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Inca dynastic history

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  1. Manco Capac Manqo Qhapaq

  2. Sinchi Roca Zinchi Roq’a

  3. Lloque Yupanqui Lloq’e Yupanki

  4. Mayta Capac Mayta Qhapaq

  5. Capac Yupanqui Qhapaq Yupanki


  1. Inca Roca Inka Roq’a

  2. Yahuar Huacac Yawar Waqaq

  3. Viracocha Wiraqocha Inka

  4. Inca Yupanqui (Pachacuti) Inka Yupanki (Pachakuti)

  5. Topa Inca Yupanqui Thupa Inka Yupanki

  1. Huayna Capac Wayna Qhapaq

  2. Huascar Waskhar

  3. Atahuallpa Atawallpa

[look on web page: list of Incas, panacas, paired commoner ayllu, etc.]

[power point slides of Inca rulers]


1200 beginning of dynasty

  1. Defeat of Chankas - Pachakuti crowned (fringed)

1448 9th emperor Pachakuti began great expansions

1463 Thupa Inka Yupanki took command of army

  1. Thupa Inka Yupanki succeeded Pachakuti

  1. Wayna Qhapaq succeeded Thupa Inka Yupanki

  1. Death of Wayna Qhapaq; Waskhar succeeded

  1. Waskhar killed by Atawallpa’s generals after civil war; Spanish arrive

History of Inca Conquests (Rowe 1946)

The reign of Wiraqocha Inka:

  • Quechua to NW, Chanka beyond

  • Chanka conquered part of Quechua territory and settled near Andahuaylas

  • Viracocha Inca married daughter of chief of Anta to strengthen buffer

  • Chanka delayed attack until Wiraqocha Inka was old man

  • Viracocha believed resistance was impossible, as did his heir, Inca Urccon

  • Took refuge in fortress Caquia-Xaquixahuana (above Calca)

  • Generals and nobles refused to leave Cuzco, organized defense

  • managed to repel attack on Cuzco

  • in later battles soundly defeated Chankas

  • suddenly, Incas most powerful people in the Andes

Inca Yupanki has himself crowned (fringed) in place of Urqon (his brother) and took on the title of Pachakuti (“cataclysm”)


  • great conqueror and organizer; son, Thupa Inka Yupanki, equally able

  • Pachakuti and Thupa Inka Yupanki extended empire to Quito, Chile

  • introduced Inca administrative system wherever they went

  • nowhere did they find a state capable of meeting them on equal terms

  • by the time they reached the Chimú they were too powerful

Conquests of Pachakuti (1438-1463)

  • after defeating Chankas, started in lower Urubamba Valley, Vilcapampa

  • spent time remodeling Cuzco – 10 years

  • turned west, took Soras, Lucanas, Vilcas

  • sent General Yupanki to reconnoiter south coast

  • took Aymaraes, Omasayos, Cotapampas, Chilques, and other province in immediate vicinity

  • Chanka restless, persuaded to subjugate Colla

General Capac Yupanki

  • entrusted with large expedition to north – given contingent of Chankas led by Ancoallo, ordered not to go beyond specific point (sources differ as to exactly where)

  • took Angará, Huanca, Tarma (past limit)

  • Chanka didn’t get along, escaped to east below Huánuco

  • general executed on return to Cuzco


  • unrest in Titicaca basin

  • Lupaqa supposed to be allies, but causing trouble

  • took Lupaqa in person

  • began to leave military affairs more and more to his son

  • worked on rebuilding Cuzco

Thupa Inka Yupanki (under Pachakuti’s reign) (1463-1471)

  • organized areas already taken

  • marched to Quito

  • pushed his way down to Ecuadorian coast, even took voyage of exploration into Pacific

  • invaded coast from north, taking Chimú kingdom on flank where least prepared

  • took coast as far as Lurín

  • after trip to Cuzco, took south coast, Nasca to Mala

  • became emperor when Pachakuti very old and resigned

Thupa Inka Yupanki (1471-1493)

  • took eastern forests of upper Madres de Dios, through Paucartambo

  • a Colla soldier deserted, went home, reported that the Inca had been defeated by forest Indians – set off revolt of Colla and Lupaqa – put down

  • invaded Bolivia

  • Thupa Inka Yupanki had a vision of himself as master of the whole civilized world, and vowed to conquer it all

  • took Bolivia, Chile south to the Maule River, Tucumán, and highland Argentina

  • one more expedition to the eastern forests

  • devoted the rest of his reign to the organization of the empire

  • died in 1493, succeeded by his son

Wayna Qhapaq (1493-1527)

  • put down revolts

  • widened frontiers to the north, set the Inca boundary at the Ecuador-Colombia border

  • enlarged Chachapoyas, added Mayopampa

  • Chiriguano attacked from the east, repelled but never taken

  • Chiriguanos brought the first European to the Andes – Alejo García

  • died in 1527 – same year that he received a report of Pizarro’s first expedition touching down at Tumbez

Civil War

  • Wayna Qhapaq died suddenly, as did his named successor Ninan Cuyuchi

  • Waskhar, in Cuzco, was the obvious choice; crowned by nobles in Cuzco

  • Atawallpa took governorship of Quito, revolted

  • later said that Huayna Capac had divided the empire, and gave him the whole north half

  • Atawallpa only had north half of Ecuador, but had Wayna Qhapaq’s army

  • wanted separate monarchy in Quito, then set out to be emperor of all Inca territory

  • if Pizarro had arrive even one year later, Waskhar would have been all but forgotten, and Atawallpa in a better position to defend the Incas

  • war decided in battles near Quito, final great encounter by Apurimac approach to Cuzco

  • Waskhar captured, all his leaders destroyed

  • Atawallpa heading south, camped at Cajamarca – Pizarro arrives on the scene

  • news reached Atawallpa in Cajamarca soon after the Spanish arrived

to be continued…

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