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Table 11 Algae formed zoospores when liquid water or liquid medium was present

Alga Conditions for zoospore formation Reference

Gloeocystis sp. When the alga was transformed from a Gerneck 1907

solid substratum to a liquid medium

Hormidium When the alga was transferred from a Klebs 1896;

nitens, solid substratum to a liquid medium Gerneck 1907

H. flaccidum, or better water

Hormidium sp.
Pediastrum Resting spores began to form zoospores Ooshima 1974

simplex when inoculated in the fresh Bold’s

Basal medium after 2 weeks

Planktosphaeria By transferring cells which had been Starr 1954 a

gelatinosa growing on agar medium to distilled

water after the agar medium had

begun to dry

Planophila sp. When the alga was transferred from a Gerneck 1907

solid substratum to a liquid medium

Protosiphon If the water was pour over the alga or Cienkowski 1855;

botryoides the alga was flooded (also for gametes) Klebs 1896;

Bold 1933;

Moewus 1933;

Durant et al. 1968

Tetraёdron By transferring cells which had been Starr 1954 b

bitridens growing on agar medium to distilled

water after the agar medium had

begun to dry noticeably


Botrydiopsis When material from old agar cultures Broady 1976

constricta was inoculated into fresh growth medium
Botrydium If the water was pour over the alga or the Rostafinski and

granulatum alga growing in Knop’s solution was Woronin 1877;

transferred to clean water Klebs 1896

Ophiocytium When the alga was transferred from a Gerneck 1907

sp. solid substratum to a liquid medium

or better water

Vaucheria When water was pour over the alga Klebs 1896

repens or the filaments kept in moist for

some days were soaked in water

or removed from a dilute nutritive

solution into pure water

The pH of the water

Blue- green and green algae assessed reproduced favorably towards alkaline side of the medium (Table 12). The sporulation of Anabaena fertilissima in the range of higher alkalinity was the ecological strategy for the alga to resist the competition offered by Anabaenopsis arnoldii occurring in the same lake (Table 12).

Table 12 The pH of the medium optimum for reproduction

Alga Structure/ Optimum pH Reference

process formed recorded

Anabaena doliolum Akinete 8.0 Pandey and Kashyap

Anabaena Akinete 7.0- 10.5 Reddy 1984

Anabaenopsis Akinete 7.0- 8.5 Reddy 1984

Aphanizomenon Akinete 9.33 Rother and Fay

flos-aquae 1977; Jones 1979
Nodularia Akinete 8.0 Pandey and

spumigena Talpasayi 1980

Westiellopsis Akinete 7.5- 10.5 Agrawal and

prolifica Sharma 1994

Chlamydomonas Sexual phase 7.5 Karel- Tetik and

geitleri Sulek 1987
Closterium Zygospore 7.0- 8.5 Vidyavati and

acerosum Nizam 1973

Gonium pectorale Mating, 7.0 Stein 1965

zygote formation

Pithophora Akinete 5.0- 9.0 Agrawal and Sarma

oedogonia 1983; Chaudhary

and Singh 1987

Protosiphon Zoospore, 7.0 Maher 1947

botryoides gamete
Rhizoclonium Zoospore 7.5 Gupta and

hieroglyphicum formation, Agrawal 2004 b


Spirogyra sp. Reproduction 7.0- 9.0 Hoshaw and

McCourt 1988

Stigeoclonium Zoospore, 8.0 Agrawal and

pascheri akinete Sarma 1982 a,

Agrawal 1993

Ulva flexuosa Reproduction 8.2 Mairh et al. 1986


Ulva mutabilis Meiotic 8.0- 8.5 Nordby 1977




Pollution of water of any type is detrimental to reproduction of almost all algae assessed (Table 13). Although iron at some low levels was needed for hormogonia formation in Calothrix (Douglas et al. 1986) and akinete formation in Gloeotrichia (Sinclair and whitton 1977) and boron at some low levels for reproduction in Dictyota (Nasr and Bekheet (1970) and Fucus (McLachlan 1977), trace elements and heavy metals (molybdenum, manganese, cobalt, zinc, iron, nickel, copper, boron, lead, mercury) proved to be very toxic and inhibited reproduction in different algae assessed (Table 13).

Natural or synthetic antibiotics (actinomycin, rifampicin, amoxicilline, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, mitomycin-c, cycloheximide, puromycin, streptomycin, and penicillin); pesticides (carbofuran, gammaxine, iralon, rogor, phorate, DDT, captan, endosulfan, moticop, phosalone); herbicides (2,4-D, butachlor, DCMU, phenylurethane); detergent and surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate); an organosulfur compound thiourea; hydrocarbon gases (acetylene, ethylene); mutagen 5- bromouracil; metabolic poison (2,4- dinitrophenol, 2,4- dinitrophenyl hydrazine); carcinogen azaserine; sewage water, fertilizer factory effluent, industrial and municipal effluents (containing different heavy metals, and ammonia, chloride, sulfate, sulfide, etc.); crude oil; benzene; phenol; toluene; all, at different levels were inhibitory to reproduction in different algae assessed (Table 13).

Table 13 Pollution or chemicals inhibiting reproduction in algae

Alga Structure/ Inhibiting substance Reference



Anabaena Akinete Nalidixic acid, hydroxyurea, Fay et al. 1984

circinalis urea, actinomycin, rifampicin,

mercaptoethanol, azaserine,

casamino acid, trace element

mixture (molybdenum, cobalt,

boron, zinc, iron)
Anabaena Akinete Chloramphenicol Simon 1973

Anabaena Akinete Nickel (0.1- 50 μmol/L) Shukla et al.

doliolum 2009
Anabaena Akinete Cobalt, copper, zinc, Agrawal and

iyengarii mercury or lead Misra 2002

(0.5- 10 ppm);

carbofuran; 2, 4- D;

dithane; phorate

or bavistin (1- 50 ppm)

Anabaena Akinete Mitomycin- C (0.01 ppm), Ahluwalia

oscillarioides 5- bromouracil (2 ppm), 1985

caffeine (1 mmol/L)

Aphanothece Cell division Sewage water (25- 100 %); Agrawal and

pallida fertilizer factory effluent Gupta 2009

and brassica oil

(both 1- 100 %); phenol,

toluene, benzene

(all 25- 100 %)

Cylindrospermum Akinete Acetylene and ethylene Hirosawa and

licheniforme Wolk 1979 a
Cylindrospermum Akinete Butachlor (2 ppm) Kaur et al.

sp. 1997
Fischerella Cell division, Manganous chloride Singh and

muscicola akinete (5, 7.5 mmol/L); caffeine Subbaramaiah

(5, 10 mmol/L); lanthanum 1970

acetate (0.7, 1.5 mmol/L);

maleic hydrazide (2, 4 mmol/L);

coumarin (1.4 mmol/L);

thioglycolic acid (1 mmol/L);

colchicine (10 mmol/L);

uranyl nitrate (0.5, 10 mmol/L)

Gloeocapsa Cell division Sewage water (25- 100 %); Agrawal and

atrata fertilizer factory effluent Gupta 2009

and brassica oil

(both 1- 100 %); phenol,

toluene, benzene

(all 25- 100 %)
Nodularia Akinete Streptomycin, penicillin Pandey and

spumigena or chloramphenicol Talpasayi 1982

(1 ppm)
Nostoc Akinete Butachlor (0.5 ppm) Kaur et al. 1997

Nostoc PCC Akinete Chloramphenicol Sutherland

7524 (100 ppm), rifampicin et al.1979

(5 ppm), 7- azatryptophan
Nostochopsis Akinete Cobalt, zinc, mercury, Agrawal and

lobatus copper, lead (0.5 ppm); Misra 2002

carbofuran; 2,4-D,

dithane, phorate,

bavistin (1-50 ppm)

Westiellopsis Sporulation Thiourea; sodium Chellappa

iyengarii bisulphite; 2,4- et al. 1977


2, 4- dinitrophenyl

hydrazine; actinomycin- D;


B- azaguanine

Westiellopsis Akinete Boron; cobalt; copper; Agrawal and

prolifica zinc; mercury, lead Sharma 1994;

(0.5- 10 ppm); Agrawal and

carbofuran; 2, 4- D; Misra 2002

dithane; phorate;

bavistin (1- 50 ppm)
Acetabularia Gametes Actinomycin D (50 ppm) Koop 1975

mediterranea puromycin (10 ppm),

cycloheximide (0.1 ppm)

Chlamydomonas Gametogenesis 3- (3, 4- dichlorophenyl-) - Lorch and

eugametos 1, 1- dimethylurea Karlander

(DCMU) (6.0 μmol/L) 1973

Chlamydomonas Sexual Phenylurethane Lewin 1956

moewusii differentiation
Chlamydomonas Fusion of Phosalone Pednekar

reinhardtii gametes et al.1987

Chlamydomonas Gametogenesis, Cycloheximide Ishiura and Iwasa

sp. mating 1973

Chlorella Autospore Sewage water (25, 100 %); Agrawal and

vulgaris mother cell detergent (0.1- 1 %); Manisha 2007

differentiation phenol, kerosene

(5- 20 %); benzene,

toluene, phenol

(5, 10 %); rogor,

endosulfan (1, 10 ppm)

Autospore Streptomycin, penicillin,

mother cell amoxicillin

dehiscence (10- 1000 ppm);

tetracycline (10, 100 ppm);

carbofuran, gammaxine,

moticop, iralon

(1- 100 ppm)
Cladophora Zoosporangium Cobalt, copper, zinc, lead, Agrawal and

glomerata mercury (0.5- 10 ppm); Misra 2002

carbofuran; 2, 4- D; dithane;

phorate; bavistin (1- 50 ppm)
Closterium Conjugation 3- (4- chlorophenyl) - 1, 1- Kato et al. 1983

peracerosum- dimethyl urea (1 μmol/L),

strigosum chloramphenicol (20- 40 ppm)


Haematococcus Aplanospore Nickel (100 μmol/L) Xyländer and

lacustris Braune 1994
Pithophora Akinete Ekalur EC- 25 Agrawal and

kewensis Chaudhary 1989
Pithophora Akinete Cobalt, copper, zinc, Chaudhary and

oedogonia mercury, lead (0.5- 10 Singh 1986;

ppm); carbofuran; dithane; Agrawal and

2, 4- D; phorate; bavistin Misra 2002

(1- 50 ppm)

Rhizoclonium Zoosporangium Cobalt, copper, zinc, lead, Agrawal and

hieroglyphicum formation and mercury (0.5- 10 ppm); Misra 2002;

dehiscence, carbofuran; 2, 4- D; phorate; Gupta and

zoospore dithane; bavistin (1- 50 ppm); Agrawal 2004 b

formation thiourea (100, 200 ppm);

DDT (200- 600 ppm);

captan (200 ppm)

Stigeoclonium Akinete Streptomycin (12.5- 200 ppm), Agrawal and

pascheri penicillin (500- 4000 ppm), Sarma 1980;

chloramphenicol (12.5- 200 Agrawal and

ppm), boron (5, 10 fold level Sarma 1982 b;

of basal medium), caffeine Agrawal 1985

pretreatment (500- 2000 ppm)
Ulva Zoosporogenesis, Chloramphenicol, Hoxmark 1975

mutabilis gametogenesis cycloheximide
Ulva Sporulation Elutriates of sludge Han and Choi

pertusa (having cadmium, 2005

copper, zinc, lead),

sodium dodecyl sulfate

Ditylum Sexuality Manganese Steele 1965

Pinnularia Cells separation Detergent Hopkins 1969

viridis during cell


Champia Spermatia Municipal and industrial Thursby

parvula formation effluents et al.1985
Jania rubens Spore Industrial wastes Murthy and

liberation Rao 2003

Gracilaria Spore Crude oil (0.1- 10 ppm) Premila and

corticata liberation Rao 1997
Industrial wastes Murthy and

Rao 2003
Hypnea Spore Crude oil (0.1- 10 ppm) Premila and

valentiae liberation Rao 1997
Industrial wastes Murthy and

Rao 2003

Dictyota Spore Crude oil (0.1- 10 ppm) Premila and

dichotoma liberation Rao 1997
Lessonia Spore Copper (7.87 μg/ L) Contreras

nigrescens release et al. 2007
Padina Spore Crude oil (0.1- 10 ppm) Premila and

antillarum liberation Rao 1997

(=P. tetrastro-


Industrial wastes Murthy and

Rao 2003


UV- B/ UV- C light were inhibitory to algal reproduction (Table 14).

Table 14 UV light proved inhibitory to algal reproduction

Alga Structure/ Agents Reference

process inhibited

Anabaena Akinete UV- B Blakefield and Harris

aequalis 1994
Anabaena Akinete UV- C Singh 1967

Anabaena Akinete UV- C of any dose Agrawal and Singh

iyengarii (0.96- 7.68 kJ/ m2) 2000
Aphanothece Cell division UV- C of any dose Agrawal and Pal

nidulans (0.96- 1.92 kJ/ m2) 2003
Chroococcus Cell division UV- C of any dose Agrawal and Pal

minor (0.96- 3.84 kJ/ m2) 2003
Gloeocapsa Cell division UV- C of any dose Agrawal and Pal

aeruginosa (0.96- 3.84 kJ/ m2) 2003
Nostoc Akinete UV- C Singh and Tiwari

linckia 1969
Nostochopsis Akinete UV- C of any dose Agrawal and Singh

lobatus (0.96- 7.68 kJ/ m2) 2000
Westiellopsis Akinete UV- C of any dose Agrawal and Singh

prolifica (0.96- 7.68 kJ/ m2) 2000

Chlamydomonas Zygospore UV- C Van Winkle- Swift

monoica and Burrascano 1983

Chlamydomonas Meiotic spore UV- C Davies 1965

Chlorella Autospore UV- C of any dose Agrawal and Singh

vulgaris mother (0.96- 7.68 kJ/ m2) 2001

Euastrum Conjugation UV- C Vidyavati and Nizam

spinulosum 1971
Hydrodictyon Daughter net UV- C of any dose Agrawal and Pal

reticulatum (0.96- 1.92 kJ/ m2) 2003
Oedogonium Reproduction UV- C Parker and Horsley

cardiacum 1972

Oedogonium Oogonium UV- C of any dose Agrawal and Pal

sp. (0.96- 1.92 kJ/ m2) 2003

Pithophora Akinete UV- C of any dose Agrawal and Singh

oedogonia (0.96- 7.68 kJ/ m2) 2000
Rhizoclonium Zoosporangium UV- C of any dose Gupta and Agrawal

hieroglyphicum dehiscence ( 0.96- 1.92 kJ/ m2) 2004 b
Stigeoclonium Akinete UV- C of any dose Sarma and Agrawal

pascheri (1.92- 7.68 kJ/ m2) 1980 a, b
Ulva pertusa Sporulation UV- B Han et al. 2003

(0.085 kJ/ m2

for 50 % inhibition)
Volvox Gonidia UV- C Kochert and Yates

carteri 1970; Kochert and

Crump 1979; Baren

and Huskey 1986

Gigartina Spore, UV- B Navarro et al. 2008

skottsbergii embryo

Mazzaella Spore UV- B Navarro et al. 2008



Fucus Embryo UV- B Henry and

gardneri Van Alstyne 2004
Laminaria Zoospore UV- B Roleda

digitata et al. 2009

Macrocystis Embryo UV- B Navarro

pyrifera et al. 2008

Saccharina Zoospore UV- C, UV- B Lüning 1981 b;

latissima release, Makarov and

(=L. saccharina) germination, Voskoboinikov

gametophyte, 2001

egg release


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