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Magnoliaceae the magnolia family General: 100, primative, woody Leaves

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Magnoliaceae - the magnolia family

General: 100, primative, woody

Leaves: simple, spirally arranged, evergreen, stipulate (enclosed bud & girdles twig)

Inflor: solitary, terminal, long axis

Flower: large, regular, undifferentiated perianth, apocarpal

3-many = 3-many = many = many

//spiral, filament short, broad flat connective/spiral, apocarpal, purse-like marginal placentation

Fruit: aggregate of follicles or achenes

Uses: hardwood (Liriodendron), ornamental (Magonolia)


Magnolia (#90B)
Malvaceae - the mallow family

General: 1500, diverse habit

Leaves: alternate spiral, simple, stipulate, narrow

Inflor: bracteate (often pseudocalyx), axillary, often cyme

Flower: regular, complete

[5] = {5}> = [many] = [(3-)5(-10)]

valvate in bud/often large, imbricate/monodelphous, unilocular/superior; branched, disks at stigma

Fruit: capsule, seeds comose

Uses: fiber (cotton), food (okra), ornimental (hibiscus)


Hibiscus syriacus (#91A)

"Rose of Sharon"

Oleaceae - the olive family

General: 500, mostly woody, flattened nodes

Leaves: opposite, simple or comp., evergreen or decid.

Inflor: cyme or thyrse (cymose panacle)

Flower: regular, most perfect, very fragrant

[4] = [(0-)4]> = 2 = [2]

/connate at base/epipetalous, clamped to style/superior, axile, 2 ovules per locule

Fruit: drupe, some capsule or samara (ash)

Uses: oils (olive), ornamental (lilac, forsythia), hardwood (ash); also privet


Chionanthus virginicus (#99A)

"Grandpa's beard"

Fabaceae - the legume family

General: largest dicot family, all habits

Leaves: alternate, simple or compound, stipulate, pulviner swelling at petiole base

Inflor: varous

Flower: perfect or monoecious or dioecious, often papillionaceous

[(4-)5] = {(0-)5} = {(5-)10(-many)} = 1

//9:1 diadelphos or distinct or monodelphos/superior,marginal placentation

Fruit: 2 valved pod sometimes single-seeded

Uses: most important to people, food (beans), N-fixation, lumber, ornamental (redbud); also locust, yellow-wood, alfalfa


Robinia hispida (#85K)

"bristly locust"

Cannabaceae - the hemp (formerly part of Moraceae) family

General: small family, herbaceous fibrous herbs or vines

Leaves: alternate, palmately compound or lobed, small stipules

Inflor: cymose or compact cymose panacle

Flower: dioecious, male: bracts subtend flowers, female: less symmetric, 1 fused bract covers fruit

male: 4(-5), female: [4(-5)] = 0 = 4(-5) = [2]

//cannabinol glands on connective/superior, one ovule, short style

Fruit: nut

Uses: food (hops), drugs (marijuana), rope


Cannabis sativa (#95A)


Liliaceae - the lily family

General: 4000, monocot, bulbs, rhizomes, some corms, most herbs

Leaves: various arrangements, usually simple, no stipules

Inflor: various

Flower: large, regular

3 = 3 = 6 = [3]

often tepals///superior, axile placentation w/ 3 locules

Fruit: capsule, berry

Uses: food (onion, asparagus), ornamental (lilies, tulips, hyacinth, dog-toothed violet), medicinal. (note woody ex: greenbiar=Smilax, yucca); also Trillium


Ornithogalum umbellatum (#161F)

"star of Bethleham"

Amaranthaceae - the amaranth family

General: weedy plants, mostly herbs, some desert

Leaves: opposite or alternate, simple, no stipules

Inflor: dense panacles of cymes, globes or axillary

Flower: small, "chaffy" bracts and sepals, wind pollinated, often unisexual

(4-)5 = 0 = [(4-)5] = [2-3]

similar to bracts//connate filaments, staminal "corona"/superior, thin walled, 1 basal ovule,

Fruit: utricle (bladder), circumsessile dehis. (or irreg or none)

Uses: nutritious seed by some indigenous groups; also pigweed, tumbleweed


Amaranthus hybridus (#30B)

"smooth pigweed"

Onagraceae - the evening primrose family

General: 100s, usually herb to shrub

Leaves: alternate or opposite, usually compound, no stipules

Inflor: axillary cymes, panacles, "coils"

Flower: most bisexual, most complete (some missing petals)

[4(-5)]> = [(0,)4(-5)]> = 4(-5) or 8(-10) = [4]

prominant perianth tube/zygomorphic or regular//inferior, stigma distinctly lobed

Fruit: capsule, seeds >= carpels

Uses: ornimental (primrose, fuschia), aquarium plants, genetic tool


Oenothera speciosa (#100D)

"white evening-primrose"

Rosaceae - the rose family

General: 1000's, various habits, annual/perenial, has HCN (Prunus), apomyxis common

Leaves: alternate, stipules (may be decid. or spiny), usually pinnately compound

Inflor: all types

Flower: cup or saucer-shaped hypanthium, perianth and stamens break off rim

5 = (0,)5 = many = 1-many

/large to vestigal/distinct/separate to joined, inferior to superior

Fruit: various: drupe, follicle, capsule, achene, accessory fruits, pome

Uses: food (apple, peach, plum, pear, apricots, almonds, cherries, strawberry), wood (Prunus), wildlife cover (m.f. rose); also Crataegus


Rosa multiflora (#113A)

"multiflora rose"

Rubiaceae - the madder family

General: 1000's, various habits

Leaves: opposite or whorled, usually stipulate, usually entire

Inflor: various, but cyme variations to panacles, solitary, heads; some brilliant bracts

Flower: perfect, complete

[4] = [4]> = 4 = [2]

/usually regular/alternate with corolla lobes/axile, inferior

Fruit: capsule, berry, pseudodrupe (2 ovules fused into stone)

Uses: beverage (coffee), medicine (quinine), ornimental (gardinia); also buttonweed


Ixora coccinea (#114B)
Araceae - the arum family

General: 2000, herbaceous monocots or vines, look like dicots, tubors or corms

Leaves: alternate, simple or compound with clasping petiole base

Inflor: spadix surrounded by spathe

Flower: tiny, unisex, dense, perianth reduced to scales

3-6 scales = = 2-6 = 1-several

///imbeded in spadix

Fruit: berry to drupe, some edible

Uses: ornimental (philadendron, cana lilly, "vodoo plant"=stinks), food (taro root if Ca oxalate cooked). Also: jack-in-the-pulpit


Arisaema dracontium (#154A)

"green dragon"

Asclepiadaceae - the milkweed family

General: various habits, most herbs, milky sap

Leaves: usually opposite, usually simple and entire, some chordate

Inflor: umbel, some cyme or monochasium

Flower: regular, complete, complex

[5] = 5> = [5] = 2

connate at base/usually bright, has hoods and corona/pollen in polynia (packets)/5 stigmas, superior

Fruit: follicle from two inflated carpels, seeds comose

Uses: stuffing from seed hairs. Also: Stopelia


Asclepias virdis (#36F)

"Ozark milkweed"

Solanaceae - the nightshade family

General: 3000+, all habits

Leaves: alternate, no stipules, simple or deeply divided

Inflor: axillary, cyme variations to solitary, helicoid

Flower: perfect, regular

[5] = [5]> = 5 = [2]

/funnel or salverform/longit. or poricidal dehis./superior, axile (maybe false septation)

Fruit: usually berry, some capsule

Uses: food (tomato, peppers, tobacco, potato, eggplant), medicine (atropine from belladona). Also: jimson weed


Physalis longifolia (#123C)

"longleaf ground cherry"

Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae) - the parsley family

General: 3000+, all herbs, chr. smell

Leaves: alternate, highly dissected, no stipules, clasping petiole base

Inflor: simple or compound umbel often with involucre, some heads

Flower: most perfect and regular

[5] = 5 = 5 = 2

tiny lobes/"clawed", some cuplike//inferior, stylopodium (platform) atop ovary, 2 style branches

Fruit: schizocarp

Uses: food (celery, carrots, parsley, dill), poison (Conium="hemlock")

Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae)

Chaerophyllum tainturieri (#133L)
Campanulaceae - the bell flower family

General: 1500, usually herb, some aquatic

Leaves: opp,alt,basal, simple, no stipules

Inflor: various

Flower: regular and irregular

[5]> = [5] = 5 = [2]

connate/connate, some fenistrate/can be syngenesious/inferior, may be bilobed

Fruit: capsule, many seeds

Uses: ornamental (blue bell, cardinal flower), drugs (lobelene=nicotine subst.)


Lobelia spicata (#42C)
Anacardiaceae - the cashew family

General: 600,all woody,resinous bark,wood,leaves,fruit,tree / shrub

Leaves: alternate, simple or pinnately compound, no stipules

Inflor: cymes or pannicle of cymes,or axillary clusters

Flower: complete, small, regular,usually perfect

[5] = 5 = 5(-10) = [3]

//off interstaminal disk/stigma usually 3 lobed,superior, 1 locule, one ovule (reduction), basal

Fruit: drupe

Uses: food (cashews, pistachios, mangos), varnish. Also sumac, poison ivy.


Cotinus obovatus (#31C)

"smoke tree"

Chenopodiaceae - the goosefoot family

General: 1000+,most succulant,dry or salt adapted

Leaves: often reduced or scalelike, alternate, no stipules

Inflor: cymose to panacle of cymes

Flower: small

5 = 0 = 5 = 2-3

sometimes cuplike hypanthium,can be crested//opp. sepals,off rim/superior

Fruit: flattened nut, coiled embryo

Uses: food w/high lysine (chenopodium),spinach,beets incl. sugar


Chenopodium album (#47B)

"lamb's quarters or pigweed"

Elaeagnaceae - the oleaster family

General: 45-50,woody,whole plant densly covered with lepidote (or stellate lepidote) trichomes for water conservation

Leaves: simple, often entire, alt. or opp., often evergreen, no stip.

Inflor: axillary clusters: umbels, cymes, or solitary

Flower: very fragrent, fall blooming, perfect, regular, tubular or campanulate, small

[4(-5)] = 0 = [4(-5)] or [8(-10)] = 1

may be hypanth.//off hypanthium rim, can be in 2 cycles/superior, curved stigma

Fruit: single seeded pseudodrupe (nut enveloped by hypan.)

Uses: ornamen.,eros. contr.,bird fruit. Also: Span. moss,bromeliads


Elaeagnus angustifolia (#68A)

"Russian olive"

Bignoniaceae - the trumpet-creeper family

General: 1000, tropical, woody trees, shrubs, vines

Leaves: compound, opposite or whorled, no stipules, can be converted to tendrils

Inflor: axillary compound cymes, or terminal panicles

Flower: often perfect, irregular, large

[(2-)5] = [(2-)5]> = (5-)4-2 = 2

/bilabiate:2 upper 3 lower/often didinomous,1 stamenodia/super.,long style,2 lobed laminar stig, axile,massive central placenta

Fruit: septated pod or winged comose seeds

Uses: ornamen.,cabinet(tropic.),fence post (catalpa) Also:jacaranda


Bignonia capreolata (#39B)


Iridaceae - the iris family

General: 1500+,monocot,mostly perenial herbs,corm,bulb,rhizome

Leaves: equitant distichous, long, narrow, basal,no stipules

Inflor: scapose,spathes or compounds of spathes

Flower: reg or irreg,perfect, often large

3 = 3 = 3 = 3

may be tepals//epiperianth/inferior,long style,3 stigma branches,may be petaloid and showy, axile

Fruit: usually capsule (or berry)

Uses: ornamental (iris, gladiolus,crocus=perianth underground), food dye (saffron)


Sisyrinchium albidum (#160 M)

"blue-eyed grass"

Ulmaceae - the elm family

General: 150, woody

Leaves: alternate, simple, deciduous, distichous, oblique, doubly serrate, petiolate, stipulate

Inflor: various, usually axillary (cymose)

Flower: unisexual or perfect, regular or irregular

{4-5-12} = 0 = 4-12 = 2

//equal to sepals/superior, one ovule per carpel

Fruit: samara with surrounding wing (elm) or drupe (hackberry)

Uses: landscaping, strong bendable w/long phloem fibers, i.e. tennis racket (elm)


Ulmus americana (#F1)

"American elm"

Aceraceae - the maple family





= = =





Acer rubrum (#F2)

"red maple"

Aceraceae - the maple family

General: woody, shrubs and trees, deciduous temperate

Leaves: opposite, usually simple, palmate veination, no stipules

Inflor: cyme, raceme, umbel

Flower: regular, functionally dioecious, monecious, or perfect

[(4-)5(-8)] = 0 or (4-)5(-8) = (4-)5(-8) or (8-)10(-16) = 2

joined some at base//on a disk/2 linear stigmas on one style, lobed superior ovary, axile

Fruit: 2 winged double samara, 2 ovules form one seed

Uses: durable shock-proof wood, syrup, ornamental, filter charcoal


Acer saccharinum (#F3)

"silver maple"

Taxaceae - the yew family

General: 13, gymnosperm, woody, shrubs to small trees

Leaves: alternate spiral, flattened subulate needle w/ decurrent base, appears distichous, pale stomatal bands below leaf

Inflor: mostly dioecious

Flower: male cone: on short shoot from round bud, produces type of lobed peltate sporophylls, female cone: bud-like "storbilis" (specialized leaf?) w/ scales, smooth tip w/ hole to emit pollination droplet

= = =


Fruit: arilate, bright red fleshy cup around single erect ovule

Uses: ornamental, high quality, pliable lumber, bows, taxol


Taxus (#F4)


Taxodiaceae - the bald cypress or redwood family

General: 16, gymnosperm, all tree or shrub, dimorphic branches: woody and (often) decidious branchlet, no resin ducts in wood (less flamable)

Leaves: short, from branchlets, bald cypress=dimorphic: spiral subulate leaves, w/compound shootlike leaves in axil which absciss

Inflor: monoecious, cones sometimes aggregated like catkins, or heads

Flower: male cone: peltate w/ 2-9 sporangia per scale, female cone: complex, round, (often) peltate scales, pollination droplets between scales, can be woody

= = =



Uses: durable insect and fungi resistant wood (redwood), also: sequoia, metasequoia


Taxodium distichum (#F5)

"bald cypress"

Caprifoliaceae - the honeysuckle family

General: all habits, most woody

Leaves: opposite, simple or compound, (like Rubiaceae but) no stipules

Inflor: cyme modifications (perianth of 2 flrs can be joined)

Flower: regular (Viburnum) or zygomorphic (Lonicera)

[5] = [5]> = 5 = 1-3-5

tube//versatile, epipetalous/inferior, stigma can be lobed, axile

Fruit: berry, drupe, or capsule

Uses: ornimental, game browse, problem exotic. Also Viburnum, elderberry?


Lonicera fragrantissima (#L6)

"bush honeysuckle"

Scrophulariaceae - the snapdragon family

General: 1000s, most herbs to woody, some parasites, stems sometimes square

Leaves: alt., opp., or whorl (even same plant), simple, no stipules

Inflor: cymose to solitary or thyrsiod panicle

Flower: complete, often bilabiate, often reduction

[5] = [5] = 2(-3)-4(-5) = [2]

/but looks like 4/4 st & 1 oidia, 2 st & 2 oidia common, can be didynamous/superior, equally bilobed stigma (cf mints), axile

Fruit: capsule with 2 locules with 1+ seed each (cf mints)

Uses: ornamentals, digitalis. Also: mullein, Penstemon


Veronica hederaefolia (#L7)

"ivy-leaved speedwell"

Juncaceae - the rush family

General: 400, monocot, herbaceous, wet systems (coastal salt),stem flat or round c.s., spongy internal tissue for O2

Leaves: basal or caulescent alt. spiral w/ sheathing, nodoseptate

Inflor: cyme or panicle of cymes, often involucral bract (prophyll)

Flower: small, chaffy, perfect

3 = 3 = 3-6 = [3]

tepals//basifixed/superior, 3 branched stigma, parietal

Fruit: 3 valved capsule, locular (opens) or septicital (splits between carpel walls)

Uses: seeds wildlife food, aspect dom. vegetat. in marshes


Juncus bufonius (#160L)

"toad rush"

Poaceae - the grass family

General: monocot, most herbs here, most important family, culm (stem) hollow except at swollen nodes

Leaves: alternate, narrow, linear, distichous, sheath around stem

Inflor: florets grouped into spiklet into pannicles to heads

Flower: perfect, surrounded by lemma and palea (bracts)

0 = 0 = 3(,6) = [2]

tiny scale-like lodicules//look versitile but actually deeply saggitate basal/superior with 2 pilose style branches

Fruit: single seeded fruit: caryposis (grain), utricle

Uses: food (rice, corn, wheat, oats, barley), pasture


Arundinaria gigantea (#169A)

"giant cane"

Melastomataceae - the melastome family

General: 5000, all habits, has all kinds of trichomes (hairs) in family, stems often angled

Leaves: opposite, decussate, simple, arcuate veins (3 parallel, monocot look), no evident stipules

Inflor: cyme, often bracteate monochasium (1 terminal, 1 lateral)

Flower: complete, regular, flask hypanthium w/ parts off rim

4-5 = 4-5 = 8-10 = [4-5]

/oblique (fan blades)/poricidal/some sup. some infer., capitate stigma, axile

Fruit: capsule, can be urceolate, seeds cochleate (snail)

Uses: aesthetics


Rexia mariana (#92B)

"dull meadow-pitcher"

Orchidaceae - the orchid family

General: monocot, huge family (10% of angisp), most herbs, diverse roots, can be epiphyte, needs mycorrhizae

Leaves: mostly alternate, pseudobulb (partly stem)

Inflor: solitary or elaborate panicles

Flower: zygomorphic, often with "spur" (nectar), everything fused

[3]> = [3]> = [1-2]> = [3]

two lateral, one "hood"/two small, one colorful "labium"/have pollenia/fused with stamens to form column

Fruit: capsule with 3 locules, many tiny seeds

Uses: ornimental, vanilla from unripe capsule


Encyclia tampensis (#163A)
Loganiaceae - the strychnine family

General: all habits, poisonous (can kill non-adapted pollinators)

Leaves: opposite, simple, small inconspicuous stipules, arcuate (parallel) venation, typically decussate

Inflor: cymes, panicles, or solitary

Flower: bracteolate, regular, complete, bisexual

[5] = [5]> = 5 = [2]

connate at base/urceolate-funnelform-tubular/adenate low/superior, axile, 1 style splits to 2 branches

Fruit: capsule or berry

Uses: ornimental, rat poison


Gelsemium sempervirens (#88B)

"yellow jessamine"

Euphorbiaceae - the spurge family

General: all habits, some cacti, irrit. milky latex (lacticifers)

Leaves: alternate spiral (some opp. or whor.), simple (some comp), maybe wierd stipules (glands, scales, etc.)

Inflor: cyme

Flower: primative=complete (5merous), or specialized (some unisex), cyathia (inflor. cup w/glands) w/ many male & 1 female "flr"

(4-)5 = {(4-)5} = 5-10 = 3

anything goes/anything goes//superior, one ovule per carpel

Fruit: capsule with few carunculate seeds (fat dog tick)

Uses: rubber, food (tapiocca=yucca), orn. (poinsettia), poisonous


Euphorbia cyparissias (#71M)

"cypress spurge"

Xyridaceae - the yellow-eyed grass family

General: monocot, wetlands

Leaves: rosulate, equitant distichous

Inflor: conelike on scape, flr pushes out from bract-scale


3 = 3> = 3 = [3]

2 boat shaped, 1 membranous//also 3 stamenodia/superior

Fruit: capsule

Uses: seed heads eaten by some birds


Xyris ambigua (#180H)

"yellow-eyed grass"

Cyperaceae - the sedge family

General: monocot, all herbs, grasslike, solid culms: triangular, angled or ribbed

Leaves: polystichous (usually 3 ranked) with closed sheath @internode, sometimes reduced blade, rhyzome common rootstock

Inflor: often glommerule in spiklet, subten. scales (bracts), spiral

Flower: reduced, often unisex (no palea)

6 = 0 = (1-)3,6 = 2-3

2x3 perianth bristles or scales//basifixed/sup., 2-3 cleft style

Fruit: achene, thin removable pericarp (cf. Poaceae caryopsis)

Uses: can be aspect dominant in wetlands. also: papyrus


Scirpus pendulus (#157B)


Convolvulaceae - the morning glory family

General: 1000+, all habits, vines here, some parasitic (dodder), most herbs

Leaves: alt, simple, can be quite lobed, no stipules, many w/milky latex, internal phloem

Inflor: solitary to others, axillary

Flower: regular, perfect, salver-/funnelform or rotate

[(4-)5] = [(4-)5]> = (4-)5 = 2

united at base/plicate (pleated)//superior, axile, styles distinct to branched to lobed

Fruit: capsule, few to many seeds

Uses: ornamentals (morning glory), food (sweet potatos), drugs


Convolvulus arvensis (#60B)

"field bindweed"

Plantaginaceae - the plantain family

General: herb, annual or perennial

Leaves: basal rosette, no stipules

Inflor: terminal spike

Flower: bracteate and chaffy, regular, bisexual

5 = 5> = [5] = [2]

green/papery, tubular-salverform//superior, axile




Plantago virginica (#104B)

"dwarf plantain"

Asteraceae - the sunflower family

General: 5000, largest dicot fam., all habits, all hymonop. pollen.

Leaves: opp. or alt., simple or cmpd

Inflor: involucrate head, phyllaries=bracts in 1+ series

Flower: ligules (ray flrs=zygomor.) & disc flrs.= tubular

5-many = [5] = [5] = 2

pappus spines, scales, or hairs//syngenecious but free filaments/inferior

Fruit: achene

Uses: food: oil (sunflr), leaves (lettuce, dandel.) + chickory, aster, marigold, ragweed, mum, Solidago, daisy, bur, thistle


Gaillardia pulchella (#53E)

"rosering blanket-flower"

Portulacaceae - the purslane family

General: small fam., widespread, herbs, annual or per, many succulant (CAM)

Leaves: alt or opp, no stipules

Inflor: solitary, scorpioid, to cyme panicle

Flower: regular

2 = (4-)5(-many) = {5-10(-many)} = [3-5]

/distinct/may be fused in groups/style branches, superior, free-central or basal

Fruit: equitorial dehiscing pyxis or utricle

Uses: ornimental (Claytonia= also edible)


Claytonia virginica (#L8)

"spring beauty"

Ranunculaceae - the buttercup family

General: 1500, ann or per, all herbs (except yellow root)

Leaves: rosulate or alternate, simple or comp, stipules rare

Inflor: solitary to panicle, cyme, raceme

Flower: bisexual, regular or zygo, some calcarate, long floral axis, bracteal w/ short pedicel, no hypanthium (cf Rosaceae)

(0 or) 5 = 5 = many = many

may be tepaloid or perianth scales/central nectary at base//superior, distinct carpels

Fruit: follicle, achene, berry-like aggregates

Uses: ornimental (Clematis, columbine), medicine (alkaloids)


Hepatica acutiloba (#L9)

"sharp-lobed hepatica"

Papaveraceae - the poppy family

General: 250, herbs, can be aspect dom., colored sap

Leaves: basal or alt if cauline, simple (lobed) or compound, no stipules

Inflor: solitary, panicle, or cyme

Flower: regular, bisexual, complete

2 = cycles of 4 = many = [2(-many)]

fugaceous (drop early so check bud)///parietal plac. or unilocular

Fruit: capsule, many seeded

Uses: drugs (opium), ornimental (poppy)


Sanguinaria canadensis (#L10)


Violaceae - the violet family

General: ann or peren, herbs here

Leaves: alternate or basal rosette, stipules

Inflor: axillary to leaves

Flower: zygomorphic: upside-down papill., chasmogamous w/UV and guides, then cleistogamous (selfing, closed flr, more seeds)

5 = 5 = 5 = 3

unequal, auricle base/lower spur with nectar, beard/spur, connivant/super., parietal, geniculate (bent) style, 3 lobe stigma

Fruit: capsule

Uses: ornamental (violets, pansies)


Viola rafenescii (#L11)

"wild pansy"

Caryophyllaceae - the carnation or pink family

General: big family, herbs, prefer cool climates (e.g. alpine)

Leaves: opposite, simple, stipules or none

Inflor: cymose to panicle

Flower: regular, usually perfect

{(4-)5} = 0,5 = 5-10 = 3(-5)

/appendages common(i.e. claw or ligule), may be deeply divided or jagged/may be petalloid/superior, free central basal, branched stigma

Fruit: capsule or utricle, seeds cloquiate (coiled embryo)

Uses: ornamental (carnation). Also Silene


Stellaria media (#L12)

"common chickweed"

Boraginaceae - the borage family

General: large, all habits, many coarsely hairy, stem round c.s., (no unequal forked stigma like mints)

Leaves: alternate, simple, may be lobed, no stipules

Inflor: helicoid cyme or monochasium

Flower: regular, bisexual, rotate or salverform

[5] = [5]> = 5 = [2]

//"faucal" appendages common/"gynobasic" style (to receptacle), deeply 4 lobed, basal axile

Fruit: 4 nutlets

Uses: flavorings, herb teas, ornimentals


Mertensia virginica (#L13)

"eastern or Virginia bluebell"

Brassicaceae - the mustard or crucifer family

General: 1000's, all herbs, various habits, prefer cool

Leaves: basal or alt., simple, lobed (maybe deeply), no stipules

Inflor: racemes


4 = 4 = 6 = [2]

separate/yellow, often clawed (narrow @base)/tetradynamous/superior, often stipitate, septum in a frame (replum)

Fruit: silique (long & narrow) or silicle (short & borad)

Uses: food (cabbage, turnip, radish, Brussel sprouts, broccoli, mustard), rape oil (Canola). also Leavenworthia


Dentaria laciniata (#L14)

"cutleaf toothwort (a.k.a. Cardamine concatenata)"

Berberidaceae - the barberry family

General: small fam., all habits

Leaves: basal, alt, simple to ternately comp., sometimes stipules, petiole dilated and clasping

Inflor: solitary, cyme, raceme, panicle

Flower: symmetric, bisexual

4 = 4-12 = 4-many = 4+

fugaceous (drop off)/cycles of 4/x4, valvular dehiscence/superior, large spongy sessile stigma, 1 locule

Fruit: berry

Uses: ornimental, drugs/poison (tumor lysis, VD), rust alt. host


Jeffersonia diphylla (#L15)


Lauraceae - the laurel family

General: woody, aromatic, volatile oils

Leaves: alt, simple, entire, may be lobed, no stipules

Inflor: axillary or terminal cyme to panicle

Flower: small, often unisex, lemon smell

6(-9-12) = 0 = 6-12 = 1

yellowish in 3s//in 3s, fleshy bilobed functional & oidia, valvular dehis/superior, 1 ovule, may have stamenoidia

Fruit: drupe

Uses: avacodo, cinnamon, root beer, roux, trop. hardwd. also Sassafras


Lindera benzoin (#L16)


Apocyanaceae - the dogbane family

General: large fam, ann or peren, all habits, milky latex (alkaloids)

Leaves: opposite, simple, no stipules (hard to see, w/ colleter=mucilage-secreting trichome)

Inflor: bracteate cyme to solitary to panicle

Flower: like Asclepius, regular, prefect

[5] = [5]> = 5 = 2

/salverform or rotate,lobe tips oblique, hairs or bristles around throat/well up on corolla, apendages between them/apocarpous, sup., fleshy bilobed disc, 1 style, annulus disk around stigma

Fruit: double horned follicle (or berry), some winged

Uses: Drugs (poisonous)


Vinca minor (#L17)


Lamiaceae - the mint family

General: large fam,most herbs,can be woody, aromatic, quadrate stems

Leaves: opposite, simple or comp, no stipules

Inflor: cyme to thyrse in verticil (whorl of bracteal leaves)

Flower: most zygomorphic

[5] = [5] = 4 = [2]

bilabiate or reg/bilabiate (lower 3, upper 2), few regular/didynamous, clamp each other, can be diadelphos/sup, gynobasic style, unequal forked stigma, deeply 4 lobed, 2 ovule per carp

Fruit: 4 nutlets

Uses: perfumes, flavorings (sage, tyme, rosemary)


Lamium purpurea (#L18)

"red dead nettle"

Thymelaeaceae - the mezereum family

General: one native in N. America, leathery and rubbery

Leaves: alternate, simple, no stipules

Inflor: cymose or less

Flower: regular, bisexual, long tubular hypanthium

[4] = 0 = 8 = 1

not countable/maybe trace of 4/in 2 cycles off rim of hyp/superior, maybe vestigal 2nd branch

Fruit: drupe

Uses: an oddity!


Dirca palustris (#L19)


Saxifragaceae - the saxifrage family

General: large, often rocky habitat, ann/per, shrub/herb, like Rosaceae

Leaves: rosulate, some opp or alt cauline, no stipules (cf rose)

Inflor: cyme+

Flower: regular, bisexual, hypanthium

[5] = (0-)5 = 10 = 2

//fewer than Rosaceae/distinct, style "horns", superior to inferior

Fruit: berry, capsule, follicle

Uses: food (current, gooseberry), ornam. (hydrangea, mock orange)


Saxifraga virginiensis (#L20)

"early saxifrage"

Fumariaceae - the fumitory family

General: small fam., all herbs, few vines

Leaves: very dissected, often basal

Inflor: raceme

Flower: always flattened and bilaterally symmetric

2 = [4] = 6 = [2]

small, scale-like/2 cucullate (hood) & spurred,2 connivant/diadelphos/superior, 2 stigma lobes, parietal

Fruit: capsule

Uses: some ornimental or cover crop


Dicentra cucullaria (#L21)

"dutchman's breeches"

Polemoniaceae - the phlox family

General: most herbs, few shrubs

Leaves: opp or alt, simp or comp, no stipules

Inflor: cyme to panicle or axillary

Flower: regular, bisex

[5] = [5]> = 5 = [3]

/campanulate, rotate, or salverform/uneven attachment/superior, 3 lobed or branched stigma, parietal

Fruit: capsule

Uses: ornimental


Phlox divaricata (#L22)

"forest phlox"

Betulaceae - the birch family

General: c. 200, woody, some aromatic bark

Leaves: simple, alt, serrate, stipules

Inflor: monoecious, solitary to 2-4 per bract, males in catkins

Flower: female 3 naked ovaries with involucral bract

0 = = 2-20 = [2]


Fruit: nut or samara

Uses: furnature, Ostrya for mallets, aromatic oils (wintergreen)


Betula nigra (#L23)

"river birch"

Fagaceae - the beech family

General: 100's, woody, most monoecious

Leaves: alternate, sinple, stipulate (deciduous)

Inflor: catkins or heads

Flower: unisexual

4-8 = 0 = 4-20 = [3 or 6]

very reduced perianth///inferior, 1 naked ovary with involucral bract

Fruit: involucrate nut (acorn, beechnut, chestnut)

Uses: wood (furnature), tannins for leather, food (chestnuts, wht oak acorn)


Quercus shumardii (#L24)

"Shumard oak"

Hamamelidaceae - the witch hazel family

General: 100, woody, shrubs or trees

Leaves: alt, simple, deciduous, stipules

Inflor: cyme

Flower: perfect or monoecious, receptacle+perianth into cup

(0-)4 = (0-)4 = 4-8 = [2]

off hypanthium/off hypan, male=reduced tepals/1 cycle/ inferior, hornlike style branches

Fruit: capsule

Uses: lumber, liniment (witch hazel)


Liquidambar styraciflua (#L25)

"sweet gum"

Pinaceae - the pine family

General: largest gymno. family

Leaves: spiral, needle, evergreen (except larch), some dimorphism

Inflor: males catkinlike, female cones

Flower: monoecious

= = =

//microsporophyls laterally on scales, winged pollen/spirally arranged scales

Fruit: 2 inverted ovules per scale, winged seed

Uses: lumber, paper, ornament


Tsuga canadensis (#L26)

"eastern hemlock"

Ericaceae - the heath family

General: woody, acidic soils only, mycorrhizal assn.

Leaves: alt, simple, no stipules, decid. or many evergreen

Inflor: racemes, panacles, corymbs

Flower: perfect, reg. or zygomorphic

[4-5] = [4-5] = 4-5 or 8,10 = [4-5 or 8,10]

//poricidal or appendages/superior or inferior

Fruit: capsules or berrys, axile

Uses: ornament (rhodo=azalea, laurel), fruit (blueberry,cranberry), pipe bowls


Rhododendron (#L27)


Styracaceae - the storax family

General: medium, stellate hairs, chambered pith

Leaves: alt, simple, serrate, no stipules

Inflor: raceme

Flower: regular, bisexual

[4-5] = {4-5}> = [8,10] = [4-5]

//united at base of filaments/inferior, axile, style long and straight

Fruit: drupe

Uses: ornament, linament


Halesia tetraptera (#L28)

"silver-bell tree"

Cornaceae - the dogwood family

General: woody

Leaves: opposite, simple, entire, no stipules, arcuate veins

Inflor: cymose to head (large involucral bracts)

Flower: disk between base of ovary and stamens

[4] = [4] = 4 = [2-4]

/barely connate at base//

Fruit: drupe

Uses: ornament, animal forage, hard heavy wood


Cornus florida (#L29)

"flowering dogwood"

Aquifoliaceae - the holly family

General: 200, all woody

Leaves: altername, simple, decid or evergreen, no stipules

Inflor: axillary cyme to panacle or solitary

Flower: some dioecious

[3-6] = 3-6 = 3-6 = 3-6

//same as sepals/superior, fleshy with big sessile stigma

Fruit: berry, seeds mericarps (like orange slices)

Uses: ornament, maté, white hard wood


Ilex cornuta (#L30)

"a holly"

Isoetaceae - the quillwort family

General: a "fern ally", sporangia in spoon-shaped corms below ground in wet areas

Leaves: hollow, filiform

Inflor: megasporangia in outer corm leaves, microsporangia in inner


= = =



Uses: ?


Isoetes butleri (#L31)

"Butler's quillwort"

Hippocastanaceae - the horse chestnut family

General: woody, resinous bud or bark

Leaves: opposite, palmately compound, no stipules

Inflor: terminal racemes, spikes, or thyrse

Flower: asymmetric, polygamo-dioecious (nearly dioe. but some perfect)

[4-5] = (4-)5 = 4-5;8,10 = 3

unequal/clawed, very unequal/from extrastaminal disk/superior, disk around ovary, long style, axile

Fruit: round leathery 3 valved capsule with buckeyes

Uses: some lumber, ornamental


Aesculus glabra (#L32)

"Ohio buckeye"

Celastraceae - the staff tree family

General: 1000, woody, shrubs

Leaves: opp or alt, simple, vestigial stipules

Inflor: cyme to solitary

Flower: symmetric, perfect, looks smashed

[4(-5)] = 4(-5) = 4(-5) = 3(-5)

joined at base//from a disk/superior, disk around ovary base, axile

Fruit: capsule, arilate seeds, few seeds/locule

Uses: ornamental (Euonymus, Celastrus=bittersweet), wildlife


Euonymus alatus (#L33)

"winged burning-bush"

Polygonaceae - the knotweed,smartweed,buckwheat family

General: big fam.,all habits, shoots swollen at nodes

Leaves: alt, simp, ent, papery sheathing stip, claspoing pet base

Inflor: cymes, abundant flowers

Flower: dioecious, monoecious, or perfect, always small, symmetric

[5-6] = 0 = 5-6 = 2-3

tepals, connate @base, 2 cycles, 1st set can be crested with glands//off base of tube, opp. sepals/superior, 2-3 style branches with fuzzy tips, basal

Fruit: achene, =lenslike or trigonal

Uses: food (buckwheat, rhubarb, sea grape), ornamental (coral vine)


Rumex acetosella (#L34)

"red sorrel"

Annonaceae - the custard apple family

General: 1000's, woody, most tropical, aromatic twigs & leaves

Leaves: alt, simple, no stipules, entire, deciduous, naked buds

Inflor: 1-2 in leaf axils

Flower: regular, bisexual

3 = 6 = many = 3-12-many

off very expanded receptacle=torus/2 whorls, inner fleshy with glandular nectary="corrugated zone"/ball-like mass surrounding torus/superior, apocarpous, marginal

Fruit: berry or aggr (syncarp),seeds w/ruminant (layered) endosperm

Uses: food (paw-paw, guanabana), ornamental flowers


Asimina triloba (#L35)


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