|PACE NSC 2009: Edited by Andrew Hart, Chris Ray, Ted Gioia, and Mehdi Razvi
Related Tossups and Bonuses Round
1. This man’s studies of the Nahuatl can be found in his Loan Words in Ancient Mexico, and he developed many of his ideas while working for the Hartford Fire Insurance Company. He believed that the Hopi language contained no conception of time and no grammatical structure, and most of his essays are collected posthumously in Language, Thought, and Reality. He is most famous for advancing the idea that the language one speaks influences their perception of the world, an idea sometimes called “Linguistic relativity”. For 10 points, name this linguist who has a famous hypothesis with his advisor Edward Sapir.
ANSWER: Benjamin Lee Whorf
1. This man wrote a tract in which he advocated the abolition of all charity entitled What Social Classes Owe to Each Other. For ten points each:
 Identify this sociologist who defined folkways.
ANSWER: William Graham Sumner
 Sumner wrote a book about this type of history of the United States, while Georg Simmel wrote one about the philosophy of this concept, which can be exchanged for goods or services.
ANSWER: money [accept equivalents and word forms, like monetary]
2. This author wrote a short story in which Mrs. Morrison leaves her son Andrew to move to The Welcome Home after the second of the title holidays in Three Thanksgivings. John Robertson returns to America after spending thirty years in Tibet and finds that his sister Ellen is the president of a college in a work published in this author’s unsuccessful journal The Forerunner. After writing Moving the Mountain, she wrote a sequel in which Jeff, Van, and Terry experience life in a feminist utopia, Herland. For 10 points, name this author who wrote of woman who is driven mad by a former nursery’s colorful décor in the short story “The Yellow Wallpaper.”
ANSWER: Charlotte Perkins Gilman
2. One character listens to radio shows in order to learn the samisen, since there are no samisen masters in her area. For 10 points each:
 Name this work in which the geisha Komako has an affair with Shimamura, a hot springs visitor who claims to be a ballet expert despite never having attended one.
ANSWER: Snow Country [accept Yukiguni]
 This author of Snow Country also wrote such works as The Sound of the Mountain and The Master of Go.
ANSWER: Yasunari Kawabata [accept in either order]
3. One of the men who facilitated this action was 83 when he savagely beat six men who tried to assault him and his 15 year-old wife. Helped along by Cassius Clay, it led to a military command under a man who had murdered a fellow Union general, Jefferson C. Davis, while a dispute stemming from this action was finally resolved in the Hay-Herbert treaty. This action was secured after a stirring speech by another veteran of public violence, Charles Sumner, breaking a year-long deadlock on its authorization. Leading to the establishment of an administration in Sitka, for 10 points, identify this action derided before the Klondike Goldrush as Seward's Folly.
ANSWER: The Purchase of Alaska [accept equivalents; accept early Seward's Folly or Seward's Icebox; or Andrew Johnson's Polar Bear Garden]
3. Identify these figures from Congolese history, for 10 points each.  This MNC co-founder became the country's first legally elected Prime Minister. The CIA promptly started trying to murder him, but had to settle for robbing his grave and driving around with his corpse in a trunk after being beaten to the punch by Mobutu Sese Seko. ANSWER: Patrice Emery Lumumba  Lumumba was abducted and killed in Katanga province, whose independence was being sought by this founder of CONAKAT, whose appeal to the Belgians triggered the Congo Crisis. ANSWER: Moise Kapenda Tshombe
4. This composer wrote the “Military” cello concerto. One of this composer’s operas contains the barcarolle “Night of the Stars,” and that opera sees Dr. Miracle force Antonia to sing to death, and Spallazani create a lifelike doll named Olympia. This composer also created another opera that begins with Public Opinion declaring itself the guardian of good behavior, and that opera by this man culminates in the “galop infernal,” a can-can chorus of the classical Greek gods. For 10 points, name this composer of the operas Tales of Hoffman and Orpheus in the Underworld.
ANSWER: Jacques Offenbach
4. This man's band included such figures as the trombone player Lawrence Brown and alto saxophonist Johnny Hodges. For 10 points each:
 Name this pianist of “Sophisticated Lady” and the score for Anatomy of a Murder, who led an influential jazz ensemble in New York for much of the twentieth century.
ANSWER: Edward Kennedy “Duke” Ellington
 Composed by Billy Strayhorn, this song was based on travel instructions to Ellington’s house in Harlem and became the Ellington band’s signature piece.
ANSWER: “Take the ‘A’ Train”
5. Their brightness profiles are given by de Vaucouleurs' law and the relationship between their luminosity and their velocity dispersion is known as the Faber-Jackson relation. Their overall lack of H II regions and other interstellar matter means little star formation and their star movement is mostly random. On the Hubble tuning fork, classification for them is based on the difference of their major and their minor axis divided by their major axis, giving a scale of perceived flatness. For 10 points, identify this type of galaxy often contrasted with spiral galaxies, named for the geometric form they resemble.
ANSWER: elliptical galaxies
5. It was called it "spooky action at a distance." For 10 points per part:
 Name this phenomenon in which the quantum states of multiple objects show correlation and appear to be linked.
ANSWER: quantum entanglement
 The idea that quantum mechanics is incomplete in that it cannot account for some of the change at position B accounted for by making measurements at A is known as the EPR paradox, named for this man, Podolsky, and Rosen.
ANSWER: Albert Einstein
6. Edmund Richardson relates one modern adaptation of this work to Oswald Spengler's historical theories and to the poems that appear in The Double-Axe. That adaptation, by Robinson Jeffers, omits the title character's appearance in Helios's chariot. This Greek drama was originally controversial because of Artemis's role in bringing the title character to Aegeus. The title character kills someone with a poisoned robe before killing her children. For 10 points, name this Euripides tragedy concerning the title character's revenge against her husband who left her for Glauce (GLAO-kay), Jason.
6. This novel is written as a memoir to a judge called "your grace" by the protagonist, whose surname comes from the river in which he was born. For 10 points each:
 Identify this anonymous Spanish novel of the 16th century, in which the namesake protagonist recounts his misadventures as the servant of such masters as a blind man, a cleric, and a minor noble.
ANSWER: Lazarillo de Tormes
 Lazarillo de Tormes was the first example of this early novelistic genre, characterized by the first-person narrations of a roguish protagonist of little means using his wit to take advantage of others in order to survive.
7. The Duke of Schomberg was hired to help suppress this conflict. The Peace of Rueil led to a lull during one phase of this conflict, which saw the scheming of Cardinal de Retz. One of its leaders, the Comte de Chavigny, died of shock after being confronted by the Prince of Conde, and it grew from objections from the Parlements towards absolutism and antipathy towards Anne of Austria. This conflict's second incarnation, named after the Nobles, lasted until 1653, when war again broke out with Spain. For 10 points, name this series of French conflicts over the policies of Mazarin during the minority of Louis XIV, named for a children’s sling game. ANSWER: The Fronde [accept Fronde of the Parliament; or Fronde of the Nobles]
7. The Ashwander case found this institution to be constitutional. For 10 points each:
 Name this federally-owned New Deal agency established to oversee power generation and flood control in the namesake watershed, which includes portions of Alabama and Kentucky.
ANSWER: Tennessee Valley Authority
 This man's work Democracy on the March describes his clashes with Kenneth McKellar in establishing the corporation, which led to this man's nickname of “Mr. TVA.” Truman later tapped him to serve as the first chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission.
ANSWER: David Lilienthal
8. John Sununu replaced Judd Gregg in a group overseeing this program, which has been criticized for not utilizing XBRL. Inspector General Eric Thorson has been highly critical of that group, which supervises the use of P-PIP and ranks subjects by CAMELS ratings. Herbert Allison may soon succeed Neel Kashkari as the head of the Office of Financial Stability, a division created along with this initiative, which will focus on CDOs and other highly liquid targets. For 10 points, identify government initiative aimed at promoting market stability by purchasing volatile assets.
ANSWER: Troubled Asset Relief Program
8. Identify these parties linked by their vigorous reactions to the 2009 Swine Flu outbreak, for 10 points each:
 This former Governor of Iowa and current U.S. Secretary of Agriculture strongly objected to the term “swine flu,” which he claimed unfairly demeaned and demonized pork. He instead suggested naming the disease after Mexico.
ANSWER: Tom Vilsack
 In April 2009, the government of this Middle Eastern country ordered the slaughter of its pig population. The decision angered this country's pork-consuming Christian minority, which comprises about 10% of the population and includes Pope Shenouda III.
ANSWER: Arab Republic of Egypt
9. One god who represented this was given his position due to his fear of fire and was often depicted carrying a seashell on his back; he is the Aztec figure Tecciztecatl. The goddess Chang-e and her jade rabbit companion are associated with this in Chinese myth, while a figure whose wife is Ningal and whose father is Enlil, Sin, is responsible for this in Babylonian myth. The Shinto god associated with it killed the food goddess Uke Mochi, while the Norse god of it will be eaten by Hati at Ragnarok. Associated with the gods Tsukuyomi and Mani, for 10 points, identify this object whose other deities include Selene and her Roman equivalent, Luna.
ANSWER: the moon [accept lunar gods/goddesses/deities and other equivalents]
9. Answer the following about the geography of the Greek underworld for 10 points each:
 Until the Titanomachia, Kottos, Gyges, and Briareos were kept here by Kronos. The tables turned when Kronos and most of the other Titans were prisoned in this deep pit of hell.
 The dead would drink from this river of forgetfulness to lose all memory of their earthly lives. In the Divine Comedy, Dante drinks from it and Eunoe before entering Paradise.
ANSWER: Lethe [prompt on oblivion or equivalents]
10. The most popular laboratory strains of this organism are derived from the Wister type, and the Cre-Lox recombinase system is often used to remove their genes. Capecci, Evans, and Smithes won the 2007 Nobel for their work in developing a knockout procedure in these organisms, and extensive research on them has been shown to increase the length of their telomeres over time. Griffith used strains of pneumoccus on this animal in order to demonstrate the principle of transformation. For 10 points, name these common laboratory animals that are more famously made to run in mazes searching for cheese.
ANSWER: lab rats or mice or mus musculus
10. When the paternal type of this phenomenon is defective, Prader-Willi syndrome results, while Angelmann syndrome results from defects in its maternal type. For 10 points each:
 Identify this genetic phenomenon in which certain genes are expressed dependent on the parent they came from.
ANSWER: genomic imprinting
 On a molecular level, imprinting works by variably modifying histones or tagging DNA with this functional group, written as CH3.
ANSWER: methyl [prompt on alkyl]
Category Quiz Tossups
11. One character created by this author escapes from Doubting Castle shortly after declining to work in a silver mine. His minor works include the treatise One Thing is Needful and the poetry collection A Book for Boys and Girls. In another of his works, a man who breaks his leg coming home drunk is discussed for the benefit of the “Courteous Reader” by Mr. Wiseman and Mr. Attentive. In addition to writing The Life and Death of Mr. Badman, this author described the defeat of Apollyon in the Valley of Humiliation and visits to the Slough of Despond and Vanity Fair. For 10 points, name this allegorist who created the character Christian in his allegory Pilgrim’s Progress.
ANSWER: John Bunyan
12. In one of this man’s operas, a prince falls in love with Kumundha when he sees her transform into the titular plant. Another of his operas has a libretto by Peter Sellars that incorporates John Donne’s “Holy Sonnets.” This composer of The Flowering Tree created an opera that features dueling choruses of Israelis and Palestinians and centers on the hijacking of the Achille Lauro. This composer of Doctor Atomic also composed an opera which contains “The Red Detachment of Women” as well as the foxtrot “Chairman Dances.” For 10 points, name this composer of The Death of Klinghoffer and Nixon in China.
ANSWER: John Coolidge Adams
13. One idea of this type can be formally stated by commuting time reversal and ensemble average operators on the equation of motion for a single particle. Another statement of this kind is commonly treated by introducing a term proportional to the logarithm of the particle number factorial, which corresponds to distinguishability of mixing particles. In addition to those named for Loschmidt and Gibbs, one of these says that a set cannot be a member of itself. For 10 points, name these statements that lead to scientific contradictions, examples of which include Russell’s and the twin one, a consequence of special relativity.
14. After hearing reports of a four-member gang of Jewish thieves, this emperor expelled all Jews from Rome. He later died after spraining his shoulder while throwing a javelin and being smothered with blankets in his bed by Macro. On the pretext of involvement with assassinating this man’s son Drusus, this emperor had his former daughter-in-law Livilla executed along with the powerful commander of the Praetorian Guard, Sejanus. For 10 points, name this man who spent the end of his reign indulging himself on Capri before leaving Rome to Caligula, and was himself the successor of Augustus and second Roman emperor.
ANSWER: Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus [or Tiberius Claudius Nero]
15. In one story, this figure’s mother sent him to steal bananas from his grandmother until she recognized him. He is often called the inventor of cooking; to accomplish this, in one story he stole fire from the earthquake god, while in another, he turned into a hawk to escape with fire from Mahuika. The father of eels once attempted to rape his wife Hina, and his mother encouraged him to slow down the sun, which he did by lassoing it and beating it with a jawbone. He also used that jawbone to fish up the islands of Hawaii and New Zealand. For 10 points, identify this trickster god and hero of the Maori and Polynesians.
16. This group went through a brief experiment with democracy known as the Dark Time after the assassination of Reclaw. One member of this race crash-landed in Broken Bow, Oklahoma, and a peace treaty involving this race was handed down by the Organians. After the explosion of Praxis, the Khitomer Accords finally resulted in peace with this race, whose capital is on the planet Kronos and who for a time were lead by Chancellor Gowron. Lieutenant Commander Worf was a member of, for 10 points, which honor-obsessed warrior race in the Star Trek universe, notable for their large, ridgy foreheads?
ANSWER: Klingons or Klingon Empire
17. In one variation of this technique, ligands reversibly react with proteins which may be tagged with polyhistidine residues. That is usually followed by CIPP. Another form of it is performed on glass coated with an adsorbent material like silica gel, which can also line the insides of capillary tubes useful in this technique after vaporizing the gas. In addition to the thin layer and capillary gas types, this can be performed through a stationary phase of charged particles in the ion exchange type. For 10 points, identify this technique separating substances based on their chemical properties, such as the pigments of a plant into its constituent colors in the paper type.
ANSWER: chromatography [accept column chromatography until “glass”]
18. This event was preceded by the firing of Lewis Morris and the request that Rip van Dam share his salary. Francis Harison produced a number of outlandash tributes that prompted James Alexander to found a new enterprise which became central to this event. Alexander and William Smith were disbarred for having the audacity to object to attempts to rig its outcome by agents of William Cosby, leading Philadelphian Andrew Hamilton to take the case. Centering on articles published in the Weekly Journal that attacked the Governor of New York, for 10 points, identify 1735 libel suit which was instrumental in establishing freedom of the press in North America. ANSWER: the [John Peter] Zenger Trial
Category Quiz Bonuses
A noted aria sung by this character begins "If only I were that warrior!" and dubs the title character of the opera in which he appears "Heavenly." Loved by Amneris, for 15 points, name this captain of the guard and tenor role who loves the title princess in Verdi's Aida.
It is roughly bounded by Svalbard, Novaya Zemlya, Bear Island, and Franz Josef Land, while Murmansk lies on the Kola peninsula to its south. Including extensions like the Pechora Sea and bordering the Arctic Ocean and the Kara Sea, for 15 points, name this sea to the north of Russia.
ANSWER: Barents Sea [prompt on Murman Sea]
It was the first steamship to use a full propeller, and featured a gun known as “the Peacemaker,” whose design was botched by Robert Stockton, leading to the deaths of Abel Upshur and Thomas Gilmer. For 15 points, name this ship whose explosion in 1844 killed two members of John Tyler's cabinet.
ANSWER: USS Princeton
Some productions of this play emphasize the homoerotic aspects of the relationship between the protagonist and the Volscian general Aufidius. For 15 points, name this Shakespearean tragedy in which the patrician Caius Martius turns against the whining rabble of Rome and beseiges the city with a foreign army until his mother Volumnia calms him down.
ANSWER: The Tragedy of Coriolanus
For 15 points, find the between the hour and minute hands of a clock at 6:20. Express your answer in degrees.
ANSWER: 70 degrees
A sequel to this work was titled "The Meaning of Truth." "Tender-minded" and "Tough-minded" men are contrasted in the first of these lectures, "The Present Dilemma in Philosophy." For 15 points, name this series of lectures on "A New Name for some Old Ways of Thinking," titled for a philosophical movement and delivered by William James.
Religion and Mythology
Though its roster varies in some sources, Zhongli Quan and Lü Dongbin are always included among this group’s members. For 15 points, name this assortment of Daoist figures who were rewarded with eternal access to the Peach Festival for their holy deeds.
ANSWER: the Eight Immortals [or Baxian; or Pa Hsien]
A novel diagnostic for nuclear fusion power density is the detection of this form of electromagnetic radiation given off by charged nucleons as they fuse. For 15 points, name this form of radiation that is emitted by accelerating or decelerating charges and thus has a name meaning braking radiation.
This author of the tract Thought and Language also wrote several works about the psychological importance of child's play. For 15 points, identify this creator of the concept of the Zone of Proximal Development, a Russian psychologist.
ANSWER: Lev Vygotsky
This woman played a small role in the Planet Terror portion of the film Grindhouse. For 15 points, name this singer who had men admiring her “lovely lady lumps” in one song but has also had success as a solo artist with the songs “Clumsy” and “Big Girls Don’t Cry”.
ANSWER: Fergie [or Stacy Ann Ferguson]
19. This polity’s capital city is home to the Rumi Darwaza or Turkish Gate, which is modeled after Istanbul’s Sublime Porte. The festival of Kumbh Mela occurs in this polity four times every twelve years, and Mathura in this state is the traditional birthplace of Krishna. It was formed out of the United Provinces, which included its city of Allahabad, and is also home to the cities of Meerut and Varanasi. In 2000, Uttaranchal was formed from the Northern section of this state, which borders Nepal and has capital at Lucknow. For 10 points, identify this home of Agra and thus the Taj Mahal, the most populous state in India.
ANSWER: Uttar Pradesh [accept Northern Province]
19. She was executed after publishing The Three Urns. For 10 points each:
 Name this feminist French revolutionary who formed the Cercle Social with Sophie Condorcet and published the “Declaration of the Rights of Woman.”
ANSWER: Olympia de Gouges [or Marie Gouze]
 De Gouges's “Declaration of the Rights of Woman” was essentially a re-working of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, drafted by this man, who answered “everything” to the titular inquiry of his pivotal pamphlet, What is the Third Estate?
ANSWER: Abbe Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes
 De Gouge's arrest and execution was largely provoked by her receptiveness to constitutional monarchy and her objection over the impending guillotining of this French King, the husband of Marie Antoinette.
ANSWER: Louis XVI [or Louis-Auguste of France]
20. Leibniz's law in the context of computer science deals with this concept and Barbra Liskov argues that for mutable objects it reduces to its referential form. Java specifies that it must be reflexive, symmetric, transitive, consistent, and is false when dealing with null objects, but this definition runs into problems when dealing with subtyping. It is denoted in imperative languages with two symbols and declarative with one, before which an exclamation point is placed in Java if this condition does not hold. For 10 points, name this relation that is true between two objects if they are the same.
ANSWER: equality [accept things that demonstrate understanding like equivalence]
20. This god once accompanied Thor to retrieve the drinking kettle of Aegir. For 10 points each:
 Identify this Norse god of glory and single combat, who sacrificed a hand in order to allow Fenrir to be chained with Gleipnir.
ANSWER: Tyr [accept Tiwaz or Ziu]
 At Ragnarok, Tyr will kill and be killed by this four-eyed blood-covered guard dog of Hel.
 This father of Hel once taunted Tyr about his cuckoldry; he was later chained up in a cave after tricking the blind god Hodr into killing Baldr.
21. After failing to stop this figure at the Ladon River near Mount Lycaeus, another character stated "this much I have!" This companion of the Nymphs worked as a goatherd and was promised that all the goats under her care would bear twins by the one who sought her favor. That figure later symbolized the inequality of their love with the unequal lengths of the object named for her. During her flight from that pursuing god, she was swallowed by the Earth. For 10 points, name this figure whose spot of disappearance sprouted a bundle of reeds; a maiden pursued by Pan who lends her name to the instrument that Pan created out of the reeds.
21. Features of this structure include a 75-foot diameter cylindrical exhibition hall, which balances a theater cantilevered over Lake Erie. For 10 points each:
 Name this building in Cleveland.
ANSWER: Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum
 The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame was built by this Chinese-American architect, whose other creations include the Mile High Center in Denver and the John Hancock Tower in Boston.
ANSWER: I. M. Pei
 Pei is best known for creating the pyramid that adorns this French museum, which had work done it by Pierre Lescot, Jacques Lemercier, and Louis Le Vau.
ANSWER: Louvre Museum
22. In a battle just east of this city, an army under General Tukhachevski was soundly defeated, a so-called “Miracle” that prompted the Treaty of Riga. In another battle here, forces under “Bor” surrendered to those under General von dem Bach-Zelewski. Over one year before that clash, the Z.O.B. and the Z.Z.W. had fought a month-long losing battle against troops under the command of Jurgen Stroop. Willie Brandt made a much-publicized “kneefall” at a monument in this city, where the SS perpetrated the Wola Massacre. For 10 points, name this city where the Red Army was turned back by Pilsudski, the site of a 1944 Uprising and a smaller 1943 Ghetto Uprising.
ANSWER: Capital City of Warsaw [or Warszawa]
22. This event was resisted by the City of Van. For 10 points each:
 Identify this event, which saw Enver Pasha blame his loss at Sarikamis on a certain ethnic group, members of which were subsequently transported and massacred under the Tehcir Law.
ANSWER: Armenian Genocide [or Massacre or Holocaust; or the Great Calamity; or Ermeni Soykinmi; or Mec Egert]
 This Ottoman Sultan, the last to acutally control the Empire, succeeded Murad V and was overthrown by the Young Turks. He conscripted Kurdish to crush Armenian uprising like the Sasun Resistance in his namesake massacres.
ANSWER: Abdul Hamid II
 Abdul Hamid's 1909 Countercoup saw forces loyal to the monarchy temporarily take back various towns, including this one, where they sparked a namesake pogrom of Armenians that left over 20,000 dead.
ANSWER: Adana Massacre
23. This man praised Richardson's novel Clarissa for revealing the “hideous Moor” at “the back of the cave.” In one of this author's novels, the hostess of an inn tells a story about the courtship of Madame de la Pommeraye and the Chevalier des Arcis, and the title character tells a Captain that everything is written above in a great Scroll of Destiny. Another of this author's novels consists of a dialogue between a first-person narrator and a self-admitted professional toady, the relative of the French composer of Treatise on Harmony. For 10 points, name this Enlightenment author of Jacques the Fatalist and Rameau's Nephew, the primary editor of the Encyclopedia.
ANSWER: Denis Diderot
23. It formed around two hundred fifty million years ago, and strong evidence for it is provided by the apparent population distribution of Mesosaurus. For 10 points each:
 Identify this supercontinent that explains how that reptile appears to have lived in West Africa with a timeshare in eastern Brazil.
 This short-lived supercontinent preceded Pangaea. Only lasting about sixty million years, it was shaped like a V and was sometimes called Greater Gondwanaland.
ANSWER: Pannotia [accept Vendian]
 In addition to Gondwanaland, this supercontinent resulted from the breakup of Pangaea. The same combination of continents existed after the breakup of Rodinia, called proto-this.
24. One of this artist’s still lifes depicts the knotty lines and fleshy petals of the titular Rose and Driftwood. This man's book Born Free and Equal contains his works done in the Manzanar internment camp, and he was a founder and the most prolific member of Group f/64. Other works by this man, like Clearing Winter Storm, highlight such features as Bridalveil Falls, El Capitan, and Half Dome. For 10 points, name this artist who often captured images of landmarks in Yosemite National Park, best known for his grayscale photographs of the American West.
ANSWER: Ansel Easton Adams
24. This interaction occurs faster than its counterpart and always conserves quantities like lepton number and spin. For 10 points each:
 Identify this fundamental force, sometimes called the color force as explained by quantum chromodynamics, which holds quarks together in the nucleus.
ANSWER: strong nuclear force or interaction
 These particles, which may have originally existed in a plasma with quarks, are responsible for mediating the strong interaction.
 This general term refers to quantum numbers like baryon number, strangeness, isospin, and charge, which are globally conserved in the strong interactions but not electroweak processes.
25. The concentration-dependent activity coefficient is equal to this law’s associated constant divided by pressure, and a high value of that constant has applications for easy air-stripping of chemicals from water. It is equivalent to Raoult’s Law for ideal mixtures, but for non-ideals, it works best when dissolved mole fraction approaches zero. This law is useful in explaining noble gas solubility in silicate melts and the Bends experienced by deep-sea divers. For 10 points, name this law, which states that the solubility of a gas in a liquid is proportional to the pressure of the gas above the liquid.
ANSWER: Henry’s law
25. Lowell’s A Fable for Critics criticized this man’s female characters, noting “the women he draws from one model don’t vary/All sappy as maples and flat as a prairie”. For 10 points each:
 Identify this American author of The Crater who wrote about Mr. Gray, presumably an alias of John Paul Jones, in The Pilot and about Corny Littlepage and Anneke Mordaunt in Satanstoe.
ANSWER: James Fenimore Cooper
 The best-known of Cooper’s Leatherstocking novels is this one, in which Natty Bumppo uses the alias “Hawkeye” and helps Chingachgook and Uncas escort the Munro sisters.
ANSWER: The Last of the Mohicans: A Narrative of 1757
 Cooper’s “Literary Offenses” were catalogued by this other American author, whose own works include “King Leopold’s Soliloquy”, Innocents Abroad, and The Mysterious Stranger.
ANSWER: Mark Twain [accept Samuel Langhorne Clemens]
26. Three figures wrapped in heavy blankets approach a lonely man sitting by a wagon and a fire in one work by this artist, and an early painting by this artist shows several men on horseback running away from a band of Native Americans. In addition to Shotgun Hospitality and A Dash for the Timber, one of his sculptures shows a man supporting a comrade who has been shot, called Wounded Bunkie. For 10 points, name this artist of a work that shows a man holding some rope in one hand while clutching onto a bucking horse, the sculptor who created Bronco Buster.
ANSWER: Frederic Remington
26. This nation is separated from Madagascar by its namesake channel, and the mouths of the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers are located in this nation. For 10 points each:
 Name this country, the home of the city Xai-Xai and Tete.
 About a third of this lake is located within Mozambique. This lake forms the boundary between Mozambique and Malawi, and Likoma Island on this lake is the home of a large Anglican cathedral.
ANSWER: Lake Nyasa [prompt on Lake Malawi]
 This capital of Mozambique lies on Delagoa Bay and it was known as Lourenco Marques prior to Mozambique obtaining its independence from Portugal.
27. Operation Paul Bunyan was a response to an event here that began with an attempt to trim a poplar tree and ended in a brutal axe murder. An inability to locate this region led to the capture of most of the participants in the Blue House Raid, while Operation Big Switch was conducted in this area, specifically over the Bridge of No Return, which lies near the world's largest flagpole. Four “Tunnels of Aggression” beneath this area have been unearthed, and its Joint Security Area lies near the site of a famous armistice, Panmunjeom. For 10 points, name this heavily-mined strip of land that crosses the 38th Parallel and serves as a buffer between North and South Korea.
ANSWER: Korean Demilitarized Zone [or DMZ; accept Joint Security Area before mentioned, prompt on things like Korean Border]
27. In one of his works, Horacio learns from fellow members of the Serpent Club that Wong is in the hospital shortly before finding out about Rocamadour’s death. For 10 points each:
 Name this Argentine writer best known for that novel, Rayuela or Hopscotch.
ANSWER: Julio Cortazar
 Although Horacio is Argentine, the first section of Hopscotch is set in this European capital city, where Horacio wanders over bridges like the Pont Neuf.
 This title story of a Cortazar collection was adapted into a film by Michelangelo Antonioni. Its title refers to the enlargement of a photo taken by Robert Michel of a woman trying to seduce a teenage boy.
ANSWER: “Blow-Up” [accept “Las Babas del Diablo” or “The Droolings of the Devil”]
28. One character in this play chants “You cried for night; it falls: now cry in darkness.” That character relates how he used to go to an asylum to visit an insane painter who would look at a beautiful landscape and see nothing but ashes. The main characters repeat the phrase “Me to play” throughout this work, which ends with a character who is unable to sit looking out a window and seeing a boy, then leaving. This play includes an old couple living in garbage bins named Nagg and Nell, and is set in a circular room with an old man in a wheelchair in the center. For 10 points, name this work about Hamm and Clov, a play about death by Samuel Beckett.
ANSWER: Endgame [or Fin de Partie]
28. This man recorded an album that begins with the twenty-minute “Pharaoh’s Dance.” For 10 points each:
 Name this jazz trumpeter who included “Blue in Green” and “So What” on albums like The Birth of the Cool and Kind of Blue.
ANSWER: Miles Davis
 This jazz pianist collaborated with Davis on Bags’ Groove and led a quartet that included John Coltrane. He is best-known for bebop works like “Round Midnight.”
ANSWER: Thelonius Monk
 This jazz pianist plays all of the tracks on that album except for one played by Wynton Kelly. On his own, he is known for tracks like “Funkadello” and “Waltz for Debby.”
ANSWER: Bill Evans
T1. One of this author’s works tells of a father who has his deserter son shot and whose wife will only call him “a certain party”. Another of this author’s works begins when the narrator is hired to take care of a temperamental composer suffering from visions of a floating baby as large as a kangaroo. In addition to The Day He Himself Shall Wipe My Tears Away and “Aghwee the Sky Monster” he wrote novel in which Bird tries to cope with the birth of his child, who has a brain hernia. For 10 points, identify this Japanese author of Nip the Buds, Shoot the Kids, A Personal Matter, and The Silent Cry.
ANSWER: Kenzaburo Oe [accept names in either order]
T2. The presence of phytates in cereals decreases the absorption of this element, which lends its name to large family of DNA binding proteins, whose typical example contains two cysteine and two histidine residues and which resemble fingers. An atom of this element is associated with 3 histidine residues in carbonic anhydrase, and its pyrithione salt is commonly found in anti-dandruff shampoos. Commonly used in galvanization, for 10 points, identify this element with atomic number 30 and symbol Zn.
T3. He was nearly killed when Poppo launched an amphibious landing against him at the Battle of the Boarn. This man sent his forces into Bordeaux upon learning of the death of Odo, and he defeated the Neustrians at Ambleve and Vincy. He supported the missionary work of St. Boniface, and was imprisoned by his father’s widow Plectrude. The illegitimate son of Pippin II, before his death this man divided his kingdom between his sons Pippin III and Carloman. For 10 points, name this Frankish leader known as “the Hammer,” who defeated Muslim forces at the 732 Battle of Tours and was the grandfather of Charlemagne. ANSWER: Charles Martel [or Carolus Martellus; prompt on the Hammer early]
T4. It was founded by George Francis Train, and Aaron Perry served as chief counsel in charge of investigating it. An operation targeting Herbert Hoxie enabled Thomas Durant to gain effective control of this entity, about which Henry Simpson McComby soon after began leaking information. Ultimately, Oakes Ames was censured by the House of Representatives for his role in this scandal, and the Vice President was implicated, though no charges were ever filed against Schuyler Colfax. For 10 points, identify this corruption-plagued finance company that was supposed to finance the building the Union Pacific Railroad during the Grant Administration.
ANSWER: Credit Mobilier [accept Credit Mobilier scandal]
T5. One character in this novel works at Fitzgerald and Moy’s before stealing thousands of dollars and fleeing to Montreal with the protagonist. After the protagonist leaves her sister Minnie and the miserly Hansons, she secures a role in the play Under the Gaslight that presages her later roles as a chorus girl and a famous New York actress. For 10 points, name this work in which George Hurstwood leaves his family for the title character after Charles Drouet sets her up with an apartment, a naturalistic novel about the title member of the Meeber family’s transition from rural life to Chicago, by Theodore Dreiser.
ANSWER: Sister Carrie
T6. The vestibular Schwannoma is a tumor that affects one of these entities. The abducens one is responsible for abduction of the eye, whose internal rotation is facilitated by the trochlear one. The hypoglossal provides motor function to the tongue, while dysphagia results from damage to the vagus one, leading to swallowing problems. Two entities under this classification meet at a chiasm near the hypothalamus, and another controlling senses is the olfactory one. For 10 points, identify these 12 sensory organs found in the head, including the auditory and optic ones.
ANSWER: cranial nerves [prompt on partial answer]
T-Bonus 1. Its decline in the 1380s included the defeat of its leader Tokhtamysh by Tamerlane. For 10 points each:
 Name this Mongol state of southern Russia, which had its capital at Sarai Batu and was named for the color of its founder’s tents.
ANSWER: the Golden Horde [or Kipchak Khanate; or Ulus Juchi]
 This onetime collaborator with the Golden Horde is nonetheless remembered as a hero for his defeat of the Teutonic Knights in the 1242 “massacre on ice,” the Battle of Lake Peipus.
ANSWER: Alexander Nevsky
 Another Russian prince named for a river, this ruler and Vladimir of Moscow defeated the Mongol leader Mamai at the Battle of Kulikovo in 1380.
ANSWER: Dmitry Donskoy
T-Bonus 2. She wrote about a “narrow foot path” between any place and candy in her Cubism-inspired poetry collection Tender Buttons. For 10 points each:
 Name this author, Picasso’s friend and Alice Toklas’ lover, also known for the work Three Lives.
ANSWER: Gertude Stein
 This other French author, despite her three marriages, pursued numerous affairs with women. She is better known for writing Chéri, about a spoiled young man’s affair with the aged prostitute Léa.
ANSWER: Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette
 This cross-dressing French writer is best known for Mauprat and Jeanne, as well as for her friendship with Fryderik Chopin.
ANSWER: George Sand [or Amandine Aurore Dupin]
T-Bonus 3. It is equal to the integral of constant-pressure heat capacity with respect to temperature. For 10 points each:
 Identify this thermodynamic quantity, whose change is equal to the change in internal energy plus the work a system has done on its surroundings, often symbolized H.
 Enthalpy belongs to this class of functions because its change depends only on the initial and final situation, rather than the path needed to arrive there.
ANSWER: state function
 This other state function, symbolized A, is equal to internal energy minus temperature times entropy. It represents the amount of PV work a spontaneous process can do on its surroundings.
ANSWER: Helmholtz free energy