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0.2 Program Stream

The Program Stream is a stream definition which is tailored for communicating or storing one program of coded data and other data in environments where errors are very unlikely, and where processing of system coding, e. g. by software, is a major consideration.

Program Streams may be either fixed or variable rate. In either case, the constituent elementary streams may be either fixed or variable rate. The syntax and semantics constraints on the stream are identical in each case. The Program Stream rate is defined by the values and locations of the System Clock Reference (SCR) and mux_rate fields.
A prototypical audio/video Program Stream decoder system is depicted in Figure 0-5 on page xv below. The architecture is not unique -- system decoder functions including decoder timing control might equally well be distributed among elementary stream decoders and the channel specific decoder -- but this figure is useful for discussion. The prototypical decoder design does not imply any normative requirement for the design of an Program Stream decoder. Indeed non-audio/video data is also allowed, but not shown.

Figure 0-5 -- Prototypical decoder for Program Streams
The prototypical decoder for Program Streams shown in Figure 0-5 is composed of System, Video, and Audio decoders conforming to parts 1, 2, and 3, respectively, of this Recommendation†|†International Standard. In this decoder the multiplexed coded representation of one or more audio and/or video streams is assumed to be stored or communicated on some channel in some channel-specific format. The channel-specific format is not governed by this Recommendation†|†International Standard, nor is the channel-specific decoding part of the prototypical decoder.
The prototypical decoder accepts as input a Program Stream and relies on a Program Stream Decoder to extract timing information from the stream. The Program Stream Decoder demultiplexes the stream, and the elementary streams so produced serve as inputs to Video and Audio decoders, whose outputs are decoded video and audio signals. Included in the design, but not shown in the figure, is the flow of timing information among the Program Stream decoder, the Video and Audio decoders, and the channel-specific decoder. The Video and Audio decoders are synchronized with each other and with the channel using this timing information.
Program Streams are constructed in two layers: a system layer and a compression layer. The input stream to the Program Stream Decoder has a system layer wrapped about a compression layer. Input streams to the Video and Audio decoders have only the compression layer.
Operations performed by the prototypical decoder either apply to the entire Program Stream ("multiplex-wide operations"), or to individual elementary streams ("stream-specific operations"). The Program Stream system layer is divided into two sub-layers, one for multiplex-wide operations (the pack layer), and one for stream-specific operations (the PES packet layer).

0.3 Conversion between Transport Stream and Program Stream

It may be possible and reasonable to convert between Transport Streams and Program Streams by means of PES packets. This results from the specification of Transport Stream and Program Stream as embodied in 2.4.1 on page 10 and 2.5.1 on page 53 of the normative requirements of this Recommendation†|†International Standard. PES packets may, with some constraints, be mapped directly from the payload of one multiplexed bit stream into the payload of another multiplexed bit stream. It is possible to identify the correct order of PES packets in a program to assist with this if the program_packet_sequence_counter is present in all PES packets.

Certain other information necessary for conversion, e.g. the relationship between elementary streams, is available in tables and headers in both streams. Such data, if available, shall be correct in any stream before and after conversion.

0.4 Packetized Elementary Stream

Transport Streams and Program Streams are each logically constructed from PES packets, as indicated in the syntax definitions in on page 33. PES packets shall be used to convert between Transport Streams and Program Streams; in some cases the PES packets need not be modified when performing such conversions. PES packets may be much larger than the size of a Transport Stream packet.
A continuous sequence of PES packets of one elementary stream with one stream ID may be used to construct a PES Stream. When PES packets are used to form a PES stream, they shall include Elementary Stream Clock Reference (ESCR) fields and Elementary Stream Rate (ES_Rate) fields, with constraints as defined in on page 43. The PES stream data shall be contiguous bytes from the elementary stream in their original order. PES streams do not contain some necessary system information which is contained in Program Streams and Transport Streams. Examples include the information in the Pack Header, System Header, Program Stream Map, Program Stream Directory, Program Map Table, and elements of the Transport Stream packet syntax.
The PES Stream is a logical construct that may be useful within implementations of this standard; however it is not defined as a stream for interchange and interoperability. Applications requiring streams containing only one elementary stream can use Program Streams or Transport Streams which each contain only one elementary stream. These streams contain all of the necessary system information. Multiple Program Streams or Transport Streams, each containing a single elementary stream, can be constructed with a common time base and therefore carry a complete program, i.e. with audio and video.

0.5 Timing model

Systems, Video and Audio all have a timing model in which the end-to-end delay from the signal input to an encoder to the signal output from a decoder is a constant. This delay is the sum of encoding, encoder buffering, multiplexing, communication or storage, demultiplexing, decoder buffering, decoding, and presentation delays. As part of this timing model all video pictures and audio samples are presented exactly once, unless specifically coded to the contrary, and the inter-picture interval and audio sample rate are the same at the decoder as at the encoder. The system stream coding contains timing information which can be used to implement systems which embody constant end-to-end delay. It is possible to implement decoders which do not follow this model exactly; however, in such cases it is the decoder's responsibility to perform in an acceptable manner. The timing is embodied in the normative specifications of this standard, which must be adhered to by all valid bit streams, regardless of the means of creating them.

All timing is defined in terms of a common system clock, referred to as a System Time Clock. In the Program Stream this clock may have an exactly specified ratio to the video or audio sample clocks, or it may have an operating frequency which differs slightly from the exact ratio while still providing precise end-to-end timing and clock recovery.
In the Transport Stream the system clock frequency is constrained to have the exactly specified ratio to the audio and video sample clocks at all times; the effect of this constraint is to simplify sample rate recovery in decoders.

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