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Low testosterone produce hypercoagulable state (Erem 2008)

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Only five idiopathic recurrences occurred in the 186 patients with consistently normal D-dimer. In conclusion, D-dimer has a high NPV for VTE recurrence when performed after OAT discontinuation.

Phang M, Lincz LF, Garg ML. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid supplementations reduce platelet aggregation and hemostatic markers differentially in men and women. J Nutr. 2013 Apr;143(4):457-63.

Although long-chain n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids [n3 PUFAs; eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] have been reported to reduce platelet aggregation, the available evidence on this is equivocal. We previously demonstrated that the acute effects of n3 PUFA supplementation on platelet aggregation are sex specific. We aimed to determine if this gender bias is maintained during long-term n3 PUFA supplementation and whether this translates to other hemostatic markers. A double-blinded, randomized, placebo controlled trial was conducted in 94 healthy men and women. Platelet aggregation, thromboxane (TX) B2, P-selectin (P-sel), von Willebrand factor (vWF), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were measured at baseline and 4 wk postsupplementation with EPA-rich (1000 mg EPA:200 mg DHA) or DHA-rich (200 mg EPA:1000 mg DHA) oil capsules daily. The effects of n3 PUFA on platelet activity were compared between men and women. In men and women combined, EPA and DHA reduced platelet aggregation following 4 wk of supplementation relative to placebo (-11.8%, P = 0.016; and -14.8%, P = 0.001, respectively). In subgroup analyses, in men, only the EPA treatment reduced platelet aggregation by -18.4% compared with placebo (P = 0.005) and women (P = 0.011). In contrast, in women, only the DHA treatment reduced platelet aggregation (-18.9%) compared with placebo (P = 0.001) and men (P = 0.017). Significant sex × treatment interactions were also observed on hemostatic markers and uptake of n3 PUFAs. The significant interactions between sex and specific, supplemental, long-chain n3 PUFAs result in platelet aggregation being differentially affected in men and women. With respect to thrombotic disease risk, men are more likely to benefit from supplementation with EPA, whereas women are more responsive to DHA. PMID: 23390192

Phillips GB, Pinkernell BH, Jing TY. The association of hyperestrogenemia with coronary thrombosis in men. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1996 Nov;16(11):1383-7.

Both hyperestrogenemia and hypotestosteronemia have been reported in association with myocardial infarction (MI) in men. It was previously observed that the serum testosterone concentration correlated negatively with the degree of coronary artery disease (CAD) in men who had never had a known MI. The present study investigated the relationship of sex hormone levels to the thrombotic component of MI by comparing these levels in 18 men who had had an MI (ie, thrombosis) and 50 men with no history of MI (ie, no thrombosis) whose degree of CAD was in the same range. The mean degree of CAD, age, and body mass index in these two groups was not significantly different. The mean serum estradiol level in the men who had had an MI (38.5 +/- 8.8 pg/mL) was higher (P = .002) than the level in the men who had not had an MI (31.9 +/- 7.1 pg/mL). The mean levels of testosterone, free testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, cholesterol, HDI, cholesterol, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure did not differ significantly. Estradiol was the only variable measured that showed a significant relationship to MI (P < .003 by multivariate logistic regression). These findings suggest that hyperestrogenemia may be related to the thrombosis of MI. PMID: 8911277

Phillips GB, Pinkernell BH, Jing TY. The association of hypotestosteronemia with coronary artery disease in men. Arterioscler Thromb. 1994; 14:701-706.

Hyperestrogenemia and hypotestosteronemia have been observed in association with myocardial infarction (MI) and its risk factors. To determine whether these abnormalities may be prospective for MI, estradiol and testosterone, as well as risk factors for MI, were measured in 55 men undergoing angiography who had not previously had an MI. Testosterone (r = -.36, P = .008) and free testosterone (r = -.49, P < .001) correlated negatively with the degree of coronary artery disease after controlling for age and body mass index. When the patient group was successively reduced to a final study group of 34 men by excluding the patients with other major disorders, the testosterone and free testosterone correlations persisted (r = -.43, P < .02 and r = -.62, P < .001, respectively). Neither estradiol nor the risk factors, except for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, correlated with the degree of coronary artery disease in the final group. Testosterone correlated negatively with the risk factors fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and insulin and positively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The correlations found in this study between testosterone and the degree of coronary artery disease and between testosterone and other risk factors for MI raise the possibility that in men hypotestosteronemia may be a risk factor for coronary atherosclerosis.

Post MS, Rosing J, Van Der Mooren MJ, Zweegman S, Van Baal WM, Kenemans P, Stehouwer CD; Ageing Women' and the Institute for Cardiovascular Research-Vrije Universiteit (ICaR-VU). Increased resistance to activated protein C after short-term oral hormone replacement therapy in healthy post-menopausal women. Br J Haematol. 2002 Dec;119(4):1017-23.

As hormone replacement therapy is associated with an early excess risk of venous thrombosis, we investigated the effect of different oral hormone replacement therapies on resistance to activated protein C, and on levels of factor VIII antigen (FVIII:Ag) and factor XI antigen (FXI:Ag). In a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled 12-week study, 60 healthy post-menopausal women daily received either placebo (n = 16) or 2 mg of micronized 17beta-oestradiol, either alone (E2, n = 16) or sequentially combined with dydrogesterone 10 mg (E2 + D, n = 14) or trimegestone 0.5 mg (E2 + T, n = 14). Medication was given orally. Normalized activated protein C sensitivity ratios (nAPCsr) were determined by quantifying the effect of activated protein C on the endogenous thrombin potential. FVIII:Ag and FXI:Ag were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared with baseline and placebo, the nAPCsr increased (92% to 142%; all P < 0.001) in all active treatment groups after both 4 and 12 weeks. Compared with placebo, hormone replacement therapy was not associated with significant changes in FVIII:Ag. After 4 and 12 weeks, FXI:Ag levels were significantly decreased in the E2 group (mean percentage changes from baseline versus placebo: -15.0%, P = 0.001 at 4 weeks and -16.6%, P = 0.003 at 12 weeks) and in the E2 + D group (-10.4%, P = 0.02 and -10.4%, P = 0.02). In conclusion, all hormone replacement regimens were associated with a large increase in resistance to activated protein C. In contrast, hormone replacement therapy had no effect on FVIII:Ag. Oral E2 and E2 + D had a small, favourable effect on FXI:Ag.

Praticò D, Ferro D, Iuliano L, Rokach J, Conti F, Valesini G, FitzGerald GA, Violi F. Ongoing prothrombotic state in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies: a role for increased lipid peroxidation. Blood. 1999 May 15;93(10):3401-7.

We measured the urinary excretion of Isoprostane F2alpha-III and Isoprostane-F2alpha-VI, two markers of in vivo lipid peroxidation, and the circulating levels of the prothrombin fragment F1+2, a marker of thrombin generation, in 18 antiphospholipid antibodies-positive patients, in 18 antiphospholipid antibodies-negative patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, and in 20 healthy subjects. Furthermore, 12 patients positive for antiphospholipid antibodies were treated with (n = 7) or without (n = 5) antioxidant vitamins (vitamin E at 900 IU/d and vitamin C at 2, 000 mg/d) for 4 weeks. Compared with antiphospholipid antibodies-negative patients, antiphospholipid antibodies-positive patients had higher urinary values of Isoprostane-F2alpha-III (P =. 0001), Isoprostane-F2alpha-VI (P =.006), and plasma levels of the prothrombin fragment F1+2 (P =.0001). In antiphospholipid-positive patients, F1+2 significantly correlated with Isoprostane-F2alpha-III (Rho =.56, P =.017) and Isoprostane-F2alpha-VI (Rho =.61, P =.008). After 4 weeks of supplementation with antioxidant vitamins, we found a significant decrease in F1+2 levels (P <.005) concomitantly with a significant reduction of both Isoprostane-F2alpha-III (P =.007) and Isoprostane-F2alpha-VI (P <.005). No change of these variables was observed in patients not receiving antioxidant treatment. This study suggests that lipid peroxidation might contribute to the activation of clotting system in patients positive for antiphospholipid antibodies.

Sammaritano LR; Ng S; Sobel R; Lo SK; Simantov R; Furie R; Kaell A; Silverstein R; Salmon JE Arthritis Rheum 1997 Nov;40(11):1998-2006. Anticardiolipin IgG subclasses: association of IgG2 with arterial and/or venous thrombosis.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) of a specific IgG subclass is associated with clinical complications of the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) and whether polymorphisms of Fc receptors for IgG (FcgammaR) with differential binding preferences contribute to an increased risk of thrombotic complications. METHODS: In 60 patients with IgG aCL, we assessed clinical complications of the APS, measured the level of antibody activity, and determined the IgG subclass distribution of aCL by a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with murine anti-human IgG subclass monoclonal antibodies. Selective IgG subclass adsorption studies were performed to determine the relative contribution of specific IgG subclasses to overall aCL activity. Fcgamma receptor IIA (FcgammaRIIA) genotypes of aCL patients with thrombosis and of non-systemic lupus erythematosus controls were determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification of genomic DNA and allele-specific probes. RESULTS: IgG2 aCL, detected in 75% of the patients, was the major subclass of aCL. Selective adsorption studies demonstrated that IgG2, in contrast to IgG1, was the predominant subclass responsible for aCL reactivity. IgG2 aCL was the only subclass associated with clinical complications, specifically, arterial and/or venous thrombosis (P < 0.04). The presence of FcgammaRIIA-H131, a receptor expressed on platelets, monocytes, and endothelial cells and the only human FcgammaR which efficiently recognizes IgG2, was associated with thrombosis in aCL patients. Among 45 high-titer (>40 GPL [IgG phospholipid] units) aCL patients with thrombosis, 40% were homozygous for FcgammaRIIA-H131, compared with 25% of disease-free controls (P = 0.042). CONCLUSION: While all 4 IgG subclasses are found in autoimmune aCL, only the presence of IgG2 is significantly associated with thrombotic complications. Reactivity in aCL ELISA is largely due to the presence of IgG2 in high-titer patients. The presence of IgG2 aCL, particularly in association with FcgammaRIIA-H131, may be a useful clinical predictor of increased thrombotic risk in patients with autoimmune IgG aCL. Allelic variants of FcgammaRIIA with distinct capacities to interact with IgG subclasses provide a mechanism for genetic susceptibility to an autoantibody-induced prothrombotic state.

Scarabin PY, Alhenc-Gelas M, Plu-Bureau G, Taisne P, Agher R, Aiach M. Effects of oral and transdermal estrogen/progesterone regimens on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in postmenopausal women. A randomized controlled trial. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997 Nov;17(11):3071-8

Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy is associated with a reduction in the incidence of coronary heart disease. However, inconclusive results have been reported with respect to the risk of stroke, and recent studies consistently showed an increased risk of venous thromboembolism in postmenopausal women using oral estrogen. There are surprisingly few interventional studies to assess the true effects of estrogen-progestin regimens on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, and the impact of the route of estrogen administration on hemostasis has not been well documented. Therefore, we investigated the effects of oral and transdermal estradiol/progesterone replacement therapy on hemostatic variables. Forty-five healthy postmenopausal women, aged 45 to 64 years, were assigned randomly to one of the three following groups: cyclic oral or transdermal estradiol, both combined with progesterone, or no hormonal treatment. Hemostatic variables were assayed at baseline and after a 6-month period. Pairwise differences in the mean change between the three groups were compared using nonparametric tests. Oral but not transdermal estradiol regimen significantly increased the mean value of prothrombin activation peptide (F1 + 2) and decreased mean antithrombin activity compared with no treatment. Differences in fragment F1 + 2 levels between active treatments were significant. The oral estrogen group was associated with a significant decrease in both mean tissue-type plasminogen (t-PA) concentration and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) activity and a significant rise in global fibrinolytic capacity (GFC) compared with the two other groups. A transdermal estrogen regimen had no significant effect on PAI-1, t-PA, and GFC levels. There were no significant changes in mean values of fibrinogen, factor VII, von Willebrand factor, protein C, fibrin D-dimer, and plasminogen between and within the three groups. We conclude that oral estrogen/progesterone replacement therapy may result in coagulation activation and increased fibrinolytic potential, whereas opposed transdermal estrogen appears without any substantial effects on hemostasis. Whereas these results may account for an increased risk of venous thromboembolism in users of oral postmenopausal estrogen, they emphasize the potential importance of the route of estrogen administration in prescribing hormone replacement therapy to postmenopausal women, especially to those at high risk of thrombotic disease.

Scarabin PY, Oger E, Plu-Bureau G; EStrogen and THromboEmbolism Risk Study Group. Differential association of oral and transdermal oestrogen-replacement therapy with venous thromboembolism risk. Lancet. 2003 Aug 9;362(9382):428-32.

BACKGROUND: Oral oestrogen-replacement therapy (ERT) activates blood coagulation and increases the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in postmenopausal women. Transdermal ERT has little effect on haemostasis, but data assessing its effect on thrombotic process are scarce. We aimed to examine the effect of the route of oestrogen administration on VTE risk. METHODS: We did a multicentre hospital-based case-control study of postmenopausal women in France. During 1999-2002, we recruited 155 consecutive cases with a first documented episode of idiopathic VTE (92 with pulmonary embolisms and 63 with deep venous thrombosis), and 381 controls matched for centre, age, and time of recruitment. FINDINGS: Overall, 32 (21%) cases and 27 (7%) controls were current users of oral ERT, whereas 30 (19%) cases and 93 (24%) controls were current users of transdermal ERT. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, the odds ratio for VTE in current users of oral and transdermal ERT compared with non-users was 3.5 (95% CI 1.8-6.8) and 0.9 (0.5-1.6), respectively. Estimated risk for VTE in current users of oral ERT compared with transdermal ERT users was 4.0 (1.9-8.3). INTERPRETATION: Oral but not transdermal ERT is associated with risk of VTE in postmenopausal women. These data suggest that transdermal ERT might be safer than oral ERT with respect to thrombotic risk. PMID 12927428

Schurgers LJ, Aebert H, Vermeer C, Bültmann B, Janzen J. Oral anticoagulant treatment: friend or foe in cardiovascular disease? Blood. 2004 Nov 15;104(10):3231-2.

Calcification is a common complication in cardiovascular disease and may affect both arteries and heart valves. Matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) protein (MGP) is a potent inhibitor of vascular calcification, the activity of which is regulated by vitamin K. In animal models, vitamin K antagonists (oral anticoagulants [OACs]) were shown to induce arterial calcification. To investigate whether long-term OAC treatment may induce calcification in humans also, we have measured the grade of aortic valve calcification in patients with and without preoperative OAC treatment (avg 16-25 months). OAC-treated subjects were matched with nontreated ones for age, sex, and disease. Calcifications in patients receiving preoperative OAC treatment were significantly (2-fold) larger than in nontreated patients. These observations suggest that OACs, which are widely used for antithrombotic therapy, may induce cardiovascular calcifications as an adverse side effect.

Simoncini S, Sapet C, Camoin-Jau L, Bardin N, Harlé JR, Sampol J, Dignat-George F, Anfosso F. Role of reactive oxygen species and p38 MAPK in the induction of the pro-adhesive endothelial state mediated by IgG from patients with anti-phospholipid syndrome. Int Immunol. 2005 Apr;17(4):489-500.

The association of the presence of anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL) with thrombosis characterizes the anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS). The activation of the endothelium is a key event in the establishment of the thrombophilic state. However, the intracellular mechanisms leading to endothelial dysfunction are not fully elucidated. We investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pro-adhesive state elicited by aPL and studied ROS-dependent downstream signaling pathways. Independent incubation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with IgG (IgG-APS) from 12 APS patients caused a large and sustained increase in ROS, which was prevented by the antioxidants vitamin C and N-acetyl-L-cysteine. ROS inhibition observed in the presence of diphenylene iodonium and rotenone indicated an involvement of a membrane-bound oxidase and the mitochondrial transport chain as sources of ROS. ROS acted as a second messenger by activating the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and its subsequent target, the stress-related transcription factor activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2). ROS controlled the up-regulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression by IgG-APS-stimulated HUVEC and the increase in THP-1 monocytic cells adhesion. The IgG-APS-mediated oxidative stress was observed irrespective of the clinical and biological criterions of the patients studied here. Taken together, these data indicate that the oxidative stress induced by IgG-APS is a key intracellular event that might contribute to the thrombotic complications of APS by controlling the endothelial adhesive phenotype.

Smith AM, English KM, Malkin CJ, Jones RD, Jones TH, Channer KS. Testosterone does not adversely affect fibrinogen or tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels in 46 men with chronic stable angina. Eur J Endocrinol. 2005 Feb;152(2):285-91.

OBJECTIVE: In women, sex hormones cause increased morbidity and mortality in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and adversely affect the coagulation profile. We have studied the effect of physiological testosterone replacement therapy in men on coagulation factor expression, to determine if there is an increased risk of thrombosis. METHODS: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of testosterone (2 X 2.5mg Andropatch nightly) in 46 men with chronic stable angina. Measurements of free, total and bioavailable testosterone, luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), fibrinogen, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and full blood count were made at 0, 6 and 14 weeks. RESULTS: Bioavailable testosterone levels were: 2.58 +/- 0.58 nmol/l at baseline, compared with 3.35 +/- 0.31 nmol/l at week 14 (P < 0.001) after treatment compared with 2.6 +/- 0.18 nmol/l and 2.44 +/- 0.18 nmol/l in the placebo group (P was not significant). There was no change in fibrinogen (3.03 +/- 0.18 g/l at baseline and 3.02 +/- 0.18 g/l at week 14, P = 0.24), tPA activity (26.77 +/- 4.9 Iu/ml and 25.67 +/- 4.4 Iu/ml, P = 0.88) or PAI-1 activity (0.49 +/- 0.85 Iu/ml and 0.36 +/- 0.06 Iu/ml, P = 0.16) with active treatment and no differences between the groups (at week 14, P value 0.98, 0.59 and 0.8 for fibrinogen, PAI-1 and tPA respectively). Haemoglobin concentration did not change over time, in the testosterone group (1.44 +/- 0.02 g/l and 1.45 +/- 0.02 g/l, P = 0.22). CONCLUSION: Physiological testosterone replacement does not adversely affect blood coagulation status. PMID: 15745938

Suzuki Y, Kondo K, Ichise H, Tsukamoto Y, Urano T, Umemura K. Dietary supplementation with fermented soybeans suppresses intimal thickening. Nutrition. 2003 Mar;19(3):261-4.

Although soy foods have been consumed for more than 1000 y, it is only in the past 20 y that they have made inroads into Western diets. We investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with natto extracts produced from fermented soybeans on intimal thickening of arteries after vessel endothelial denudation. Natto extracts include nattokinase, a potent fibrinolytic enzyme having four times greater fibrinolytic activity than plasmin. Intimal thickening was induced in the femoral arteries by intravenous infusion of rose bengal followed by focal irradiation with a transluminal green light. Dietary natto extract supplementation was started 3 wk before endothelial injury and continued for another 3 wk after. In ex vivo studies, euglobulin clot lysis times were measured 3 wk after the initial supplementation. Neointima formation and thickening were also initiated successfully. The intima media ratio 3 wk after endothelial injury was 0.15 +/- 0.03 in the control group. Dietary natto extract supplementation suppressed intimal thickening (0.06 +/- 0.01; P < 0.05) compared with the control group. Natto extracts shortened euglobulin clot lysis time, suggesting that their thrombolytic activities were enhanced. These findings suggest that natto extracts, because of their thrombolytic activity, suppress intimal thickening after vascular injury as a result of the inhibition of mural thrombi formation.

Svartberg J, Braekkan SK, Laughlin GA, Hansen JB. Endogenous sex hormone levels in men are not associated with risk of venous thromboembolism: the Tromso study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2009 May;160(5):833-8.

OBJECTIVES: Low testosterone levels in men have been associated with cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis and lately also an increased risk of both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. As arterial CVDs and venous thromboembolism (VTE) have been shown to share common risk factors, the purpose of the present study was to determine the impact of endogenous sex hormone levels on the incidence of VTE in a cohort of men. DESIGN: A prospective, population-based study. METHODS: Sex hormone measurements were available in 1350 men, aged 50-84, participating in the Tromsø study in 1994-1995. First, lifetime VTE-events during the follow-up were registered up to September 1 2007. RESULTS: There were 63 incident VTE-events (4.5 per 1000 person-years) during a mean of 10.4 years of follow-up. Age was significantly associated with increased risk of VTE; men 70 years or older had a 2.5-fold higher risk of VTE (HR 2.47, 95% CI 1.19-5.12), compared with those between 50 and 60 years of age. In age-adjusted analyses, endogenous sex hormones levels were not associated with risk of VTE; for each s.d. increase, hazards ratios (95% CI) were 1.06 (0.83-1.35) for total testosterone, 1.02 (0.79-1.33) for free testosterone, and 1.27 (0.94-1.71) for ln-estradiol. In dichotomized analyses comparing men in the lowest total and free testosterone quartile with men in the higher quartiles, hypoandrogenemia was not associated with risk of VTE. CONCLUSIONS:

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