl-Rónai represented the secessionist style. Tivadar Csontváry Kosztka followed both secessionist and impressionist styles; his work was extremely individualistic and strongly nationalistic. In contrast, Lajos Gulácsy painted a dream-like world.

After the Second World War, Hungarian fine arts and graphic arts changed direction and revived certain neglected art forms, but confusion and searching for new ways characterized painting at first. In 1949, painters were members of the Alliance of Applied Arts and tried to immortalize life in Socialism along the lines of “Socialist Realism”. In this milieu, searching for new forms began to diminish. In the first few years following the 1945 Soviet occupation and Communist takeover, the so-called “European School” was operating, closely following Western European trends. This was followed by an upsurge in the field of graphics. As in sculpture, new talents made their mark in the field of painting, and for the middle-generation, a new multi-layer, diverse style became the new mode of expression.

The better-known Hungarian painters are as follows: Ábel Bazilides Barna, Kálmán (Coloman) Beszédes, Ervin Bossányi, Erzsébet (Elizabeth) Brunner, the Medieval painters from Buda, György (George) Buday, Tivadar Csontváry Koszta, József (Joseph) Cziffery, Jenő (Eugen) Dénes, Albrecht Dürer, Aladár Edvi Illés, Bálint (Valentine) Fehérkuty, Béni (Ben) Ferenczy, Károly (Charles) Ferenczy, Árpád Feszty, Adolf Fenyves, Alfred Forbáth, Kálmán (Coloman) Gáborjáni Szabó, Emil Grabovszky, Ernő (Ernest) Gyimesi Kásás, István (Stephen) Hódi, József (Joseph) Horváth, István, (Stephen) László Jakab, Lajos (Louis) Jánosa, the Master of The Legend of St Elizabeth of Hungary of Kassa, the Master of the series on The Life of Mary of Kassa, Judith Kaszab (Cassab), Lipót (Leopold) Kerpel, Tamás (Thomas) Kolozsvári, Károly (Charles) Kós, Ferenc (Francis) Kozics, Ádám Kunos, Sándor (Alexander) Liezen-Mayer, Gyula (Julius) Macskássy, Éva Makk, Imre (Emeric) Makk, Béla Magori-Vargha, Master Márton, the Master of the Altar of Medgyes, Baron László (Ladislas) Mednyánszky, Géza Mészöly, Miklós (Nicholas) József, M. S. Master, Endre (Andrew) Nemes, the Master from Okolicsnó, Viktor Olgyay, Dezső (Desider) Orbán, József Joseph) Orient, András (Andrew) Pősze, Mihály (Michael) Pannoniai, Béla Petry, László (Ladislas) Philipp, Rudolf Pintye, Artur Podolini-Volkmann, Bertalan (Bartholomew) Pór, József (Joseph) Rippl-Rónai, András (Andrew) Salgó, Erzsébet (Elizabetj) Sass-Brunner (Farkas), Sher Gil, Amrita, Ferenc (Francis) Stornó Sr., Moholy-Nagy László (Ladislas), Gyula (Julius) Szalay, István (Stephen) Szőnyi, János (John) Thorma, Victor Vasarely (Győző Vásárhelyi) Marcel Vértes, Pál (Paul) Vidor, Imre (Emeric) Zsogodi Nagy. – B: 1068, 1144, 1122, T: 7653, 7456.→ Most of the persons in the article have their own entry.

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