Ana səhifə

Hours of thinking, hours

Yüklə 78.5 Kb.
ölçüsü78.5 Kb.
Name: Horticulture 232

Exam I 2001

IMPORTANT INSTRUCTIONS: Please read the entire exam prior to answering any questions. Please fill in each blank as directed. Illegible answers will be counted as incorrect. Please work independently. You may not use notes.

Thought for the day:

If folks only knew!

….how many hours of thinking,

hours of digging, days of sunshine, weeks of coaxing

dozens of headaches, pounds of fertilizer, bushels of rich soil,

gallons of water and hundreds of backaches it takes--to produce a pretty flower!

Modena Seed Company, San Francisco, CA

Section I Points Introduction to Systematics

A. 験榼馅㉝淎ଷ낕帒꫑夯ਖ㞦쐬띥ꭗ탒ⱸ蜩ᛸ쪸묎懕(2 words) is the science of identifying, naming, and classifying all plants. It is a challenging field of study.

B. Specific sources of scientific information regarding the systematics of a particular taxon are bibliographies, indexes, guides, and comprehensive works of broad scope. Monographs are comprehensive taxonomic treatises that synthesize all the known information about a group of plants and the term __________that refers to a published inventory of all plants growing in a geographical or political area.

  1. There are five objectives of Plant Taxonomy. Use Single words.

1. To ________________the world's ___________

2. To provide a method for __________________ and __________________

3. To produce a ______________ and_____________ system of classification

4. To demonstrate _______________implications of plant __________________

5. To provide a single __________, scientific name for every group of plants in the world

  1. There are three 'phases' of plant systematics:

1. Exploration and discovery phase better known as __________taxonomy

2. Synthesis phase where classification based on _______________is developed

3. Experimental phase is the combining of data for interpretation in ______________and phylogenetic terms.

Section II. Reproductive Characteristics 10 points

Place the correct letter next to the term or processes that are most closely related to the lettered items. Each letter may be used only one time.

A. Flowering F. Pollination

B. Megasporogenesis G. Double Fertilization

C. Megagametogenesis H. Vegetative Plant

D. Microsporogenesis I. Mature Seed

E. Microgametogenesis J. Germination

1. _____ Testa, embryo, mature endosperm

2. _____ Zygote and fused polar nuclei plus sperm cell

3. _____ Roots and shoots, stems and buds

4. _____ Sperm and vegetative (Tube) cells (nuclei in older terminology terminology)

5. _____ Process whereby plant exits the vegetative phase and enters reproductive phase

6. _____ Epicotyls and hypocotyls; cotyledons and plumules

7. _____ From anther to stigma

8. _____ Nucellar tissue, integuments and pre-meiotic mother cell

9. _____ Eight (Haploid) nucleate embryo sac

10. ____ Epidermis, endothecium, middle cell layer and tapetum
B. Relate these organs, tissues etc. Place correct letter in blank.

a. Funiculus 1 _______Embryo Sac

b. Micropyle 2________Placentation

c. Filament 3________Ovule

d. Style 4________Anther

e. Radicle 5________Seedling

f. Free Central 6________ Pistil

C. Identify the following floral formulae as applying to Magnoliopsida (M) or Liliopsida (L) taxon.

  1. CA 3 CO 3 A 6 G 3 _________________

  2. CA 5 CO 5 A 10 G 5 _________________

Section III Historic Perspective 10 points

Plant Systematics is a recognized botanical discipline; scholars have dedicated their lives to the organization and classification of plants. What has evolved is the systematic treatment of more than 400,000 species based on phylogenetic relationships. The system that we use today developed over time and space and often advancements were linked to other concomitant scientific discoveries.


1. Theophrastus Developed "Materia Medica"; used for almost

1500 years

2. Albertus Magnus An author of our textbook

3. George Bentham; Joseph Dalton Hooker Swedish physician who wrote "Genera Plantarum" and "Species Plantarum"

4. Adolf Engler & Karl Prantl French scientist who suggested use of multiple traits and weighing of traits in systematics.

5. J. B. P. de Lamarck French botanist who major effort was the


6. Charles Darwin Famous systematist who directed Arnold Arboretum at Harvard; Dr. Keener's academic ancestor

7. Andrea Cesalpino Credited with the discovery of evolution

8. Caspar Bauhin First to distinguish monocots and dicots

9. Otto Brunfels Greek who is called the "Father of Botany"

10. Luca Ghini University of Nebraska Professor who greatly influenced modern systematics

11. Caspar Bauhin

12. Liberty Hyde Bailey

13. Arthur Cronquist

14. Charles Bessey

15. Samuel B. Jones

16. Antoine Laurent de Jussieu

17. Asa Gray

18. Pedanios Dioscorides

19. Michel Adanson

20. Carl von Linne

21. A. P. de Candolle

Section IV FERNS 10 points

A. For the following statements, indicate whether each statement is true or false. (3pts)
____ All vascular plants have seeds.

____ The life cycle of a fern is termed alternation of generations.

____ The gametophyte of a fern produces spores.

____ Pteridophytes have parallel leaf venation

____ All pteridophytes open their new fronds through a process known as

circinate vernation.

____ Ferns only reproduce sexually.
B. 1 Which fern group sporangium is larger and contains more spores? (1pt)

____ Leptosporangiate ____ Eusporangiate

C. Look at the two ferns A and B. Label the following statements either true or false. (2pts)

a. ____ Fern B has bi-pinnate leaves

b . ____ Fern A has once-pinnate leaves

c .____Fern B has a fertile stalk

d ____ Fern A has sori
D. Name one genus of a fern studied in class. Correct spelling is important!! (1pt)

E. Name one pteridophyte studied in class that is not a fern (common name is valid). Correct spelling is important!! (1pt)


F. Name one the four pteridophyte divisions. Correct spelling is important! (1pt)


G. A fern with only one kind of spore is said to be _____________________.

Correct spelling is important! (1pt)

Section V Gymnosperms 10 points

A. There are four divisions of Gymnosperms containing species in existence today. Rank

the divisions according to size (number of genera) from smallest (1) to largest (4).
_________ Gnetophyta (A)
_________ Coniferophyta (B)
_________ Gingkophyta (C)
_________ Cycadophyta (D)

B. Of the four divisions listed in the previous question, which two divisions (A, B, C, D)

contain species that could be grown outdoors, year-round, in Central Pennsylvania?

__________ and ___________.

C. Give a characteristic (reproductive or anatomical) that distinguishes the gymnosperms

from the angiosperms ___________________________________________.

D. For each species, match the needle characteristic that can be used to distinguish

that species from the other species of the Pinaceae Family.

_______ Picea A. Circular needle base or leaf scar
_______ Cedrus B. Needles in fascicles
_______ Abies C. Needles in tufts
_______ Pinus D. Sterigma attaches needle to twig

E. Place each species in the correct family of Coniferophyta

__________ Taxodiaceae A. Juniperus conferta

B. Tsuga canadensis

__________ Taxaceae C. Thuja occidentalis

D. Taxodium distictum

__________ Pinaceae E. Larix decidua

F. Taxus baccata

__________ Cupressaceae G. Metasequoia glyptostroboides

H. Pseudotsuga Menziesii

Section VI Nomenclature 10 points

A. Plant systematics is based on a system of ranks. These ranks are highly consistent within the plant kingdom. For a plant such as a waterlily, complete the following table by writing the correct term in the numbered boxes:

Rank Botanical Term












6. (any waterlily genus)


Xbeattiei (Hypothetical)


8. (hypothetical)

B. A binomial is legitimate when it has three parts: genus, species and __________. A generic name must be ___________ and _____________. The species name may take on several forms: list two specific forms using real examples: _________________ and ___________________. Present one valid example of the third part of the binomial.__________________________.

C. There are six (6) principles of botanical nomenclature: fill in with single words.

1). Botanical nomenclature is independent of ________________ nomenclature.

2) The application of names to taxonomic groups is determined by means of nomenclatural _________. This principle holds that each name must be represented by a herbarium specimen.

3) The principle of priority states that names are legitimate based on the ____________of their designation.

4) Each ____________(botanical term) can bear only one correct name and

5) This name is ______________ regardless of derivation.

6) Valid changes in the rules of classification and nomenclature are generally ________________.

Section VII 10 Points Principles of Plant Taxonomy

A. Characters upon which plants are identified, named and classified can be either _______________, such as flower color, or _______________, such as seedpod length.

B. Cladograms, phenograms, and clustergrams result from a statistical analysis of taxonomic data; these diagrams purport to depict ____________(2 words) among species.

C. Name the four "schools" of plant systematics discussed in class:

1. _____________________ 3. ___________________

2. _____________________ 4. ___________________

D. The botanical term that describes two species that exist in the same location is ___________.

E. When a single species exists in two diverse locations this is called: __________. This might result from several causes, list one_______________________

F. Infraspecific taxa refer to taxa below the rank of species; match the rank with the proper descriptor

1. Lowest amount of genetic variability subspecies____

2. Highest amount of genetic variability forma _______

3. Intermediate amount of variability variety_______
F. Place the proper term in the blank.

1. Orders are collections of ___________________

2. Genera are collections of ___________________

3. Families are collections of __________________
G. Phylogenetic systematics infers that plants are classified based on __________________________________________________

Section VIII Classification of Magnoliopsida: Magnoliidae/Hamamelidae 20 Points
A. Let us assume that you are vacationing during Spring Break in the Smoky Mountains. You enter a lea surrounded by a small-forested area and you see some interesting shrubs. Below I will list brief descriptions of ten specimens for you to identify with the correct letter. For the purpose of this question, they belong to either the subclasses Magnoliidae (M) or Hamamelidae (H).


Syncarpous carpels


Tricolpate pollen


Monosulcate pollen


Perfect flowers


Generally woody plants




Flowers arranged in catkins


Centrifugal pollen maturity


Reduced flowers


Mature fruit with single ovules

B. The following families all belong to the subclasses we have been studying over the past few weeks, namely, the Magnoliidae (M) and Hamamelidae (H). Classify the given families by labeling them with the proper initial.

1. Lauraceae

2. Myricaceae

3. Piperaceae

4. Winteraceae

5. Urticaceae

6. Ulmaceae

C. Give one reason from the underlined clues included in each question as to why the unidentified plant is not a member of each of the listed families:

You cannot use the same reason twice for a given question
You choose to do a Spring internship in Lucerne, Switzerland. While traveling in the Alps you see a large tree, the leaves do not have stipules, the terminal buds are in clusters.
Nymphaeaceae ____________________________________________
Betulaceae _______________________________________________
Fagaceae _________________________________________________
D. Fagaceae & Betulaceae

Indicate the family (Fagaceae or Betulaceae) described by the following statements:

1. _____________ No lenticels on stems

2. _____________Beeches and oaks

3. _____________Staminate/pistillate catkins

4. _____________Carpinus and Corylus

5. _____________One-seeded nut with a hard woody coat

6. _____________Star-shaped pith

7. _____________Pistillate Flowers lack corolla and calyx

8. _____________Cluster of buds at tip of stem

9. _____________Persistent leaves into the winter

10. ____________Leaves are simple, alternate, toothed, or lobed

E. . Nymphaeaceae: Choose the terms that apply to the Nymphaeaceae
1. Zygomorphic flowers

2. Numerous floral parts

3. Seed with endosperm and perisperm

4. Milky sap when plant is crushed

5. Annual plant duration

6. Lack of blue floral pigmentation

7. Fruit a spongy berry

8. Imperfect flowers

IX. Student Talks: Please write the letters of the correct family in the space provided.

A. Aloeaceae

F. Campanulaceae

K. Lamiaceae

P. Primulaceae

U. Violaceae

B. Aquifoliaceae

G. Cornaceae

L. Oleaceae

Q. Rutaceae

V. Vitaceae

C. Araceae

H. Cycadaceae

M. Onagraceae

R. Scrophulariaceae

D. Asclepediaceae

I. Ericaceae

N. Papaveraceae

S. Taxaceae

E. Berberidaceae

J. Lauraceae

O. Polemoniaceae

T. Taxodiaceae

1. Supplied food for a goddess turned heifer. _____________

2. Famous for its flowering understory tree with ‘alligator-skin’ bark. _____________

3. Ruta, Murraya, and Fortunella belong to this family. _____________

4. Ampelography is a study of delineating varieties of a genus in this family. _____________
5. ‘Deck the Halls’, piano keys, and tea. ____________
6. Uses of this family include food, string, glue, medicine, and chewing gum. _____________
7. Floral cup is an extended tube, a compound pistil with 4 carpels,

4 stigmas, and 8 stamens. _____________

8. Bilabiate, landing pad for pollinators, and a treat for cats. _____________

9. Dioscorides devoted a chapter of “Materia Medica” to Cyclamen _ ____________

which belongs to this family.
10. Contains our state flower, comes from the word Ereike, and consists of

woody, evergreen, or deciduous plants. _____________

11. The Arum, Philodendron, or Aroid Family. _____________
12. A species in this family is known to stimulate the immune system because

it contains the compound Aloectin B. _____________

13. Antirrhinum, two lipped petals, Digitalis, and Mimulus. . _____________

  1. Produce insulin instead of starch, has an inferior ovary, and produces latex

in the phloem. _____________

  1. Leaves opposite, simple or pinnately compound; 4-lobed calyx,

4-merous corolla, 2 stamens, superior ovary; fruit is a drupe, capsule, or samara. _____________

  1. ‘Breathes with its knees’, deciduous or evergreen, leaves scale-like or

needle-like. _____________

  1. Usually dioecious, has aril fruit, some poisonous, and are shade tolerant. _____________

18. Gymnosperms with three types of roots; a taproot-lateral root system,

specialized lateral roots symbiotic with coralloids, and adventitious roots. _____________
19. Dorothy “rested” in a field of these opium-producing plants. _____________
20. Berberis, Mahonia, Nandina, CA 3+3 CO 3+3 A6 G1. _____________
21. Aromatic trees and shrubs, Sassafras, Avocado, and Sweet Bay. _____________
22. Phlox, Eriastrum, and Jacob’s Ladder. _____________

Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur © 2016
rəhbərliyinə müraciət