Ana səhifə

Inventory of Peasant Innovations for Sustainable Development an annotated bibliography

Yüklə 467 Kb.
ölçüsü467 Kb.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11

OFRD, BARI, Bangladesh, 1986:7, op cit
Veterinary Practices/Humid Region

  1. Cattle suffering from flatulence (gas formation in the stomach) are relieved by a) juice of chatannath leaves, b) water of hubble bubble (Hokah) mixed with salt.

  1. Cattle suffering from cold is treated by hot and burned Tit palla fruit inserted into the nose.

  1. Cattle suffering from Golaganda treated by mixture of Chatanath and bamboo root extract.

  1. Growing Allahmoni sapling besides the cattle shade prevents sucking of milk by the snake.

  1. Goats suffering from Diarrhoea are treated by feeding clay soil.

Gupta, S.P. and Gupta, A. 1989:9 op cit
Veterinary Practices/Sub-Humid Region

  1. If the animal is passing watery stools, it should be given linseed plant or soaked gram at night which would given relief by morning. Or give the animal thorn apple. If this is also not possible then burn an old aharar wood and mix it with ash, salt and water. Giving it twice would help the animal.

  1. If the animal has got a sore throat then giving it pure ghee mixed with pepper will help.

  1. If any animal has dirty eyes then rubbing mustard oil on its horns and head will help. Also putting salt water solution in the eyes early in the morning will keep the eyes healthy.

  1. If the toes of the animal has become septic, take 1 Kg. of the bark of ‘chul’ tree and cut it into small pieces and boil it. When the water becomes absolutely red then pour this water on the toes of the animal. Then spray gamaxene on the toes. This should be done 3-4 times in a day to heal the toes.

  1. To kill the worm in the animal’s sores Quinine tablets should be grounded and filled in the sores. This will kill the worms and the sores will also heal fast.

  1. If the animal has got worms in his stomach then take 200 grams of ‘Bakain’ leaves (the plant is like neem). Grind it into paste (with water). Giving this 3-4 times a day will help the animal.

  1. If the animal has got blisters in the mouth, rubbing salt would help.

  1. If the animal has got pus in the gums, then touching the gums with a hot iron rod will take away the pus. Then put turmeric and mustard oil on the gums.

(The above eight practices were collected from the farmer Ram Sunder Giri of Mathiya village, District Faizabad, India).

  1. The farmer sometimes gives need oil to the animals to keep them healthy. (Farmer: Ram Sunder Sigh of Prakash Ka Purvwa).

A Case Study of Md. Dhanu Mia of Kasinathpur Village, prepared by Md. Sulaiman Khan, Scientific Officer, OFRD, Comilla, Bangladesh. 1986, pp.1-6.
Veterinary Practices/Humid Region (pp.3-4)

  1. For controlling Foot and Mouth diseases of the cattle. The farmer washes the mouth by using potash with ht water. This is done 3-4 times a day.

  1. In the affected area of foot use a paste of sugar and naphthalene which results in about 90% control of the disease.

  1. Treatment by a mixture of rotten Rhizome of ‘Aytta Kala’ and roots of ‘kata khuduri’ is used for diarrhea. Feed the animal 2 chatak/ (app 150 gms) twice a day.

  1. Treatment of rheumatism in cattle by a mixture of Bishdaran leaves with cow dung.

A Case study of Md. Taslimudding of Nischintapur village, prepared by Md. Moshiur Rahman, Junior Scientific Assistant, Rangpur, Bangladesh. 1986, pp.1-16.
Veterinary Practice/Humid Region (p.6)

  1. The farmer applied lime on the swollen belly of the cow. By this the cow was cured of the swelling.

Chhelbhai J Shukla, 1989: 3-4, op cit.
Veterinary Practices/Semi-Arid Region

  1. Ghee or castor oil is rubbed over the bullock’s horns to prevent Kamodi disease, and it’s ears are pierced to keep bullock sturdy.

  1. For common cold turmeric powder is mixed with hot milk and small hot piece of tile made of mud is tossed in milk. Turmeric has antiseptic value.

  1. The smoke of the burning gunnysack is burnt, it’s smoke helps curing cold in the animals.

  1. Bullocks’s urine is rubbed over diseased part of the body of bullock to cure it.

  1. Ears are pierced, if different parts of the ears are pierced it takes care of different diseases.

Gupta, A and Saha, G. 1989: 13-14, op cit
Veterinary Practices/Semi-Arid Region
i) Neem oil is used for drenching the animal usually in the month of ‘Bhado.’ This removes all stomach problems and keeps the animal healthy. Also, oil applied on the animal body keeps the insects away. (Farmer: Suryu; Village: Isoulibhari).

  1. When the animal suffers from ‘gala ghotu’ (swelling of throat) he treats the animal in the following manner:

    1. Application of smoke by burning 2-3 years old ‘bhusa.’ Hot water with salt is given to the animal.

    1. A mixture of black pepper (5 gms) powder with ghee (50 gms) is fed to the cattle after making.

(Farmer: Ramawadh; Village: Saraya Bagha).

  1. In case of ‘khurpake’ disease (foot-mouth disease) the bark of the locally known Dhak/Palas (Ribersrubrum) is boiled with water which turns red and then applied to the affected part. (Farmer: Ramawadh; village: Saraya Bagha).

  1. When animal suffers from cold/fever hot mixture of ghee and black pepper is fed to the cattle and mustard oil is applied on the forehead and head. Lassi (‘mattha’) is offered to the animal suffering from fever (Farmer: Ramawadh; village: Saraya Bagha).

  1. When animals suffer from galaghotu (swelling of throat) washes the part with water boiled with neem leaves. Then covers the part with the soil-paste prepared out of the soil heaped by the house-ants. The disease is dangerous and it becomes very difficult to save the cattle once attacked (Farmer: Ramashankar; village: Saraya Bagha).

  1. For ‘Khurpala’ disease (foot and mouth disease) also known as ‘chafra’ besides applying the solution prepared from the bark of Dhak/Palas (Ribes rubrum). The animals tied in a muddy place. This creates the breathing problem for the insects in the hoofs and they die (Farmer: Ramashankar; village: Saraya Bagha).

  1. In case of swelling of stomach black salt with water is fed to the animal (Farmer: Ramashankar; village: Saraya Bagha).

  1. To kill the worm in the stomach the animal is drenched with neem oil (Farmer: Ramashankar; village: Saraya Bagha).

  1. When animals suffer from foot and mouth disease powdered naphthalene is applied on the affected part. Phenol is also sometimes applied on the affected part (Farmer: Ramashankar; village: Saraya Bagha).

  1. In case of dysentery sesame leave with water is given to the animal. Water mixed with powdered wood charcoal (made by burning old arhar sticks) is also given to the animal for stomach problem (Farmer: Buddha Yadav, Village: Saraya Bagha).

  1. When the animals do not take feed they should be fed ‘sarua’ with other foods. This would increase the appetite. To prepare ‘sarua’ one/two kgs. Of wheat is crushed and kept in a pitcher containing 5/7 litres of water. Two/three kgs. Of onions are cut into pieces and then mixed with the wheat grains. The mouth of the pitcher is closed lightly. The mass is allowed to decompose for 5-7 days. The solution mixed with other feeds is given to the animal whose appetite increases by consuming the same. (Farmer: Balkrishan Maurya, Village: Isoulibhari).

McKorkle Constance M.
An Introduction to Ethno-veterinary Research and Development. Journal of Ethnobiology, 1986, 6(1)-129-149.
Veterinary Practices/Semi-arid Region (p.135).
As a healing art, cauterization appears to be a routine and multi-purpose technique among all Sahelian pastoralists. For example, FulBe treat livestock sprains with a series of tiny burns in the sprained area-much like the ‘pinfiring’ performed on Western racehorses with leg problems, to increase blood flow to the injured part (Wolfgang 1983:57). FulBe, Fulani, Twareg, and WoDaaBe, whether rightly or wrongly, all use branding in treating a galaxy of ills. Across the three ethnic groups, these ills include, example anthrax, trypanosomiasis, rickettsiosis, epilepsy, edemata, botulism, scabies, bloat, diarrhea, toothaches, fevers, blows to the body, digestive and hoof ailments, muscle pains, sprains and lizard bites. Venesection or bleeding is another popular healing art in African veterinary practice. All of the foregoing authors plus Evans-Pritchard (1969), Ohta (1984), Schwabe and Kuojok (1981), Wolfgang and Sollod (1986) and others note its use.
Bone setting and wound-treatment skills are found in folk veterinary toolkits worldwide-as are, too, effective surgical and obstetric techniques. These latter run the gamut from relatively simple operations (such as marketing, castration, excision of tumors, certain amputations) through a variety of obstetric procedures (e.g., episiotomy, Caesarean section, embryotomy) to complex cosmetic surgery like horn training (Schwabe, 1984).
M.R. Verma, 1967: 62, op cit
Cattle Feed/Sub-Humid Region

  1. Feeds for Milk: In the Gujjar community various feeds are supposed to affect milk production and consistency of butter produced. The feeds which increase milk in the opinion of majority of the breeders are Gud, Methi, Taramira, Sarson oil cake, dudi, Zira, Alsi, treacle, Bran, Biuel leaves Greawia oppositifoloa) chal leaves or bakli (Anogeissus lettifolia) behers leaves (Terminalia belerica) and Dudli leaves. On the contrary wheat bhusa, Maize flour, Rice busk, Kada flour, Mohru leave ban leaves (queroosincane) beans leave (Demdrecalanus strictus), malzan leave (Bauhiniavehjlii), simbal leaves, (Bombaxmalabaricum) and sain leaves (Terminali-atomantoss) are believed to decrease milk yield. The feeds which are attributed to increase the butter fat content of milk are cotton seed, oil cake (sarson), oil, dry grasses, taramira, behera leaves (Terminaliaelerica), alsi, etc. The feeds and fodders which decreases fat content of milk are ban leaves, (Quercus incane), bani leaves (Quercus annulate), sain leaves (Terminalia tomentos), rice straw, wheat straw, mohru leaves, kharshu leaves (Questcus semicaroifolia) wheat bran and maize flour. It would be desirable for the nutrition specialist to examine the authenticity of these beliefs.

Gupta, S.P. and Gupta, A. 1989: 8-11, op cit
Animal Feed/Semi-Arid Region

  1. To keep the buffaloes healthy, the farmer prepares a special kind of fodder called ‘sarva’. This increases the appetite and makes the animal healthy. (Farmer: Ram Sunder Giri of Mathiya village, District: Faizabad, India).

A Case study f Md. Abdul Malek of village Sanchia, prepared by Satish Chandra Dham, Senior Scientific Officer, OFRD, Barisal. 1986, pp.1-23.
Cattle Feed/Humid Region (p.14)
Sources of feeds and fodder other than rice straw & grass used for cow/bullock feeding.
Empty felon pod after threshing: Felon, groundnut, mungbean, sweet potato, millet, etc. plant residues after harvest; leaves of cabbage/cauliflower/banana/rain tree/ ‘mother’ / bamboo, etc; green & ripe tomato which are not marketable; Dhaincha plant, leaves and seed also; banana plant cut pieces; ‘Germany lata.’
Gupta, A and Saha, G.S., 1989: 4, op cit
Cattle Feed/Semi-Arid Region

  1. The green leaf of sweet potato is a good fodder and is liked by cattle. The dried leaves are not liked by the cattle and cause problem in the stomach (animals pass watery stool). (Farmer: Ramawadh Yadav; Village: Saraya Bagha).

Dr. P.M. Mane, 1989: 3, op cit
Cattle /feed/Semi-Arid Region
Lucerne is a traditional winter fodder crop in Saurashtra. The broadcasting is a method of sowing generally followed by the farmers. There is a tradition of mixing little quantity of barley and methi seeds along with Lucerne seeds and then whole mixture is broadcast. There are couple of reasons for this; firstly barley germinates and grows earlier than Lucerne and sufficient green matter is obtained even in the first cutting when Lucerne is thinly growing. Secondly, the belief of farmer indicates that both the barley and methi help animals to enhance the palatability and digestion process of the fodder as such.
A Case Study of Aresa Begum of Bilaspur village, prepared by Zebun Nahar, Senior Scientific Officer, OFRD, Jydebpur, Bangladesh.

1986, pp.1-20.
Medicinal Plants/Humid Region (p.7)
The villagers generally use Dathoi, Mandar, Katjalphai, Neem Titkoroi, Tulsi, Bashok trees for preparing different kinds of medicines. The Bashok and Tulsi leaves were used for cod and cough. The neem leaves was used for migiln (Hum) and Paehra (Alergy).
Emilio Moran, 1977; 259, op cit
Hunting Strategies/Humid Region
The hunter relies on the intimate knowledge of the forest and animals. They note the location of trees that are flowering or fruiting and use the knowledge in the next hunting experience.
Shih Sheng-han, 28-29, op cit
Animal Treatment/region Unspecified

  1. In keeping sheep, in China a earthen vessel of table salt is hung in the sheepy. Sheep being fond of salt will come back frequently of their own to have a lick. Thus no shepherd is necessary.

  1. Sheep when diseased tend to infect each other. To discriminate between those who are ill, and those who are healthy make a ditch 2 inch deep and 4 inch wide in front of the sheepy. Those that jump over are healthy and these that fall I the ditch are diseased and therefore easily isolated.

Hana Carlier, 1987: 22, op cit
Sowing/Arid Region

  1. In Ecuador, it is general custom not to till the soil, plant seed, and not to harvest crops at the time of New Moon and 7 days thereafter.

  1. Experience is that this period stimulates maize, Potatoes, beans and even wheat and other cereals to a growth spurt. Despite the spurt the plant hardly forms a fruit or tuber.

  1. The plants remain weak and consequently are sensitive to diseases and pests.

  1. The farmers claim that tilling of soil at new moon increases attach of larvae.

  1. If harvest is gathered in the New moon it is liable to be attacked by storage pests.

  1. Potatoes and fruit do not keep well during new moon.

  1. Bananas should never be planted at new moon, the fruit will be small and the tree will deteriorate.

Brookfield, H and Allen, B

Land Degradation in Papua Guninea

ILEIA, March, 1988, 4(1)-6-7
Sowing/Humid Region (p.6)
In Papua New Guinea, across the highland, number of techniques were employed to cultivate sweet potato. In the east small mounds were used while in the central highlands the soil and vegetation from grid-iron pattern was flung onto the intervening beds with wooden spades. Further west large mounds were formed from the top soil and grasses, seeds and old sweet potato vines used as compost and sweet potato planted into the mounds.
Bruijn, G and Guritno, B

Farmers Experimentation with Cassava Planting in Indonesia

ILEIA, March 88, 4(1)-14-15
Sowing/Humid Region (p.14)
The Mukibat system is named after its inventor Mukibat a farmer from East java. He found that budding or grafting of one tree Cassava into a stalk of ordinary Cassava, can lead to very high yields of tuberous roots.
Leakey, L.S.B.

Kenya: Contrasts and Problems

1936, Methuen, London, pp.309-311
Sowing/Semi-Arid Region (p.309)
The farmers of Kikuyu reserve believe that there are two rainy seasons, one is comparatively long and the other is short. Although some crops can be planed equally successfully during long and short seasons others cannot. It for example the treepea, ‘NJUGU’ is planted in short rains it will be a failure for it is a slow growing plant and the rains would have gone before it had begun to flower. On the other hand if ‘MWERE’ a form of eleusine was planted in the long rains it would be ready for harvest before the rains are over, as it grows very fast.
After trial and error, the farmers have discovered the best season for the planting of different crops.
Richharia, R.H.

Rice in Abundance for All Times Through Rice Clones (A Possible One-Grain Rice Revolution)

1986, Published by Dr. R.M. Riccharia, Bhopal, Chap.III, pp.30-42
Sowing/Region unspecified (p.32)
Ratooning in rice is known and is practiced in many rice regions in the country. Charak’s writings indicate that the system was known, as far back as 400 BC. It implies leaving the stubbles in the field undisturbed, after harvesting the main rice crop, some under developed tillers sprout up and grow rapidly to produce panicles with developed grains within 4 to 5 weeks. The second crop (ratoon crop) is thus harvested within two months. But the yield is very poor. It is, however, an additional income to the rice farmer, as he obtains this additional grain without any extra care of the crop (i.e., he obtains yields of the two harvests from the same crop). It is varietal character. It especially works well with some types of paddy cultivators.
Many of the indigenous early maturing rice varieties also possess rationing character and perenniating habit in addition to, some varieties of other maturity group
The biyasi system is practiced in Orissa, known as beusaning and in Chhattisgarh, known as biyasi, as it is found very beneficial and economical for broadcast in low rice lands. It servers the purpose of interculture, thinning and weeding.
The system involves broadcast of paddy grains with a higher seed rate (than required in transplanting) just before the on-set of rains in June in low rice lands, kept ready for sowing. After germination when the crop is a little over five weeks old, with depth of water below the height of seedlings, the fields are ploughed across which causes displacement of rice seedlings and at the same time the action of the plough serves the purpose of splitting the tillers by about 10 to 12 percent. Such a system creates irregular gaps which are partly filled up manually by throwing clumps of seedlings in between gaps at random. If this gap filling is systematically done, i.e., filling up of the gap by the separated tillers (designated as modified beusaning/biyasi system, or phalai) instead of the whole plants, the yields obtained are in no way less than what is harvested from a transplanted crop. If this modification is introduced, higher yields can be obtained. In a way the rice farmers have been unknowing practicing clonal propagation practice by about 10 to 12 percent through this age-old beusaning/biyasi system and balancing the production. This is a specialized practice in which some experienced rice farmers are comparatively very efficient. All what is required is to explain to the farmers of the locality the significance of the modified system so that they take full advantage of clone productivity of splitting the tillers systematically and utilize them in gap filling.
(There are very few examples of such type where scientists have tried to add value to farmers’ knowledge so effectively. Dr. Richharia was Director, Indian Rice Research Institute, Cuttack and has been great supporter of own gene and Knowledge bank –ed.)


(Quoted in ‘Agriculture in Ancient India’ edited by S.P. Raychaudhuri, published by Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, Chap. VIII, pp.101-108.
Sowing/Region Unspecified (p.101)
Extracting the seed from a fruit that has ripened in due season and dried. One should soak it in milk, having dried it for five days, he should fumigate it with the fumes of ghee in which vidanga has been mixed.
(There are hundreds of such practices mentioned in the above chapter of the Monograph. The practices have been divided mainly under two categories; (i) Practices dealing with propagation of plants whether grown from seeds, scion, and bulbous roots and (ii) practices describing the sowing of seeds and t he rat eat which they should be sown in different types of soils – ed.).
Hugh Brammer quoted in Robert Chambers, 1983: 99, op cit
Sowing/Humid Region
Wheat cultivation on the Barind tract soil of the Bogra district in the North-West of Bangladesh provides an insight to the farmers’ innovativeness. Even though the soil was not suitable for wheat cultivation, the farmers were growing wheat on this soil by making ridges by hand as done for cultivating potatoes which are also grown in the area and had sown two closely planted row of wheat on each ridge. Also they were irrigating the crop from big well or tanks, applying small amounts of water down the furrow so as to avoid water logging.
Dharampal, 1983; 236-237, op cit
Sowing/Region Unspecified
It is the practice in many parts of India, to sow different species of seeds in the same field. This practice has been censured, but it is probably done for the same reason that our farmer sow rye-grass and clover with wheat, barley, or oats; areas with rye; beans and peas, vetches and corn, etc.
″It has been found by experience that these crops not only thrive in the same field; but improve each other. Rye and oats for instance, serve to support the weak creeping tares, and add besides to the build of the crop by growing through the inter sites. Clover and rye grass are sheltered by the corn. This analogy will apply to the husbandry of India. These similar experiments may be carried further, where the climate and soil are superior. In India different kinds of seeds when sown in the same field are kept separate by the Drill, or they are mixed together, and sown broadcast. In the last case they are commonly cut down as forage. A plant called sota gowar, is sown broadcast with sugar cane, in Guzerat. The gowar serves as a shelter to the sugar cane, from the violent heat of the sun, during the most scorching season of the year. Joar and badgery are sown together, in the same country late, not for the sake of a crop, but for straw, which is very nutritive, and very abundant. This is one of the instances in which the natives provide a green crop for their cattle. Other grains are sown both together and separately, merely for their straw. Soondea, darrya joar, rateeja and goograjoar are sown together; but with the exception, of goograjoar which is allowed to ripen, the rest are reaped while they are green.″
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11

Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur © 2016
rəhbərliyinə müraciət