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Inventory of Peasant Innovations for Sustainable Development an annotated bibliography

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Anil Gupta, 1988a; 83E, op cit
B) Agronomic Means of Pest Control/Regions Unspecified
Delayed sowing of castor is done to avoid attack of red hairy caterpillar.

Women and Homestead Studies, BARI, Bangladesh

Indigenous Technologies: Horticulture and Forestry

FSR-H8-1986, pp.1-11
A) Agronomical Means of Pest Control/Humid Region (p.5)
Mechanical control is practiced in vegetables garden in Bangladesh (Zebun Nahar, Joydebpur). Ashes are used to control insects (Gomes, Jessore, Ditruba Islam, Ishurdi) Pitras seeds extract/powder (Giasuddin, Mymensingh) and jute seeds (powder) are used in controlling insects (Rowshanara, Jamalpur). Mixture of oilcake powder, dried garlic and leaves of bamboo, turmeric, Corton (patabahar) and ariod are applied at the base of betel leaf vines for nourishment and germicidal action.
B) Innovative Use of Common Chemicals/Humid REgion
Kerosene is used to control aphids (Usha, Rajashai, Bangladesh).
C) Mechanical Method of Pest Control/Humid Region

  1. Rats in gourd plants are controlled by bamboo trap.

Goodell Grace

Challenges to International Pest Management, Research and Extension in the Third World. Do we really want IPM to work? (Printed in Bulletin of ESA, 30(3)

FSR-G7, 1984, pp.18-26
Stored Grain Pest/Region Unspecified (p.19)
Dogan people of Mali, use local shrubs to smoke out the stores before stocking grains. This is far more effective than the storage protection techniques propagated by the government these.
Richards Paul

Indigenous Agricultural Revolution: Ecology and Food Production in West Africa

Hutchinson, London, Chap.1, pp.18-40

Agronomical Means of Pest Control/Arid Region (P.25)
The planting of different crop species and varieties in the same plot is a common feature in Western Africa.
Stoll Gaby

Natural Crop Protection on Local Resources

ILEIA, November 1986, 6, pp.7-8
Agronomical Means of Pest Control/Arid Region (p.7)

  1. The preventive measures for leaf eating caterpillar (cabbage worm, diamond moth, loopers) is mixed cropping. Diamond back moth (Plutella xylostella) occurs less cabbage-tomato combination. Curative measures are use of contact and systemic poisons like Derris spp (Leguminoseae) Quassia spp (Simarubaceae) ‘BAKULO VIRUS,’ etc.

  1. Neem, (Azadirachtaindica), (Meliaceae Ryania), (Speciosa), (Facourtiacea), (Derrisspp) the application of the se, acts as a deterrent to the borer and smuts.

Haque, Gupta and Abedin

Logic of Inter-Cropping Pulse in Bangladesh

Dry Land, H8, 1986
Agronomical Means of Pest Control/Humid Region (p.1)
Cultivation of coriander with chickpea is assumed to keeps the pest away.

Nicaragua’s Revolution in IPM

ILEIA, November 1986, 6, pp.14-16
Physical Method of Pest Control/Region Unspecified (p.14)
The peasants in Nicaragua sprinkle dirt in the whorls of maize to suppress the damage caused by army worm. It is found that mixing Nematodes with earth and applying this mixture to the whorls of infected corn plants results in 100% mortality of the army worm.
Madras Group (Extracted from The Ecologist)

Traditional vs Modern Agriculture Learning from a Sri Lankan Peasant.

PPST, November 1983, 3 (2)-6-17
Cultural, Agronomic and Other Methods of Pest Control/Region Unspecified (pp.8-9)

  1. Pour cactus milk into the water inlets in the paddy field to keep away certain insects.

  1. Discarded Buddhist robes made into wicks, dipped in coconut oil placed in different parts of the fields. Coconut oil has a strong smell which keeps insect/pest away.

  1. Juice of certain creepers poured and then pounded into the water at the inlets in paddy fields. This was effective against Godewella worms.

  1. Makra leaves are stack dried at four corners of the field.

  1. Branches of the ‘KADURA’ tree are planted at the four corners of the field. They are used as a support to the coconut lamps which attract bugs away from the paddy field.

  1. Sprinkle sand over paddy fields before irrigation.

  1. A long rope is impregnated with a sticky substance derived from jackfruit. When dragged across the field, bugs would stick to the rope.

  1. Tie lot of rags into a long bit of string. Impregnate the rags with resin called ‘DUMMALA’ which is then dragged across the fields. The bugs in the paddy fields get stuck to these.

  1. Special tool ‘PINOVIA’ is used for removing bugs from the surface of water.

  1. Crush coconut refuse and spread in each corner of the field. This attracts a bird called ‘Demal Ichcip’ which eats the paddy bugs.

  1. Bury four pieces of roots taken from eastern side of the ‘MEE’ tree, burn them in four corners of the paddy field, the rats will not enter the fields.

  1. Grow small sections of rice at the end of each paddy field for the birds.

Howard Albert

An Agriculture Testament, 1949, Oxford University Press, England, Edit.6

Chapter 11, pp.156-168
A) Agronomical Means of Pest Control/Semi-Arid Region (pp.164-166)

  1. In Rhodesia humus protects the maize crop from the attack of the witchweed.

  1. A small field of gram in Indore, about 2/3rd of which was flooded for few days in July due to the temporary shortage of one of the drain canals, which took storm water from adjacent areas. In October, about a month after sowing, this plot was heavily attacked by gram caterpillar. The insect infected area corresponded exactly with the inundation area.

The rest of the plot escaped infection and grew normally. Some change in the food of the caterpillar might have been brought about by the alteration in the soil condition by the temporary flooding.

  1. The second case of disease occurred in a field of ‘Sunhemp’ intended for green manuring. However, this was not ploughed but kept for seed. After flowering the crop was smothered by mildew; no seed was harvested. To produce a crop of seed of sunhemp on the black soils it was necessary to manure the land with humus or farm yard manure.

  1. The chief pest of fruit trees at Quetta was green fly. It attacked ‘soon after the young leaves appeared.’ Any interference in the soil aeration brought on this trouble. The tribesmen got over the tendency of these soils to pack under irrigation in a simple way. ‘LUCERNE’ is always grown in the fruit orchards and regularly top dressed with farmyard manure. In this way t he porosity of soil is maintained and the green fly kept in check.

Albert Howard, 1949: 157, op cit
Biological Pest Control/Region Unspecified
Various approaches suggested are:

  1. The study of the life history of the pest, including the general relation of the parasite to crop and the influence of the environment on the struggle for supremacy between the two.

  1. The study of the natural parasites of insect pests, the breeding of these animals and their actual introduction, whenever t his procedure promises success.

  1. The framing and conduct of regulations to protect an area from foreign pest which has not yet made its appearance.

Richard and Johnny

Tradition for Development: Indigenous Structure and Folk Media in Non-formal Education, Edited by Kidd & Colletta

November 1980, pp.332-369
Manual/Mechanical Pest Control/Sub-Humid Region (p.352)
In Sierra Leone, the farmers studied the behaviour of their worst agriculture pest, i.e., ‘TOWEI’ a species of grey monkey which caused destruction due, to reduction of forest cover, shifting cultivation and consequent destruction of trees that provided its favourite food. The villagers had carefully observed the monkey’s behaviour and used this knowledge to strategic advantage in a series of hunting raids designed to trap monkey still congregated in tree used for sleeping. (A similar practice prevalent in Ghana, Farmers keep empty coconut shell firmly tied to a chain. The shell has a small hole in which monkey can slip his fingers first but cannot do so with closed fist. They put boiled rice to attract monkey who grabs it in his fist but cannot take it out and gets trapped. Unless he decide to forgo the rice. Pers. Commn. Y. Mandavkar-Source: Unknown).
Richards Paul

Coping with Hunger: Hazard and Experiment in an African Rice-Farming System (The London Research Series in Geography) 1986, Allen & Unwin, UK Chap.5, pp.76-101
Biological Pest Control/Semi-arid Region (p.98)

  1. A low perimeter fence to exclude rodents is made by the farmers. Fencing reduces the chances of such a catastrophe and helps trap animals valued for their high-quality meat. Cane-rat meat is especially welcome in households beset by preharvest hunger.

  1. Birds are without doubt major pests on upland rice farms. Early rice is especially badly affected. Towards the later part of the harvest season the bird problem abates, perhaps because they have a much greater range of targets to attack. here are two key periods for bird scaring-just after broadcasting and then the 30 days or so leading up to the harvest (in effect, the period from flowering to ripening).

  1. Some farmers rig up a network of ropes to operate sets of rattles and alarms. Others rely on slings and stones (or on tumu farms, where there are no stones, specially prepared mud pellets are used).

  1. Some local rice varieties are reputed to be resistant to bird attack. These include both long-awned varieties, e.g., ngolo-yombo and filiwa, and varieties with long outer glumes. The general descriptive name kalembaama is sometimes applied to rices in the latter group (examples include ‘Madam Yebu’ and gbondobai).

Reddy Narayana, L

Experiences with Natural Farming in Biological methods of pest control proceedings of the Southern Regional Seminar, edited by Vijayalakshmi, PPST Foundation, Madras November 21-22, 1988, pp.49-50
Agronomical Means of Pest Control/Region Unspecified (p.49)

  1. Seed preservation could be done without pesticides, provided they are dried well and stored in their natural form.

  1. If banana suckers are immersed for a few minutes in boiling water, root nematodes would be completely checked and no chemicals are necessary.

  1. If marigold flowers plants are grown 15 ft. apart, both the aroma of the plant and the flower may check about 40 percent of insect multiplication in the cabbage family crops. Similarly the root excretion of the marigold is very much liked by the root nematodes which kills them in Solanaceae family crops.

  1. Companion planting like onion and carrot, rose and garlics, banana, and coconut helps in pest control.

Narayana Reddy, 1988: 50, ibid

Innovative Use of Common Chemicals/Sub-Humid Region

  1. Spraying neem leaf or oil cake decoction checks pest infestation, because of its bitter taste and strong repellent odour.

  1. Nicely pulverised chilly powder mixed with neem oil is the alternative found by farmers for most dangerous and costly pyrethorids which could not control pest infestation in cabbage and cauliflower.

  1. Maida and fine salt powder mixed well and dusted over cabbage made larvae die of thirst. (One farmer in Amravati controlled the ‘Kolshi’-a fungus like mildew infestation on the lower sided of leaves, first appeared in 1980-81, by spraying starch solution which when dried formed films and absorbed the ‘Kolshi’- Pers. Commn. Y. Mandavkar).

  1. Application of two to three kilogram of neem or pungania oil cake t the basins, checks root nematodes, white ant infestation and multiplication of mealy bugs.

Narayana Reddy, 1988: 50, op cit

Biological Pest Control/Sub-Humid Region

  1. Natural enemies like birds, frogs, snakes should be encouraged to be present around the farms as it helps a lot in pest control.

  1. Natural predators like ladybug controls aphids. Praying mantis checks most of the insects in the orchards. Spiders could keep control over many paddy pests provided they maintain needed population.

Narayana Reddy, 1988: 49, ibid

Stored Grain Pest/Sub-Humid Region
Food grains can be stored safely with dry neem leaves or leaf paste being coated over the storage basket or bin. (In Rohini village of Kheda district, Gujarat, India farmers use storage bins made of donkeys dung mixed with straw and soil. It is said to be resistant to various pests-ed.)

(Edited and Translated by Girija Prasanna Majumdar and Suresh Chandra Bannerji, 1960, The Asiatic Society, Calcutta, pp.1-18
Traditional Pest Control/Region Unspecified (pp.14-15)
For averting damage to crops by Locusts (Salabha) and rats, one should avoid sowing on Saturdays and Tuesdays respectively.


(Quoted in the Monograph ‘Agriculture in Ancient India’ edited by S.P. Raychaudhuri, Published by Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi), 1964, Chap.VII, pp.84-100
Innovative Use of Common Chemicals/Region Unspecified (P.95)
For the protection of trees on should take the ashes of a tree struck by lightning and scatter them around the trees. By so doing there would be no fear of damage from hoar-frost.
There are eighty such practices mentioned in the above chapter of the Monograph. From the practices, following dimensions regarding protection of crop from diseases and pests emerge: (a) Method of protecting trees (an example of which is already mentioned above); (b) Treatment of plant diseases-plants suffer from three ailments according to the author, viz., wind, bile and phlegm. On observing any of the disorders, treatment must be given for its removal. For trees eaten by vermin, burnt by fire, broken by storm or struck by lightning, cutting down is the only remedy. Besides the examples mentioned here ancient texts like Atharvaveda, Kallavagga, Jataka, etc. also enumerate reference to protection of crops.)
Chakrapani Misra

Visva Vallabha

(Quoted in the Monograph ‘Agriculture in Ancient India’ edited by S.P. Raychaudhuri, published by Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi), 1964, Chap.VII, pp.84-100
Biological Pest Control/Region Unspecified
The plants should be very carefully protected against the strong wind, frost, smoke, fire, vermin, porcupines and rats, for these are the pests of the plants.
(There are seventy six such practices mentioned in the above Chapter of the Monograph)
Stoll Gaby

Botanicals and Adaptive Research

The Sustainable Agriculture Newsletter

August 1989, 1(4)-3-6
Botanical Pest Control/Sub-Humid Region (p.3)
Khun Annop Tansakul is a Thai farmer. He observed that the following mixture gave the most satisfactory results in controlling insect pests. Preparation of stock solution consisting of 4 kg. of neem leaves Azadirachta indica, 4 kg. of citronella gras Cymbopogon nardus, 4 kg. galangal rhizome Alpinia galangal. The above mixture requires that the plant material is first chopped with a knife and then passed through a grinder to make it very fine. The ground plant material is mixed with 40 litres of water and allowed to soak for a day. After a day, the stock solution is filtered and diluted with water at a rate f 1:60. This provides enough spraying liquid for 4 ha.
In time of increased vegetative growth, the intervals between the applications are shorter, because the infestation pressure by leafminers is higher.

Gaby Stoll, 1989: 4, ibid

Botanical Pest Control/Sub Humid Region
Khun Prakhong Khrulngoen, a farmer from Pathum Thani province, Thailand (a province located in the fertile ‘ricebowl’ of Thailand), stopped using chemical pesticides such as Azodin and Monocroptopes on 50 rai of paddies (about 8 ha) three years ago.
The major pest problem he was facing in his rice was leafroller/leaffolder and green leafhopper/brown planthopper. After learning about the possibility of using botanicals he did a trial in 1987 using the following mixture; neem (leaves) 6 kg, large (rhizome) 4 kg, citronella grass (whole plant kg. The plant material is finely chopped and pounos, mixed with 60 litres of water and allowed to stand overnight. The next day, this extract is filtered and pressed well. 1 litre of the stock solution is dilutes with 30 litres of water.
According to his observation, a preventive spraying gives a good basic protection. He follows the following schedule:

  1. Application: 20 days after broadcasting to control leafroller

  1. Application: 35 days after broadcasting to control the leafroller and spondopters

  1. Application: During the panicle stage, but before pollination, about 2½ months after broadcasting to control the BPH.

For the BPH control he recommends spraying early to control the nymphs rather than the adults in order to prevent the build-up of a high population. Thus fewer eggs will be laid. During pollination spraying has to be avoided otherwise he will get empty grains. Usually he does not spray anymore after pollination.

Mohan Raj, R. Janarthanan and S. Suresh

International Rice Research Newsletter, Manila, Phillipines, August 1989, 14(4)-36.
Moonlight had a significant effect or nocturnal activity of stem borer, leaf folder, brown planthopper, and green leahopper. Full moon and new moonweek ratios were 1:1.1, 1:1.2, 1:2.2, and 1:2.3, respectively. This indicates that nocturnal activity of stem borer and leaf folder is much less influenced by moonlight than that of brown planthopper and green leafhopper.
The above study was undertaken by D. Mohanraj, R. Janarthanan and S. Suresh of Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Madurai, India. This study …….. farmer’s wisdom regarding the effect of moon on various insects.
Gaby Stoll, 1989: 6, op cit
Botanical Pest Control/Sub-Humid Region

A mixture of 1 kg root of S. tuberose and 1 kg leaves of A. indica mixed with 5 litres of water is prepared. Chop the plant parts, pound them finely, and mix them with water. Soak them for several days then filter and add 20 more litres of water. Before application add soap (about 5 grams per litre of water).

This spray is being used by a farmer about 75 km from Songhkla, South Thailand, to control Lepidoptera larvae (caterpillars in Chinese kale with good results.
Gaby Stoll, 1989: 7, ibid

Stored Grain Pest/Sub-Humid Region
A recent survey on grain storage losses in villages in north central Timor discovered that local women, who are wholly responsible for storage and distribution of foodgrain, use at least 3 natural insecticides to prevent weevil attack against sorghum grain, mung bean seeds and occasionally seed of other grain species. The species used (in order of reported efficacy) are:

  1. Seed of Schleichera oelsa (Kesambi, Australian oak) are collected when they fall (June-July) and are crushed into powder which is mixed with seeds to be stored. This tree was once used in traditional reafforestation programs by the Timorese as its timber is useful for making fences and for fuel. The seeds are also used to make a low quality lamp-oil and are eaten by cattle during the dry season.

  1. Pachyrrhizus bulbosus (Vas). Seeds are collected in late February and used as above. The seeds are quite toxic but the bulb of this annual legume is edible and the flowers are believed to be medicinal.

  1. Sterculia foetida (Nitas). This tree has large pods with 10-15 seeds from which lamp oil can be extracted. The oil can be drained over 3 days from the green seeds (June-July), dried, and mixed with grain/seed to be stored.

(There are several other similar practices mentioned n the Newsletter mentioned above).

Department of Agriculture Extension and O.F.R.D. BARI, Tangail, Bangladesh 1986, pp.1-2.
A) Agronomical Means of Pest Control/Humid Region

  1. Before one and half month of harvesting of T. Aman varieties of paddy draw a strip at distances of 2-3’ to control insect.

  1. Weeds are used for Nematode control in paddy.

B) Botanical Pest Control/Humid Region

  1. Jute (capilaris) seed powder/extract are used for controlling stem borer insect in paddy.

  1. Juice of ‘Talakachi’ leaf mixed with water sprinkled on leafy vegetables helps in control of beatles.

  1. Powdered neem fruit is used in paddy to control insect.

N. Alam, O.F.R.D. Tangail, Bangladesh, 1986: 1, ibid
C) Mechanical means of pest control/humid region

  1. Banana plant is used for rat control in wheat (the rustling of leaves crease sound which keeps rats away).

Gupta, S.P. and Gupta Anil K.

Local Innovations and Farmers Practices in Rainfed Eastern Uttar Pradesh (District; Faizabad) India: An Annoted list of farmer’s knowledge

August, 1989, pp.1-31.
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