Ana səhifə

Inventory of Peasant Innovations for Sustainable Development an annotated bibliography

Yüklə 467 Kb.
ölçüsü467 Kb.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11

Harbans Mukhia, 1989; 10, op cit
Implements – New use of an old implement/Region Unspecified
The Tuhfat-i-Punjab mentions an instrument named ‘Dandal,’ comprising of a very heavy plank with teeth at one end, drawn by fur oxen and pressed by two men. This was used for paddy cultivation and appears to be a sophisticated harrow. It is possible that this was a late introduction to Punjab and remained confined there.
Harbans Mukhia, 1989; 11, ibid
Implements/Mode of Use /Region Unspecified
The hoe was a small implement with narrow iron blade and a short handle used by cultivator sitting on their feet, much as is done today. The Amarkosa mentions an implement named Khanitra which has been differently translated as a hoe or spade.
M.S. Randhawa, 1983; 252, op cit
Implements/Region Unspecified
Land is frequently infested with weeds such as ‘Kunda’ (Saccharum), which if buried will readily spring up, whereas the native plough with its digging action, tears the weed out and brings it to the surface furrow. Turning plough could cover it over and give to it the very bed required for propagating itself. So there would be with a field covered with dub grass (Cynodondactylon) every weed will grown again.
For rice cultivation, nothing but a digging and stirring plough like the native one, would do any good, working as it does, among mud with several inches of water over it. For breaking up new land the native plough has also advantages and somewhat resembles the tearing action of the ‘steam digger.’
M.S. Randhawa, 1983; 252, ibid
Transference of Implements form one provinces to another/semi arid region

  1. Dandrala for breaking crust and seed drills; Dandrala on the bullock drawn rake was one such implement. On the way from Ferozepur to Ludhiana, some sandy soil was observed on which when rainfall occurs soon after sowing, a crust is very likely to form so that young shoots cannot force their way through it. This is especially the case with barley and rather less with wheat. When it forms, the people habitually resow the crop, as they have no implement corresponding to a harrow. A Bihar indigo planter could break-up this crust the instant it forms using bullock rake or harrows howing spikes some 8″ long and penetrating 2″ into the soil. An implement of this kind, if introduced at Ferozepur, would completely dispense with the necessity of resowing.

  1. A similar instance is that of a seed-drill for ‘dry’ (un irrigated) cultivation. In the northern a Telegu portion of Madras such a drill is used but not in the Southern or Tamil portion where grain is sown broadcast on ‘dry’ land.

The Traditional Agricultural System of Kakching in South East Manipur with Special Emphasis on its Social Management.

Paper presented at the Workshop on Traditional Technologies in Indian Agriculture at Nistads, New Delhi) March 1989, pp.1-6, Author not known, accessed through Navjoit Singh, NISTAD.
Implements/Sub-Humid Region
The traditional agricultural implements are the following:


It has three parts

    1. Potpu (Yoku)

    2. Yotchei and

    3. Longkhum (Plough Sheia)

Potpu is a bamboo frame for tying the two animals at the two ends. Yotchei is a wooden frame connecting the potpu and the plough. The size of both potu and yotchei is to e fixed according to the size of the axes which will draw it. But the general length of a potpu is from 6-6.5 ft. and that of a Yotchei is 9-9.5 ft.


It is a wooden sledge drawn by a buffalo and used for the transportation of seed corn, crops, etc.

  1. UKAI – (Harrow)

It has four types:

    1. Tumbu: it is used for pressing the clod

    2. Samjet Ukai: for harrowing over grown up plants, giving them strength, and also killing weeds.

    3. Leikot Ukai: for leveling the ground, and

    4. Wachet Ukai: it is also used for breaking plants before transplantation

  1. YOPAK (Spade made of Kakohing Yot)

It is known as Meitoi Yot. It is smaller in size than the spade now in use.

  1. THRESHING SPOON (Plough made of thok)

This spoon is like wooden implement and is still used for pushing up the crop during harvesting. It is about 4 ft. long.

    1. Wooden Thresher: it consists of one handle and three (sometimes four) fingers.

    2. Thangsand: this longda is used for cutting weeds and also needed for repairing field ridges.

    3. Hi (Boat): Wooden boats are used for transportation of crops.

    4. Thumuk (Bamboo basket) Thumuks are used for weighing and transportation of crops.

Krsi Parasara in ‘Agriculture in Ancient India’ Ed. S.P. Raychudhuri, 1964), Chap.iii, pp.34-42.

Implements/Region Unspecified (p.35)
There were plough shares consisting of a pointed piece of flat iron, one and a half inches wide and a quarter inch thick, side by side with broad and lance-shaped spares. But there is enough scientific reason for the choice of the former, for soils where the latter would be out of place.
Another example of adaptability to conditions is found in the implement called ‘Moi,’ Sanskrit ‘madi,’ which has been wrongly rendered in English as a ladder. The ordinary form consisting of a pair of half bamboo with stays to keep the pieces parallel and a part may be used as a ladder, but is in reality a leveler. In many places the ‘Moi’ is a piece of timber of rectangular section, and quite suitable for soft loamy soils. For the uplands of Bankura, the soil of which is gravelly and contains pieces of quartz, the ‘Moi’ is made of pair of planks inclined upwards towards each other and kept in position by a few ties. This levels the ploughed soil and collects the stones which come up between the planks.
The chapter also discusses the various types of implements existing during that time and their adaptability to the soil, season and manure. The two texts mentioned therein are Satapatha, Brahman, and Kasyapa’s ‘A Treatise on Agriculture.’ There about twenty seven practices regarding tillage, timing of tilling the land and tillage implements mentioned, in the chapter –ed).
Dinesh, Garg and Ram Krishna

Study of People’s Knowledge about Local Vegetation and Agricultural Implements, study undertaken under the guidance of Prof. Anil K. Gupta, IIM, Ahmedabad on voluntary basis in terms break during post graduate programme, December, 1987, pp.1-20.
Implements-Design/Arid Region (pp.13-14).
Variation in deshi plough was also reported by villagers of Dhar and Bagrundha in District Udaipur. The length of plough shoe (the part that goes into the soil) depended upon the draft capacity of the bullocks. The places where the bullocks are stronger and the layer f the soil is thicker shoe length is more than otherwise.
The shoe in the deshi plough is the part that penetrates the soil with share and backs the share. Previously this part used to be made with babool, and other parts of plough were made of other types wood. With the passage of time availability of babool, especially small pieces which can be used for making ‘shoe’ have reduced. This gave rise to search for alternatives. Presently this part is being made of ‘Dhawara’ although scarce, it is available in small pieces. As Dhawara is softer than babool, this part is now made wider so that the soil does not wear the main wood (babool) out. This shoe can be easily changed.
The sickles are hand tools used to harvest standing crop. The locally available sickles can be classified into two areas viz., impact sickles and friction sickles. These two are used not in isolation but in combination.
Standing crops like sugarcane, pearl millet and corn have thick strong stems which need to be cut by impact sickle. It has three fourth circular shape instead of semi-circular. It helps in pulling the stem with the impact and prevents it from going out of the sickle knife. Cereals like wheat have weaker stems. Moreover a number of plants are harvested in one cut. The sickle to be used here needs to have a round cutting edge as in the case with second type of sickle.
Shih Sheng-Han, 1963 50-52, op cit
Seed Treatment/Region Unspecified

  1. In China, to plant melons, wash the seeds with water, mix it with table salt. Slice off, the top most layer of dry soil with shovel.

  1. Onion seeds being angular are not easy to sow evenly. Mixing with millet is a good remedy. But the millet must be roasted before mixing or else it will come out as weeds among the onions. This was practiced in the 6th century in China.

Anil K. Gupta, 1985; 10, op cit
Seed Treatment/Arid Region
Covering the seed of tobacco at the time of seeding is practiced in Andhra Pradesh.
Wolfram Zehrer, 1987; 5, op cit
Seed Treatment/Semi-Arid Region
In Bangladesh, sprouting of water melons seeds could be hastened by (a) burying the seeds in cow dung heaps; or (b) burying in earthenware chula; or (c) soaking and packing the seeds in lungi.
Richard and Johnny, 1980; 348, op cit
Seed Treatment/Sub-Humid Region
Rice farmers in east of Sierra Leone also make use of ‘alternate’ planting. To sample quality of different seed types many farm huts are surrounded by little quality experiments of this sort. There are designed to determine the germination potential of various batches of seed before they are planted on an extensive scale. (Germination tests on banana leaves were reported in Bangladesh also ed).
Women and Homestead Studies, BARI, Bangladesh, 1987; 1-3, op cit
Seed Treatment/Humid Region

  1. Vegetable seeds are stored after sun drying directly in earthern pots, (Selina, Rangpur, Usha, Rajashahi) wrapped in used cloth. This method is for collection and preservation of seeds in Bangladesh.

  1. Tomato seeds are preserved in mud balls and cauliflower seeds in polythene bags. Amarnthas, chilli, sweet gourd seeds are wrapped in paper and the stored in tin cans. Seeds of watermelon, cucumber, brinjal, bitter gourd, etc., are dried in sun without washing and later mixed with ash for storage inside the walls of the room.

  1. In some cases, seeds are stored without extracting them from ripe fruits (brinjal, lady fingers, ribbed and sweet gourds). Some farmers keep disease and insect free large brinjal of first bearing for seeds. IN case of spices they are stored underground in heap (ginger, turmeric, rhizomes). This is a widespread practice in Indian tribal regions too. Ed.).

  1. Large dry seeds are preferred for raising seedlings.

  1. In homestead with sandy sil, ruit seedlings are raised in medium sized earthern pots and the planted with the pots making a hole at the bottom. Seedlings of local fruits (mango, Guava) are raised by keeping the seeds in a big pit filled up with manure and water supply at one day intervals.

  1. Seeds of bottle gourd, cucumber, country bean, ash gourd are sown directly in the pits for raising seedlings.

  1. Chilli seedling are raised in seed bed and then transplanted in the field. To raise the seedling of mango and ponmelo, sowing the selected variety of seeds in homestead. Mulching with the leaves and regular water supply ensure the emergence the seedlings.

Harbans Mukhia, 1989; 4, op cit
Seed Treatment/Region Unspecified
The ‘ARTHSASTRA’ suggests the use of a mixture of honey, clarified butter, the fat of hogs and cow dung for plastering the cut-end of the seeds of sugarcane and ‘the like.’ The seeds of bulbous roots were to be plastered with honey and clarified butter; cotton seeds were to be treated to cow dung and manure of bones and cow dung was to be given to trees. The sprouts were to be manured with a fresh haul of minute fishes and irrigated with the milk of ‘SNUHI’ (Euphorbia antiguorum). Recommendation for similar treatment of seeds continued to be made in the centuries following the Arthasastra.
Katin Srimongol, 1982, 19, op cit
Seed Treatment/Semi-Arid Region
During the cool season when the rainfall is unusual, farmers wash garlic plant after rainfall by pouring irrigation water over them.
Girija Prasanna Majumdar, 1927; 43, op cit
Seed Treatment/Region Unspecified
To ensure inflorescence the seed before sowing should be treated as follows: The seeds should be taken up in a palm greased with ghee and thrown in milk; on the day following the seed should be taken out of the milk with greased finger and the mass separated into single seeds. This process is repeated on 10 successive days. Then the seeds are to be carefully rubbed with cow dung and afterwards steamed in a vessel containing the flesh of hogs or deer. Then the seeds are to be sown with flesh, with the fat of the hogs added in a soil previously prepared by being sown with sesame and dug up or trodden down and the sprinkled daily with water mixed with kshira.
Girija Prasanna Majummdar, 1927; 44, ibid
Seed Treatment/Region Unspecified
To ensure the growth of Ballaris (i.e. sprouting and the growth of luxuriant stem and foliage) Varahamihra directs – the seeds should be properly soaked in an infusion of powdered paddy, ‘MASHA’ (Bean), sesame and barley mixed with decomposing flesh and then steamed with Haridra (Turmeric). This process will succeed even with the Tintidi (Tamrindus Indica).
For the Kapittha (Feronia elephantum) the seeds should be soaked for about 2 minutes in a decoction of eight roots; ‘Asphota’ (Jasmine) ‘Amalaki’ (Phyllan thus embellicus) ‘Dhaba’ (Grislea Mentosa) ‘VASIKA’ (Justice-Graderussa), ‘VETULA’ (Calamustung), ‘SURYYAVALLI’ (Gynan-dropispentaphyla), ‘Shyama’ (Ethites Frutescens) and ‘ATIMUKTAKA’ (Aganosma caryophyellata) boiled in milk. The seeds then should be dried in the sun. This process should be repeated for 30 days. A circular hole should be dug in the ground, a cubit in diameter and 2 cubits deep. This should be filled with the milky decoction. When the hole dries up, it should be burnt with fire and then pasted over with ashes mixed with ghee and honey. Three inches of soil should now e thrown in then the powder of bean, sesame and barley then, again three inches of soil.
Finally washing of fish should be sprinkled. The mud is beaten to a thick consistency. Then the seed previously prepared should be placed in the hole under three inches of the soil and fish washings (with fish) poured. This will lead to luxuriant ramification and foliage.
Walker in Dharampal, 1983; 237-238, op cit
Seed Treatment/Region Unspecified
It is the practice in many parts of India, to sow different species of seeds in the same field. The practice has been censured, but it is probably done for the same reason that our farmers sow rye-grass and clover with wheat, barley or oats; tares with rye; beans and peas; vetches and corn, etc.
It has been found by experience that these crops not only thrive in the same field; but improve each other. Rye and oats or instance, serve to support the weak creeping bares, and add besides to the bulk of the crop by growing through the inter stices. Clover and rye grass are sheltered by the corn. This analogy will apply to the husbandry of India. These similar experiments may be carried further, where the climate and oil are superior. In India different kinds of seeds hen sown in the same field are kept separate by the drill, or they are mixed together and sown broadcast.
Majumdar and Bannerji, 1960; 14, op cit
Seed Treatment/Region Unspecified
All seeds must be collected in Magha or Phalguna. After drying then in the sun, they should be kept in small bundles after separating the husk. Seeds of different classes must never be mixed up, and the grass particles should be carefully thrown away; the mixed seeds yield a poor harvest, and grass particles in them result in growth detrimental to paddy.
Girija Prasanna Mujumdar, 1935; 14, op cit
Seed Treatment/Region Unspecified
The seeds of grains are to be exposed to heat for seven nights; the seeds of Kosi (such as mudga, masha, etc.) are treated similarly for three nights.
Department of Agriculture Extension, Bangladesh, 1986; 2, op cit
Seed Treatment/Humid Region
A longitudinal section after Amavasya (dar phase of moon) for Bhadra or Ashvin in jack fruit help in bearing of fruits.
Dr. P.M. Mane, 1989; 1, op cit
Seed Preservation/Semi-arid Region
A few farmers practiced the hanging of some of the matured fruit vegetables in dry form either in house or in shade. These mainly include lady’s finger, brinjal, pumpkin, etc. In case of some of the grain crops like maize and sorghum, earheads are stored by having selection in the fields. Care is taken to select good, disease free and bolder fruits/seeds. Care is also taken to maintain and preserve the germination points of the seed material stored. (This is a widely practiced strategy in tribal region, Gupta, 1983, ed).
P.M. Mane, 1989; 2, ibid
Seed Storage/Semi-Arid Region
In storage of separated seed material there is a practice of mixing ash, leaves of the neem, covering the seeds with soil, etc. The logic behind such type of treatments is to preserve the seed material and protect it from insect damage during shortage.
Gupta and Saha, 1989; 15, op cit
Agronomic Experiment/Semi-Arid Region

  1. One farmer soaked wheat seeds with water for about 12 hours before sowing in the field (usar soil). His field had less moisture and the farmer faced the problem of germination many times. But soaking the seeds gave a good germination. (Village: Sarya Bagaha, Farmer; Rampinohi).

  1. The growth of dhaincha on the plots where broadcasting of seeds was followed by a planking (‘pata’) was better than the crop without post sowing planking. (Village: Isoulibhari, Farmer; Chowdhry).

Robert Rhoades, 1985; 43, ibid
Similarities of Practices/Sub-Humid Region
Himalayan potato agriculture resembles in many respects the complexity found in Andes. This is reflected not only in traditional agronomy and the wide range of varieties grown but a rich folk taxonomy (see Brush, et al 1980). Maintenance of diversity of traditional germ plasm is a central feature of the Himalayan system, as it is in the Andes. The Himalayan system is a matured potato culture and must be understood as such if it is to be improved.
Agronomic practices encountered are based on long-term adaptions and parallel found in other mountainous areas, especially the Andes. Use of small seed, planting in different zones, staggering planting dates to spread risks, seed exchange through barter system, and manipulation of many varieties for different purposes are but a few examples. Each practices may be considered ‘poor technology’ if understood outside the context in which they function. The fact that these practices occur independently in widespread world areas in response to similar conditions suggests that they are rational.
The varieties found in Morang and Ilam District may be similar to many of these varieties are the same discussed in great deal by Pushkarnath (1964) in his potato in India. Pushkarnath gathered 40 synonyms of the variety Phulwa and 49 names of Darjeeling red round.
Women and Hmestead Studies, BARI, Bangladesh, 1987; 4, op cit
Manure/Humid Region
Cow, goat dung poultry, pigeon droppings and leaves are used as manure in Bangladesh. Reports indicate that doses of Urea, Triple Super Phosphate, Muriate of Phosphate are manures are that applied for cultivation of cauliflower onion, brinjal spinach but urea is not applied at all in tomato and radish. This is because it favours rotening of tomato and reduces their taste in some cases. Vegetable are grown exclusively on manure. Some time vegetables are rotated with spices like ginger and turmeric. (The farmers sheep in the fallow land overnight in many parts of India. In fact the income from penning was found to be. These times move in Maharashtra than the income from wool, Gupta, 1983, ed).
Phalaraksh Kanok and Others

A study on Relationship between Plant and Animal Focusing on Animal Manure and Crop Residue

Eco. Env-P03, 1984, pp.30
Manure/Sub-Humid Region (p.23)

  1. In N-W Thailand, animal manure helps to improve soil fertility when level of soil surface by taking soil at high area to put on the low area after which the animal manure is added into the soil surface.

  1. The farmers also believe that if the sun rises early, there is going to be good sunshine throughout the day, there will be steady rainfall in the coming rainy season. However, if the sun rises late but there is good sunshine throughout the day, rainfall will come late but in adequate amount.

  1. Animal manure is applied to cassava to improve yield, native cow pea, mulberry, chilli and cultivated pasture.

  1. Animal manure, can be used very other year since it maintain soil fertility longer.

  1. Fresh manure gives higher yields than dried manure. (Farmers of eastern Uttar Pradesh advocate application of one year old farmyard manure rather than fresh manure. Pers. Commn. –G.S. Saha).

  1. Native cowpea plants are burnt after harvesting the pod to put for nutrients, back to the soil. Also animals do not consume cowpeas.

Farmers add animals manure to paddy fields between February and May and to vegetable plots after harvesting rice.

Madras Group, PPST, 1986; 10, op cit
Manure/Region Unspecified

  1. Planting of 8’ MEE Tree attracts bats. The dropping of bats would be an important source of fertilizer.

  1. Growth of weeds like Thora, and Ana, Hiriya, Nidikumba and Pila-help in fixing nitrogen, straw from stems of traditional varieties of paddy form a source of fertilizer.

Brihat Samhita,

Sloka 9, Chapter 54

(Quoted in Girija Prasanna Manjumdar’s 1927, pp.255)
Manure/Region Unspecified (p.42)
To promote inflorescence and fructification, a mixture of one adhaka (6 ½ palas) of sesame, two adhakas (128 palas) of excreta of goats or sheep, one prastha (16 palas) of barley powder, one tula (100 palas) of beef, thrown into one drona (256 pals) of water and standing over 7 nights, should be poured round the roots of the plants. The measure is given for one plant. This measure can be used for all kinds of plants.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11

Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur © 2016
rəhbərliyinə müraciət