BY JOHN POLLOCK
January 22, 2010
Sometime ago I was asked the following:
Why did the Israelites of the Exodus have to eat manna for forty years when they had all their flocks and herds with them during the years of traveling in the wilderness?
Well, on the surface this seemed like somewhat a simple question to answer. Yet the more research that went into it, more questions came up and the more complex the answer became.
In doing a study on this subject, the first question that I asked myself was "Where do I begin?" It's a pretty wide subject, pretty broad question. The question involved not just the eating of manna, but it included the Exodus itself, the forty years of wandering, other food stuffs that were consumed during the forty years of wandering, and finally a very specific process, a system if you will, that was set up after the Israelites entered the Promised Land.
The answer to this question is extremely interesting and it's multifaceted. Some of what will be presented here today might be viewed as speculative in nature. This information is presented in an effort to help each of us begin to focus on the Spring Holy Days and to begin to focus on our process of self-examination leading up to the Passover, the Passover, which is only—and I say only—twelve weeks away. Now some will say: "Twelve Weeks? That's three full months!" Yet, I guarantee those twelve weeks will go by like a blink of an eye.
In today's message, we're going to talk a great deal about "types." We're going to talk a great deal about types, something that I find very interesting. And I hope we'll add to our greater understanding of God's overall plan of salvation. Again, as Mr. Railston stated, "Not just that plan of salvation for us, but that plan of salvation for all of mankind."
The title of today's sermon is: Manna and the Sacrifices, Both Types of Christ.
So once again, the question presented is:
Why did the Israelites of the Exodus have to eat manna for forty years when they had all of their flocks and herds with them during the years of traveling in the wilderness?
Let's begin by reviewing manna and its appearance to the children of the Exodus. Manna first appears on the scene in Exodus chapter 16. So let's open to the Old Testament, if you would please. Turn, if you would, to Exodus chapter 16 and we'll begin in verse 1.
Exodus 16:1. And they journeyed from Elim, and all the congregation of the children of Israel came to the Wilderness of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month after they departed from the land of Egypt. (NKJ)
Now, verse 2 of Exodus chapter 16:
Exodus 16:2. Then the whole congregation of the children of Israel complained against Moses and Aaron in the wilderness.
3) And the children of Israel said to them, "Oh, that we had died by the hand of the Lord in the land of Egypt, when we sat by the pots of meat and when we ate bread to the full! For you have brought us out into this wilderness to kill this whole assembly with hunger."
4) Then the Lord said to Moses, "Behold, I will rain bread from heaven for you. (NKJ)
So, Brethren, we find here that one month after leaving Egypt the Israelites begin to complain. And their complaints revolved around food, even though we read the following in Exodus chapter 12. So, turn back a few pages to Exodus chapter 12 and we'll read verses 37 through 39. Exodus chapter 12 verse 37:
Exodus 12:37. Then the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand men on foot, besides children.
38) A mixed multitude went up with them also, and flocks and herds—a great deal of livestock.
39) And they baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they had brought out of Egypt; for it was not leavened, because they were driven out of Egypt and could not wait, nor had they prepared provisions themselves. (NKJ)
Well, Brethren, why would they complain about hunger, as we read in Exodus chapter 16 verse 3, when we see here that they had a great deal of livestock and they had unleavened cakes?
Well, let's turn once again, if you would to Exodus 16. Forward a few pages to Exodus chapter 16 and we'll read the entirety of verse 4. Exodus chapter 16, the entirety of verse 4:
Exodus 16:4. Then the Lord said to Moses, "Behold, I will rain bread from heaven for you. And the people shall go out and gather a certain quota every day, that I may test them, whether they will walk in My law or not. (NKJ)
Here we find, Brethren, the first reference to manna as "bread from heaven." Now I want you to make a little side note or a little mental note, if you will. I want you to remember this phrase, "bread from heaven" as we move forward through this particular message. And note that this bread from heaven was introduced to test them. It was introduced to test them.
Now remain here in Exodus chapter 16. We'll begin in verse 5.
Exodus 16:5. "And it shall be on the sixth day that they shall prepare what they bring in, and it shall be twice as much as they gather daily."
6) Then Moses and Aaron said to all the children of Israel, "At evening you shall know that the Lord has brought you [up] out of the land of Egypt.
7) "And in the morning you shall see the glory of the Lord; for He hears your complaints against the Lord. But what are we, that you complain against us?"
8) Also Moses said, "This shall be seen when the Lord gives you meat to eat in the evening, and in the morning bread to [your] full; for the Lord hears your complaints which you make against Him. And what are we? Your complaints are not against us but against the Lord."
9) Then Moses spoke to Aaron, "Say to the congregation of the children of Israel, 'Come near before the Lord, for He has heard your complaints.'" (NKJ)
Now it's interesting here in verse 8 and overlooked by some that in the evening they would be provided with meat and in the morning with bread. The King James Version refers to "meat" as "flesh." It's Strong's number 1320. It's transliterated as basar (baw-sawr') and it means fresh flesh. It means a body.
Let's continued now, dropping down here to verse 12, Exodus 16 verse 12.
Exodus 16:12. "I have heard the complaints of the children of Israel. Speak to them, saying, 'At twilight you shall eat meat, and in the morning you shall be filled with bread. And you shall know that I am the Lord your God.'" (NKJ)
Here in verse 12, we find a confirmation of what we just read in verses 5 through 9. Now verse 13, Exodus 16 verse 13:
Exodus 16:13. So it was that quails came up at evening and covered the camp, and in the morning the dew lay all around the camp.
14) And when the layer of dew lifted, there, on the surface of the wilderness, was a small round substance, as fine as frost on the ground.
15) So when the children of Israel saw it, they said to one another, "What is it?" For they did not know what it was. And Moses said to them, "This is the bread which the Lord has given you to eat. (NKJ)
Exodus 16:17. And the children of Israel did so and gathered, some more, some less. (NKJ)
Exodus 16:22. And so it was, on the sixth day, that they gathered twice as much bread, two omers for each one. And all the rulers of the congregation came and told Moses. (NKJ)
Exodus 16:23. Then he said to them, "This is what the Lord has said: 'Tomorrow is a Sabbath rest, a holy Sabbath to the Lord. Bake what you will bake today, and boil what you will boil; and lay up for yourselves all that remains, to be kept until morning.'" (NKJ)
Dropping down to verse 25:
Exodus 16:25. Then Moses said, "Eat that today, for today is a Sabbath to the Lord; today you will not find it in the field.
26) "Six days you shall gather it, but on the seventh day, which is the Sabbath, there will be none."
27) Now it happened that some of the people went out on the seventh day to gather, but they found none. (NKJ)
Isn't it interesting how carnal humanity continues to defy and test and test and test the Lord?
Exodus 16:28. And the Lord said to Moses, "How long do you refuse to keep My commandments and My laws?
29) "See! For the Lord has given you the Sabbath; therefore He gives you on the sixth day bread for two days. Let every man remain in his place; let no man go out of his place on the seventh day."
30) So the people rested on the seventh day. (NKJ)
Exodus 16:31. And the house of Israel called its name Manna. And it was like white coriander seed, and the taste of it was like wafers made with honey. (NKJ)
The bread from heaven was called "manna." And the test was a test of obedience reinstituting the already established Sabbath.
Dropping down now to verse 35, Exodus 16 verse 35:
Exodus 16:35. And the children of Israel ate manna forty years, until they came to an inhabited land; they ate manna until they came to the border of the land of Canaan. (NKJ)
Here in Exodus chapter 16 the Israelites complained about hunger, wanting to go back to the meat pots of Egypt. We'll see in a moment that this was a very strange desire due to the simple fact that the Israelites while slaves in Egypt, the Israelites—again, while slaves in Egypt—did not have access to these meat pots. The Israelites complained about hunger and God's response was bread from heaven for forty years.
But another question here:
If the only lesson that they were to learn was the acknowledgment of the weekly Sabbath, why then would they have to eat the manna for forty years?
Especially, Brethren, when they had flocks and herds, a great deal of livestock. Why consume manna for forty years? Well, it's a question that we need to answer and we will answer that as we go through this.
Let's turn, if you would please, to Numbers chapter 11. To Numbers chapter 11, we'll begin reading in verse 1 and we'll read verses 1 through 6.
Numbers 11:1. Now when the people complained, it displeased the Lord; for the Lord heard it, and His anger was aroused. So the fire of the Lord burned among them, and consumed some in the outskirts of the camp.
2) Then the people cried out to Moses, and when Moses prayed to the Lord, the fire was quenched.
3) So he called the name of the place Taberah, because the fire of the Lord had burned among them.
4) Now the mixed multitude who were among them yielded to intense craving; so the children of Israel also wept again and said: "Who will give us meat to eat?
5) "We remember the fish which we ate in Egypt, the cucumbers, the melons, the leeks, the onions, and the garlic;
6) "but now our whole being is dried up; there is nothing at all except this manna before our eyes!" (NKJ)
Now this is a different occasion than what was found in Exodus chapter 16. And the proof source is the context itself. Note something here and it supports our observation in Exodus. Note that the Israelites were making an unwarranted reference to the meat pots because as slaves in Egypt, they would not have had access to the meat pots.
But here in Numbers chapter 11 verse 4, we find that the "mixed multitude"—those Egyptians and possibly others of unknown nationality, those who were part of the Exodus who left Egypt with the Israelites—they now provoke the Israelites to complain against the Lord regarding manna. The Egyptians of the mixed multitude were the ones who had access to the meat pots back in Egypt. Not the slaves of Egypt. It was the mixed multitude.
Let's pick it up here in verse 18. Numbers chapter 11, we'll read verses 18 through 21.
Numbers 11:18. "Then you shall say to the people, 'Consecrate yourselves for tomorrow, and you shall eat meat; for you have wept in the hearing of the Lord, saying, "Who will give us meat to eat? For it was well with us in Egypt." Therefore the Lord will give you meat, and you shall eat.
19) 'You shall eat, not one day, nor two days, nor five days, nor ten days, nor twenty days,
20) 'but for a whole month, until it comes out of your nostrils and becomes loathsome to you, because you have despised the Lord who is among you, and have wept before Him, saying, "Why did we ever come up out of Egypt?"'"
21) And Moses said, "The people whom I am among are six hundred thousand men on foot; yet You have said, 'I will give them meat, that they may eat for a whole month.' (NKJ)
The Israelites are prepared to eat meat once again. This shows that the original deliverance of quail found in Exodus was for a limited amount of time—probably only for one day on the implication that we find here in verse 19. That of, "You shall eat not one day."
Now verse 22, if you would; I find this very interesting. Numbers 11 verse 22:
Numbers 11:22. "Shall flocks and herds be slaughtered for them, to provide enough for them? Or shall all the fish of the sea be gathered together for them, to provide enough for them?" (NKJ)
Here Moses questions God as to the flocks and the herds, a great deal of livestock. Moses' question is such that speculatively—it's from a speculative perspective—God may have—and the emphasis is on may—God may have indicated to Moses prior to this time, possibly after leaving Egypt, that the livestock was not to be slaughtered to provide food. Why else would Moses' bring it up at this particular point?
Look here at God's reply in verse 23. Numbers 11 verse 23:
Numbers 11:23. And the Lord said to Moses, "Has the Lord's arm been shortened? Now you shall see whether what I say will happen to you or not." (NKJ)
In other words, Brethren, God's Word will be kept. He, God, would provide the meat and He would provide it for a whole month.
Dropping down to verse 31:
Numbers 11:31. Now a wind went out from the Lord, and it brought quail from the sea and left them fluttering near the camp, about a day's journey on this side and about a day's journey on the other side, all around the camp, and about two cubits above the surface of the ground. (NKJ)
That's a lot of quail!
Numbers 11:32. And the people stayed up all that day, all night, and all the next day, and gathered the quail (he who gathered least gathered ten homers); and they spread them out for themselves all around the camp.
33) But while the meat was still between their teeth, before it was chewed, the wrath of the Lord was aroused against the people, and the Lord struck the people with a very great plague.
34) So he called the name of that place Kibroth Hattaavah, because there they buried the people who had yielded to [the] craving. (NKJ)
Now verse 33 and 34 are most interesting. A great plague and death occurs. Question: Death to whom? Death to whom? Verse 34 states that those "buried are the people who yielded to craving." Who are the people that yielded to the craving? Well, we just read that in verse 4. That it was the mixed multitude whom were among them yielded to intense craving. I personally feel that those struck by the plague here, those who were buried here were the mixed multitude who accompanied the children of Israel as they exited Egypt. Those of whom provoked the children of Israel to complain in the first place.
In addition—and we'll read this in a moment—in Joshua chapter 5 verse 11, we'll read that the Israelites observed the Passover once they were in the Promised Land. Well, the implication, Brethren, being that no one uncircumcised should ever partake of the Passover. The mixed multitude most likely were not circumcised.
What's the spiritual lesson for those of us today? Those of us, who are not spiritual Israel, those who have not repented and been baptized should not participate in the Passover Service as it's outlined in the New Testament.
Here in Numbers 11, God had purpose. He had purpose in showing the Israelites that He—not Moses, not Aaron—but He the Lord, that He would provide and that the provision would be in the form of manna. Not meat as they desired.
But still one asks:
With all the livestock, would God not provide these flocks and these herds for food?
We're now going to move forward in time. Turn, if you would, to Deuteronomy chapter 1 and we'll read the first three verses. Deuteronomy chapter 1 verse 1:
Deuteronomy 1:1. These are the words which Moses spoke to all Israel on this side of the Jordan in the wilderness, in the plain opposite Suph, between Paran, Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth, and Dizahab.
2) It is eleven days' journey from Horeb by way of Mount Seir to Kadesh Barnea.
3) Now it came to pass in the fortieth year, in the eleventh month, on the first day of the month, that Moses spoke to the children of Israel according to all that the Lord had given him as commandments to them, (NKJ)
We find here, Brethren, that the nation of Israel has reached the Jordan River. Moses begins to summarize the penalty for rebellion. He begins to summarize the forty years journey in the wilderness. And he reintroduces the Ten Commandments. The remainder of the Book of Deuteronomy is more review in touching on subjects such as the Passover, Laws concerning obedience, and blessings and cursings. At this point Moses gives a final blessing and Moses dies.
We're now brought to Joshua chapter 1. Turn, if you would please, to Joshua chapter 1 and we'll read the first three verses. Joshua chapter 1 verse 1:
Joshua 1:1. After the death of Moses the servant of the Lord, it came to pass that the Lord spoke to Joshua the son of Nun, Moses' assistant, saying:
2) "Moses My servant is dead. Now therefore, arise, go over this Jordan, you and all this people, to the land which I am giving to them—the children of Israel.
3) "Every place that the sole of your foot will tread upon I have given [to] you, as I said to Moses. (NKJ)
Now if you would please, turn to chapter 3 verse 7, Joshua chapter 3 verse 7:
Joshua 3:7. And the Lord said to Joshua, "This day I will begin to exalt you in the sight of [the Israelites], that they may know that I was with Moses, [and] I will [also] be with you.
8) "You shall command the priests who bear the ark of the covenant, saying, 'When you have come to the edge of the water of the Jordan, you shall stand in the Jordan.'" (NKJ)
Drop down to verse 14, if you would. Joshua chapter 3 verse 14:
Joshua 3:14. So it was, when the people set out from their camp to cross over the Jordan, with the priests bearing the ark of the covenant before the people,
15) and as those who bore the ark came to the Jordan, and the feet of the priests who bore the ark dipped in the edge of the water (for the Jordan overflows all its banks during the whole time of harvest),
16) that the waters which came down from upstream stood still… (NKJ)
Joshua 3:17. Then the priests who bore the ark of the covenant of the Lord stood firm on dry ground in the midst of the Jordan; and all Israel crossed over on dry ground, until all the people had crossed completely over the Jordan. (NKJ)
So now Israel is in the Promised Land. And in chapter 5 verses 10 through 12, we read, Joshua chapter 5 beginning in verse 10:
Joshua 5:10. So the children of Israel camped in Gilgal, and kept the Passover on the fourteenth day of the month at twilight on the plains of Jericho.
11) And they ate of the produce of the land on the day after the Passover, unleavened bread and parched grain, on the very same day.
12) Then the manna ceased on the day after they had eaten the produce of the land; and the children of Israel no longer had manna, but they ate the food of the land of Canaan that year. (NKJ)
The saga of forty years of manna comes to an end at this point. Forty years of consuming bread from heaven is now behind them.
But again, we ask:
Why was it that during the entire forty years, we see no indication that Israel consumed their livestock?
We can assume that the livestock multiplied during the forty years. Well, it's a question that still has to be answered.
Earlier we made mention of a tie between manna and the process or the system that would begin once the children of Israel reached the Promised Land. Well, that process, or that system if you will, is the Levitical Sacrificial System. An overview of the sacrificial system will help us put all of the pieces of the puzzle together in answer to our opening question, but it's still not as simple as one may think.
Sacrifices are first alluded to in Scripture as early as Genesis chapter 4. Let's begin, if you would please, by turning to Genesis chapter 4. It's a story that we all are very, very familiar with and we'll begin in verse 3. Genesis chapter 4 verse 3:
Genesis 4:3. And in the process of time it came to pass that Cain brought an offering of the fruit of the ground to the Lord. (NKJ)
Genesis chapter 4 verse 4:
Genesis 4:4. Abel also brought of the firstborn of his flock and of their fat. And the Lord respected Abel and his offering, (NKJ)
Now the word "offering" found in both these verses is Strong's number 4503. It's transliterated as minchah (min-khaw'). And Brown, Driver, Briggs states the meaning as "a donation, a gift, a grain offering, a tribute, a bloodless sacrificial offering—a bloodless sacrificial offering." According to Englishman's Concordance this word minchah is used two hundred and eleven times throughout the Old Testament.
Here very early in Genesis, we find mention of offerings, but not sacrifices—at least not sacrifices as we would historically understand sacrifices.
The first direct mention of a sacrifice can be found in Genesis, in Genesis chapter 31. So turn, if you would please to Genesis chapter 31, and we'll read verse 54, Genesis 31 verse 54:
Genesis 31:54. Then Jacob offered a sacrifice on the mountain, and called his brethren to eat bread. And they ate bread and stayed all night on the mountain. (NKJ)
Now the word "sacrifice" here is Strong's number 2077, transliterated as zebach (zeh'-bakh). And it means "a slaughter." It means "the flesh of an animal."
We have another question at this point.
Is there a difference between an offering and a sacrifice? Is there a difference between an offering and a sacrifice?
Well, there is. An offering is a contribution given as a gift—a contribution given as a gift. A sacrifice is an offering of an animal, a plant, or a human life to a deity. And it's offered or it's sacrificed as a propitiation. And again, "propitiation" means consolation, appeasement or substitution.
In Genesis chapter 4, Cain and Abel brought offerings to the Lord, but the Hebrew indicates that these were gifts. They were tributes. In Genesis chapter 31 verse 54—we just read—Jacob offered a sacrifice to God in appreciation of the appeasement that was entered into between Laban and himself that neither one would bring harm to one another. As different as these two words are—offering and sacrifice—the two words are used interchangeably. They're used almost as synonyms, but there is a difference.
So we find that offerings and sacrifices are mentioned very early in Scripture and confirmed throughout the entirety of Scripture.
Now I mentioned a moment ago as the children of Israel came into the Promised Land that there was a process or a system set up. There was a sacrificial system set up by God as the nation of Israel entered into the Promised Land. Some refer to this as the "Mosaic Sacrifices," some as the "Aaronic Sacrifices," some as the "Levitical Sacrifices," when in actuality it was a system set in place by God and administered by the Levitical priesthood.
The system was designed by God with the purpose of bringing to the attention of the offerer a particular sinner's uncleanness and the need of showing a means by which one could be forgiven or a means by which one could be cleansed. The Levitical Sacrificial System has a direct tie to our opening question. And that tie will become crystal clear as we continue through. A sacrifice—the presentation to God of a portion of an individual's labors bringing to mind a surrender in the attitude of the offerer—therefore, the offerer (the sinner, the unclean person) laying his or her hands on the head of the animal at each and every sacrifice was symbolic of transferring to the animal the issue that was at hand—the sin that was at hand or the uncleanness that was at hand. We'll see that in a moment as we describe the sacrifices in more detail.
The contents of the Book of Leviticus deal with the sins of the people and the need for forgiveness from those sins. The entirety of Leviticus can be summarized in one Scripture. Turn, if you would to the Book of Leviticus, to chapter 19. We're going to look at one Scripture that could be used to summarize the entirety of the Book of Leviticus. Leviticus chapter 19 verse 2:
Leviticus 19:2. "Speak to all the congregation of the children of Israel, and say to them: 'You shall be holy, for I the Lord your God am holy. (NKJ)
The nation of Israel was to remain holy and that's the purpose of the entire Levitical Sacrificial System in the Book of Leviticus. The nation of Israel was to remain holy, but they sinned and thus, the need for sacrifices.
The sacrifices teach us a great deal. And we'll see in a moment the sacrifices are one aspect of the multifold answer to our opening question.
The sacrificial system or the sacrificial process began with the sinner or unclean person bringing the animal without defect to the priest. The Israelite has raised the animal him or herself or has purchased the animal with their own money or with their own labor. Thus, the animal being offered actually does represent a sacrifice on the part of the offerer.
Now here's what's very interesting in the sacrificial system. The priest does not kill the animal. The Israelite who brought the sacrifice lays his or her hand on the head of the animal and he or she then kills the animal at the entrance into the courtyard of the Tabernacle. This is significant to understand as we move forward. From this point after the animal is slain, by the person who brought the animal, the priest takes over and performs the sacrificial rite.
In the Levitical Sacrificial System, all the sacrifices refer to sin in some way, the need for atonement and fellowship and communication with God. And each of these sacrifices is a type of the Savior of mankind. Each sacrifice in the Levitical System is a type of Jesus Christ.
In Leviticus chapters 1 through 5, we find a description of five basic offerings. Leviticus chapter 1, we find burnt offerings. Chapter 2, we find the grain offerings. Leviticus chapter 3, the peace and fellowship offering; the sin offering in Leviticus 4; and the trespass or guilt offering in Leviticus chapter 5; all of which point to or are a type of Jesus Christ.
Let's take a moment and turn to the New Testament. Let's turn over to Hebrews chapter 10, if you would please. Hebrews chapter 10 and we're going to read verses 4 through 9. Hebrews chapter 10, we'll begin in verse 4. Hebrews chapter 10 verse 4:
Hebrews 10:4. For it is not possible that the blood of bulls and goats could take away sins.
5) Therefore, when He came into the world, He said: "Sacrifice and offering You did not desire, but a body You have prepared for Me.
6) In burnt offerings and sacrifices for sin you had no pleasure.
7) Then I said, 'Behold, I have come—in the volume of the book it is written of Me—to do Your will, O God.' "
8) Previously saying, "Sacrifice and offering, burnt offerings, and offerings for sin You did not desire, nor had pleasure in them" (which are offered according to the law),
9) then He said, "Behold, I have come to do Your will, O God." He takes away the first that He may establish the second. (NKJ)
Included in these verses are the burnt, the grain (sometimes referred to as the "meat" offering), the peace, the sin, and the transgress offerings. Thus, the statement is made here in verse 10 of Hebrews chapter 10, verse 10:
Hebrews 10:10. By that will we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. (NKJ)
All the sacrifices of the Levitical priesthood were a type of Jesus Christ, His one sacrifice, once for all.
Actually, this leads to another question. Hence, another question that can be answered in another sermon: If the Old Testament sacrifices are a type of Christ—which they are—and if Jesus Christ was sacrificed once for all—which He was—then why is it that there will be animal sacrifices in the thousand year period known as the Millennium? Why would there be sacrifices in the Millennium? The Scriptural basis for those statements is found in Ezekiel 43:13, and 18-27, Ezekiel 45 verses 15, 17, 20; and you'll find it elsewhere in your own studies. As I said, it's another question for another sermon.
Back to the sacrifices being a type of Christ. Here we will begin a review of the offerings and reference how each of these offerings is a type of Christ.
I. The Burnt Offering.
Turn, if you would, to Leviticus chapter 1 verse 1. We'll read verses 1 through 9. The first one is the Burnt Offering. We're going to read about the offering and then find how it's a type of Christ. Leviticus chapter 1 verse 1:
Leviticus 1:1. Now the Lord called to Moses, and spoke to him from the tabernacle of meeting, saying,
2) "Speak to the children of Israel, and say to them: 'When any one of you brings an offering to the Lord, you shall bring your offering of the livestock—of the herd and of the flock.
3) 'If his offering is a burnt sacrifice of the herd, let him offer a male without blemish; he shall offer it of his own free will at the door of the tabernacle of meeting before the Lord. (KJV)
Verse 4, listen!
Leviticus 4:4. 'Then he shall put his hand on the head of the burnt offering [he or she], and it will be accepted on his behalf to make atonement for him.
5) 'He [or she] shall kill the bull before the Lord; and the priests, Aaron's sons, shall bring the blood and sprinkle the blood all around on the altar that is by the door of the tabernacle of meeting.
6) 'And he shall skin the burnt offering and cut it into its pieces.
7) 'The sons of Aaron the priest shall put fire on the altar, and lay the wood in order on the fire.
8) 'Then the priests, Aaron's sons, shall lay the parts, the head, and the fat in order on the wood that is on the fire upon the altar;
9) 'but he shall wash its entrails and its legs with water. And the priest shall burn all on the altar as a burnt [offering], an offering made by fire, a sweet aroma to the Lord. (NKJ)
Now the Hebrew word here for "burnt offering" is `olah (o-law'), Strong's number 5930. And it means "whole burnt offering." It means "ascending" because in this particular sacrifice all of the animal, less the hide, all of the animal was consumed in this particular sacrifice and the smoke rose upwards. The animals of other sacrifices were only partially consumed on the altar.
The Burnt Offering symbolizes the entire surrender to God of the individual offerer or of the entire congregation.
The Burnt Offering was presented on the following occasions—we're going to reference a lot of Scriptures here. Jot them down and please in your own time go back and study them.
The daily offering, every morning and evening (Exodus 29:38-42, as well as Numbers 28:3-8)
The burnt offering occurred each Sabbath and there were two burnt offerings (we find that in Numbers 28:9-10)
New Moon, Passover, Feast of Weeks, Trumpets, Atonement, and each day of the Feast of Tabernacles and the Last Great Day (references for those are Numbers 28:11, and Numbers 29:39)
Also there were special burnt offerings that were required:
at the consecration of a priest (Exodus 29:15, Leviticus 8:18, and Leviticus 19:12)
at the purification of women after childbirth (Leviticus 12:6-8)
at the cleansing of lepers (Leviticus 14:19)
for the removal of ceremonial uncleanness (Leviticus 15:15-30)
The Burnt Offering was needed in case of an accidental breach of a Nazarite vow or at the conclusion of a Nazarite vow (we find that in Numbers 6:11, 14)
In addition to these there were the freewill Burnt Offerings on solemn occasions such as dedications.
The Burnt Offerings involved various types of livestock. They included various types of flocks. And each one is a type of Christ. Let's look at some of these. How are they a type of Christ?
The ox that would be used in a Burnt Offering, the ox shows Christ's strength as our Savior. We find that in Numbers chapter 23 verse 22.
The sheep, a type of Christ, in that it is unresisting as well as Christ is unresisting in the face of death. That clearly comes out in Isaiah chapter 53 verse 7.
The goat typifies a sinner and, when used for Christ, shows Him as "one who was numbered with the transgressors" (Isaiah 53:12, Mark 15:28, and in Christ's own words reflecting upon Himself in Luke 22:37).
The turtledove or the pigeon was also used in the Burnt Offerings. And they are a type of Christ in that it shows Christ's innocence and His humility. And we find that in Hebrews chapter 7 verse 26, Leviticus 5:7, and Philippians 2:6-8.
II. The second sacrifice is that of the Grain Offering, sometimes referred to as the "meat" offering, which you find in Leviticus chapter 2 verses 1 through 11.
And also for the sake of time, I'm only going to reference the Scriptures for the following sacrifices. Please jot them down, and again, please study them in your own time.
So the Grain Offering or the Meat Offering: the Grain Offering was made of flour, oil, frankincense, and salt. And there was no sacrifice in the sense of a life being offered up.
The Grain Offering was in recognition of God providing the riches of the blessings from the earth, grains being the main support of life, grains being the staff of life.
Oil was offered as a symbol of the rich blessings and is symbolic that those blessings come from God through God's holy spirit.
Frankincense was offered depicting a very precious enduring and delightful fragrance—significance here of that of Christ.
The Grain Offering was put on the fire, symbolic of Christ's fiery trial as humanity's total Savior.
The fourth ingredient in the grain offering was that of salt—salt being an emblem of perpetuity and incorporation.
Also note that this offering was to be made without leaven—leaven, of course, being a type of corruption; leaven being a type of sin.
The Grain Offering was presented as follows:
The daily Meal Offering of the high priest (Leviticus 6:14)
The Meal Offering at the consecration of priests (Leviticus 6:20)
The Meal Offering in substitution of the animal offering as a sin offering in the case of poverty (Leviticus 5:11-12)
A Meal Offering in the case of a husband's jealousy of his adulterous wife. We find that in Numbers 5 verses 11 through 15.
The Grain Offering is a type of Christ as follows: the fine flour devoid of leaven, of course, represents Christ's sinless life.
The fire itself is His testing by suffering for each and every one of us.
The frankincense symbolizes the sweet aroma of His life to His Father.
The oil is a type of His human conception by the holy spirit.
The Third Sacrifice is:
III. The Peace Offering, Leviticus chapter 3 verses 1-17.
In the ritual, the offerer led the animal to the altar. And, as with all of the sacrifices, the offerer laid his hands on the head of the unblemished ox or small cattle and then killed it. The fat parts were then burned on the altar. The breast and right shoulder were separated—the shoulder being laid aside as the portion for the priest. The breast was waved or elevated to God. The rest of the meat belonged to the offerer as food.
The Peace Offering is a type of Jesus Christ in that Christ is our peace. We find that in Colossians 1:20 and Ephesians 2:14-17. In fact, let's go ahead and take a moment and turn over to Ephesians chapter 2 verse 14, if you will. We'll see that this Peace Offering is a type of Jesus Christ because He is our peace. Ephesians chapter 2 verse 14:
Ephesians 2:14. For He Himself is our peace, who has made both one, and has broken down the middle wall of separation,
15) having abolished in His flesh the enmity, that is, the law of commandments contained in ordinances, so as to create in Himself one new man from the two, thus making peace,
16) and that He might reconcile them both to God in one body through the cross, thereby putting to death the enmity.
17) And He came and preached peace to you who were afar off and to those who were near. (NKJ)
Now the reference is made here of "both one," the reference to "making both one," "reconciling them together." Those references found in verses 11 through 13, those are with regards to the uncircumcised and the circumcised and Christ breaking down the wall of circumcised or the uncircumcised—salvation not just to the Jew, but the Gentile also.
The Fourth Sacrifice is:
IV. The Sin Offering. We find that in Leviticus 4.
And I'm going through so many Scriptures because there's a purpose behind all this which we'll get to here in a moment.
Leviticus chapter 4 is where you find the Fourth Sacrifice, the Sin Offering. This offering was special to unintentional sins. In other words, sin committed in error or committed through ignorance and/or carelessness as opposed to sins which were deliberately done in acts of rebellion, if you will, against God's Commandments. This offering was made seeking forgiveness from the sin on the part of the offerer. The laying on the hands was to note that the sin, again, was being transferred to the animal. The kind or type of animal used in the sacrifice depended upon the type of sin itself.
A young bullock for the sin of the whole congregation (Leviticus 4:13)
A young bullock was used if it was a sin of the high priest (Leviticus 4:3)
A young bullock on the Day of Atonement (Leviticus 16:3)
A young bullock for the consecration of the priests (Exodus 29:10, 14:35, and Numbers 8:7-14)
A he goat was offered on New Moon and Annual Feasts (Numbers 28:15, 22, 30, and Numbers 29:5, 11, 16, 19)
A he goat at the Dedication of the Temple (Numbers 7:16, Ezra 6:17)
A he goat if a ruler had sinned (Leviticus 4:23)
A she goat for the sins of the common people (Leviticus 4:27, 28, 32, 5:6)
A she lamb of a year old for the cleansing of a leper (Leviticus 14:10, 19)
A she lamb of a year old when a Nazarite was released from a vow (Numbers 6:14)
A pigeon or a turtle dove purifying a woman after childbirth (Leviticus 12:6)
A pigeon or a turtle dove for the issues of blood (Leviticus 15:14-29)
A pigeon or a turtle dove if a Nazarite touched a dead body (Numbers 6:10)
A pigeon or a turtle dove if the sinner was poor (Leviticus chapter 5:7)
The sin offering was a type of Jesus Christ in that the sin offering represented Christ's atonement for sin. Let's turn to Hebrews chapter 13, if you would, to Hebrews chapter 13. We'll read verses 11 and 12. Hebrews chapter 13 verse 11:
Hebrews 13:11. For the bodies of those animals, whose blood is brought into the sanctuary by the high priest for sin, are burned outside the camp.
12) Therefore Jesus also, that He might sanctify the people with His own blood, suffered outside the gate. (NKJ)
The sin offering showed Christ as standing in the sinner's place. The sin offering was a type of Jesus Christ's death as we find in Isaiah chapter 53, Psalm chapter 22, and 1 Peter chapter 2 verse 24.
The Fifth Sacrifice is:
V. The Trespass Offering or the Guilt Offering.
We find that in Leviticus chapter 5 verse 15. Similar to the Sin Offering, the Trespass Offering was made for special offenses. The Trespass Offering was a ram. We find that in Leviticus chapter 5 verse 15. The Trespass Offering covered the following offenses:
Ignorant transgression, similar to a Sin Offering, but in regards to a sin of any definite prohibition within the Law (we find that in Leviticus 5:17)
Fraud or perjury against a neighbor (that's found in Leviticus 6:2)
Rape of a slave (Leviticus 19:20-22)
Purification of a Nazarite (Numbers 6:12)
The Trespass Offering is a type of Christ in that this offering shows Christ's anointing for the damage caused by sin and has an aspect towards the injury that the sin delivered as opposed to the guilt that the sin delivered.
Now in addition to these five main sacrifices, there was the Red Heifer Offering. When a person became ceremonially unclean by contact with an unclean animal or person, or by contact with a dead body, he or she was required to go through a ritual cleansing. This purification offering was composed of running water and the ashes of a red heifer. We find that in Numbers chapter 19.
The Red Heifer Offering was a heifer without blemish, never yoked, and it was slaughtered outside the camp. The son of the high priest dipped his finger into the blood and sprinkled it seven times towards the sanctuary. The heifer was burned. A man who was free of defilement gathered the ashes and carried them to the clean place—still outside the camp—where they were stored until they needed.
When someone needed to have the purification performed on him or her, a man who himself was free from sin took some of the stored ashes, put them in a vessel, and poured fresh water over them. He dipped the hyssop into the ash and water mixture and sprinkled the person three days after the uncleanness had been contracted, and again seven days after the incident.
The Red Heifer Offering is called a "sin offering" in Numbers chapter 19 verses 9 through 17 and is a type of Christ's offering as follows:
The slain of the sacrifice itself is analogous with Christ's sacrifice for all of humanity.
The son of the high priest was involved, Christ being the Son of His Father.
The sevenfold sprinkling of blood is a type of Christ's shedding of blood for the complete putting away for the penalty of sin. Seven, of course, being the number of completion.
The storing of ashes, a type of the continual acts of sin throughout all of man's history which are atoned by the death of Christ.
The cleansing, by sprinkling the person with the mixture of ashes and water, is a type of the holy spirit (the water, if you will) and the ashes represent Christ's sacrifice.
In summary, we've reviewed Burnt Offerings, Grain Offerings, Peace Offerings, Sin Offerings, Trespass Offerings, and the Red Heifer Offering.
The sacrifices and the number of animals sacrificed were numerous. For the sake of time, I'm going to list the animals to be sacrificed during these offerings, even though there were other ingredients in the sacrifices such as wheat, flour, oil, etc. What follows is a number of animals sacrificed in the Levitical System. I want us to grasp this.
The Daily Offering, morning and night, one yearling lamb for a Burnt Offering morning and night.
The Sabbath Day offering, two yearling lambs—this in addition to the Daily Offering.
New Moon Offering, two young bullocks, one ram, seven lambs, plus the Daily Offering (one lamb in the morning, one in the evening).
At the Passover, one kid, a lamb or goat, plus the Daily Sacrifice.
The Feast of Unleavened Bread, the Daily Offering was each of the seven days of the Unleavened Bread plus one goat for a Sin Offering each of the seven days, plus two young bullocks, one ram, and seven yearling lambs for a Burnt Offering, each of the seven days.
Feast of Weeks, one kid goat for a Sin Offering, two young bullocks, one ram and seven yearling lambs as a Burnt Offering, plus the Daily Sacrifice of one lamb in the morning and one lamb in the evening.
At the Feast of Trumpets, the Daily and New Moon Sacrifices were offered plus one bullock, one ram, and seven yearling lambs as a Burnt Offering, plus one kid goat for a Sin Offering.
Day of Atonement, one bullock as a Sin Offering for the priesthood, one ram as a Burnt Offering for the priesthood, two goats as a Sin Offering for the people, and one ram for a Burnt Offering for the people, plus one young bullock, one ram, and seven lambs, plus the Daily Offerings.
At the Feast of Tabernacles and the Last Great Day, there were different combinations of offerings made on each of the eight days. There were a total of seventy-one bullocks, fifteen rams, a hundred and five lambs, and eight goats offered during the Feast.
Taking into consideration the Daily, the Sabbath, the New Moon, and the Holy Day Offerings, we come up with the following total of sacrifices annually.
I want you to consider the staggering total of 1,246 animal sacrifices. On an average, Brethren, that's nearly three and a half animals a day, 365 days a year. And this does not count the sacrifices and the offerings for personal sins and uncleanness of the children of Israel.
Question: What did the children of Israel number as they entered the Promised Land?
I don't know. Every sin of the children of Israel as they entered the Promised Land required a sacrifice. Every act of uncleanliness required a sacrifice. The sacrificial system was an extremely bloody and costly system involving many, many thousands of animals each year.
It was designed by God to teach several important lessons, all pointing directly to or are a type of Christ. Some of the lessons are these as follows:
That the result of sin is death. The death of each animal being a vivid reminder of that fact.
That the process by which sin is purged is a costly and a bloody one.
That access to God requires a pardon for sin. Only those who live righteously can have a relationship with God.
That God Himself would pay a huge price at some time in the future, meaning the sacrifice of His only Son.
That a sinner can be forgiven if he or she presents a prescribed offering. In our case today: repentance.
So where are we in this particular message? And have we yet answered our opening question?
Well, we have reviewed manna and its meaning. We have come to an understanding that sacrifices were in place very early, as early as Genesis chapter 4 and the offerings made by Cain and Abel. We have seen that Jacob sacrificed. We have reviewed the Levitical Sacrificial System and how each sacrifice was a type of or a sacrifice that pointed directly to Jesus Christ.
Yet, we've not answered our opening question. And by now, if you haven't already, by now you're asking yourselves:
What does manna and the Levitical Sacrificial System have to do with Israelites eating manna for forty years when they had access to all of their livestock while they were wandering?
Everything we've covered to this point is information by which we can make a multifaceted speculative answer to our question—and it's multi-faceted.
In answer to our opening question, consider the following:
First, the nation of Israel as they left Egypt brought with them flocks, herds, a great deal of livestock.
Second, based on Moses' statement found in Numbers 11:22, there is indication that God may have—and I emphasize may have—may have instructed the children of the Exodus not to consume their flocks for the flocks' and herds' offspring would have to be used for a purpose that God had in mind forty years down the road.
Third, the nation of Israel ate manna and on two separated occasions ate quail for a specific purpose: 1) a spiritual lesson in the observance of the weekly Sabbath, the other in the observance of an attitude adjustment.
Fourth, the Levitical Sacrificial System itself had a need of an animal base to draw from for its victims.
So what's the answer to our question? The question once again is:
Why did the Israelites of the Exodus have to eat manna when they had all of their flocks and herds with them during the forty years of traveling in the wilderness?
The answer, Brethren, is fivefold—fivefold.
First, manna was given as a staple. Staple meaning: the chief part of something.
a) as a staple regarding a sign reinstituting the weekly Sabbath; thus, a spiritual staple
b) manna was given to teach reliance on God
c) manna was provided to teach obedience to God's Commands and
d) manna was given simply as a food source.
Secondly, the quail was presented on two separate occasions.
a) to show the nation of Israel that God does hear lamenting and
b) to teach the children of Israel to rely more on God than to rely on man or rely on themselves.
Third, with the vast number of peoples, the flocks and herds probably could not supply enough meat over the course of forty years due to the limited reproductive ability of the livestock.
Fourth, it is necessary to understand that in the culture of that day during that period of history livestock was considered to be one's "savings account." And Israel would have need of their savings once they entered into the Promised Land as a bartering system among themselves, as well as a bartering system among the inhabitants of Canaan.
Fifth, herds and flocks were part of the Exodus from Egypt as God had a great purpose in mind as a source of animal flesh for the thousands upon thousands upon thousands of animals that would be required forty years down the road in the Levitical Sacrificial System upon entrance into the Promised Land.
In closing, consider:
Manna, like bread, sustained a physical existence—life. But manna, like bread, does not guarantee life.
Let me restate that.
Manna, like bread, sustained a physical existence—sustained a physical life. But manna, like bread, does not guarantee life.
All the sacrifices of the Levitical priesthood were a type of Jesus Christ. Each pointed to the Son of God, the Savior of mankind. Just as the God of the Old Testament sustained Israel for forty years with the bread from heaven—manna—the sacrifices pointed to Jesus Christ. They were a type of Christ, Jesus sustaining and guaranteeing a spiritual existence, spiritual life. As the sacrifices were a type of Christ, so was manna, the bread from heaven, a type of Christ.
Let's turn to the Gospel of John, John chapter 6. Begin reading in verse 31, John chapter 6 verse 31. As the sacrifices were a type of Christ, so was manna, the bread from heaven, a type of Christ. John chapter 6 verse 31:
John 6:31. "Our fathers ate the manna in the desert; as it is written, 'He gave them bread from heaven to eat.'" (NKJ)
Verse 32 of John chapter 6:
John 6:32. Then Jesus said to them, "Most assuredly, I say to you, Moses did not give you the bread from heaven, but My Father gives you the true bread from heaven.
33) "For the bread of God is He who comes down from heaven and gives life to the world."
34) Then they said to Him, "Lord, give us this bread always."
35) And Jesus said to them, "I am the bread of life. He who comes to Me shall never hunger, and he who believes in Me shall never thirst.
36) "But I said to you that you have seen Me and yet do not believe.
37) "All that the Father gives Me will come to Me, and the one who comes to Me I will by no means cast out.
38) "For I have come down from heaven, not to do My own will, but the will of Him who sent Me.
39) "This is the will of the Father who sent Me, that of all He has given Me I should lose nothing, but should raise it up at the last day.
40) "And this is the will of Him who sent Me, that everyone who sees the Son and believes in Him may have everlasting life; and I will raise him up at the last day." (NKJ)
Dropping down now to verse 47, John chapter 6 verse 47:
John 6:47. "Most assuredly, I say to you, he who believes in Me has everlasting life. (NKJ)
John 6:48. "I am the bread of life.
49) "Your fathers ate the manna in the wilderness, and are dead.
50) "This is the bread which comes down from heaven, that one may eat of it and not die.
51) "I am the living bread which came down from heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever; and the bread that I shall give is My flesh, which I shall give for the life of the world." (NKJ)
And now verse 58:
John 6:58. "This is the bread which came down from heaven—not as your fathers ate the manna, and are dead. He who eats this bread will live forever." (NKJ)
Manna, the bread from heaven, sustained physical life. Jesus Christ—bread from heaven—guarantees spiritual life.
The Levitical Sacrificial System, a type of Christ, taught that through the shed blood of animals, the result of sin was death. The result of sin today is still death, but due to the sacrifice, due to the shed blood of Jesus Christ, repented of sin is forgiven and we have an opportunity for life eternal.
Thus the manna of the Old Testament and the Levitical Sacrificial System both point to and are a type of Jesus the Christ, the spiritual bread from heaven that guarantees spiritual life. Jesus Christ, the sacrificial Lamb of not just those within the spiritual body of Christ at this time, Brethren, but the Savior of all of mankind.
Transcribed by kb February 22, 2011