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Hmong Legal Glossary

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Hmong Legal Glossary

Produced by the

Wisconsin Court Interpreter Program


Translated by Minnesota Translation Lab

Dr. Laurence H. Bogoslaw, Director

and by

PaDer Lilian Lawbeerjour, Ying Lee Xiong,

and Kazoua Yang

Based on the Abbreviated English Legal Glossary

of the Consortium for State Court Interpreter Certification

with additional terms provided by Attorney Shane Falk

and the Marathon County Bar Association

Southeast Asian Outreach Committee

Funded by grants from the

Wisconsin Department of Workforce Development,

Bureau of Migrant, Refugee and Labor Services,

and the State Bar of Wisconsin Local Bar Grant Competition

This glossary is the property of the Wisconsin Director of State Courts Office. It may be used and reproduced only for interpreting, translating, research and teaching purposes.

We are happy to take suggestions and corrections on the terminology used in this glossary. Please forward specific suggestions to For more information about the project, contact Marcia Vandercook or Carmel Capati, 608-266-3121.

This glossary may be found on the Wisconsin court interpreter website at Printed copies are available from the Wisconsin Court Interpreting Program, 110 East Main Street Suite 410, Madison WI 53703. Copies are also available from the State Bar of Wisconsin by contacting Kris Wenzel, outreach coordinator,, 608-257-3838.

For information about the Consortium for State Court Interpreter Certification, see the website of the National Center for State Courts at


We would like to thank all of the people who made this glossary possible. We are particularly grateful for the professionalism and hard work of PaDer Lilian Lawbeerjour, Kazoua Yang, and Ying Lee Xiong, who provided the equivalent terms and patiently translated and edited every word.

ABANDONMENT = TXHOB TXWM TSO POV TSEG - A parent's or custodian's act of leaving a child without adequate care, supervision, support, or parental contact for an excessive period of time. Also, the desertion of one spouse by the other with the intent to terminate the marriage relationship.

-Niam txiv lossis tus muaj cai saibxyuas muab tus menyuam tso pov tseg tsis saibxyuas, tsis tu, tsis pab, tsis quav ntsej, lossis ob niam txiv tsis tiv tauj taug moo tus menyuam mus ntev hauj sim. Losyog ib khub niam txiv uas ib tug tso ib tug tseg vim txhob txwm xaus txoj kev txwj nkaw.
ABATEMENT OF ACTION = KEV TSO TSEG- A suit which has been quashed and ended.

-Rooj plaub uas muab tso xaus thiab kaw tseg.
ABSTRACT - A summary of a larger work, wherein the principal ideas of the larger work are contained.

-Cov ntsiab lus ntawm ib tsab ntawv, uas muaj cov ntsiab lus tseemceeb.
ABSTRACT OF RECORD - A short, abbreviated form of the case as found in the record.

-Cov ntsiab lus sau tseg txog rooj plaub uas muaj teev cia.
ABSTRACT OF TITLE - A chronological summary of all official records and recorded documents affecting the title to a parcel of real property.

-Tsab ntawv npaj rau tus tswv uas yuav lub tsev/thaj av uas qhia txhua yam txog cov tswvcuab, cov nqis paj thiab cov nuj nqis thiab txhua yam tshwmsim txog qhov chaw ntawd.
ACCESSORY - A person who aids or contributes in the commission of a crime.

-Ib tus neeg uas pab tuav tswvyim lossis koom tes ua kev txhaum.
ACCOMPLICE = TUS KOOMTES NROG UAKE- One who knowingly, voluntarily, and intentionally unites with the principal offender in the commission of a crime. A partner in a crime.

-Ib tus neeg uas yeej paub, txaus siab yeem nrog, thiab txhob txwm koomtes nrog tus neeg raug foob mus ua kev txhaum.

ACCORD - A satisfaction agreed upon between the parties in a lawsuit which bars subsequent actions on the claim.

-Txoj kev txaus siab pomzoo los ntawm ob tog haistias yuav tsis muab rooj plaub rov los hais ntxiv lawm.
ACCORD AND SATISFACTION - A method of discharging a claim upon agreement by the parties to give and accept something in settlement of the claim.

-Ib txoj kev xaus rooj plaub uas ob tog pomzoo los muab thiab txais nyiaj lossis khoom muaj nqis los mus daws rooj plaub.
ACCUSATION = LUS IAB LIAM - A formal charge against a person, to the effect that he has engaged in a punishable offense.

-Cov lus tsuam plaub rau ib tug neeg, haistias nws tau ua txhaum ib lub txim tsim nyog raug kaw.
ACCUSE = LIAM - To allege that a person committed a crime or punishable offense.

-Liam haistias tus neeg ntawd yeej tau ua txhaum ib lub txim uas tsim nyog nraug kaw.
ACCUSED = RAUG LIAM - The generic name for the defendant in a criminal case.

-Ib tus neeg raug liam nyob rau ib rooj plaub tsim nyog raug kaw.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT = LEES PAUB - 1. A statement of acceptance of responsibility. 2. The short declaration at the end of a legal paper showing that the paper was duly executed and acknowledged.

-1. Lo lus lees paub txog yus lub luag haujlwm 2.Cov lus nyob rau nram qab ntawm tsab ntawv tuav cai uas qhia haistias yeej lees paub thiab twb uas nraws nraim li tsab ntawv lawm.
ACQUIT = TXIAV TXIM TSIS TXHAUM - To legally certify the innocence of one charged with a crime. To set free, release or discharge from an obligation, burden or accusation. To find a defendant not guilty in a criminal trial.

-Txia txim pom haistias tsis muaj kev txhaum. Tso dim dawb, tso mus losyog tso tseg kom dim cov lus cog tseg, dejnum lossis tej lus liam. Txiav txim haistias tus neeg raug foob tsis muaj kev txhaum.
ACQUITTAL = KEV TXIAV TXIM TSIS TXHAUM - In criminal law, a finding of not guilty. In contract law, a release, absolution, or discharge from an obligation, liability, or engagement.

-Nyob rau rooj plaub raug kaw, txiav txim pom tias tsis txhaum. Nyob rau kevcai lijchoj lagluam, yog txoj kev tso dim, ua kom ploj lossis tso tseg kom dim lus cog tseg, tej nuj nqis, losyog kev sib koom.
ACTION IN PERSONAM - An action against the person, founded on a personal liability. In contrast to action in rem, an action for the recovery of a specific object, usually an item of personal property such as an automobile.

-Foob ib tug neeg, ua plaub rau ib tug neeg tim tus neeg tsis xyuam xim. Txawv ntawm action in rem uas foob kom tau ib yam koom, feem ntau yog khoom ntawm ib tus neeg xwsli ib lub tsheb.
ACTION IN REM - Proceeding against the thing as compared to personal actions (in personam). Usually a proceeding where property is involved.

-Kev foob rau yam khoom. Tsis yog kev foob rau ib tus neeg. Feem ntau yog cov plaub uas hais txog cov cuabyeej cuabtam.
AD LITEM - A Latin term meaning for the purposes of the lawsuit. For example, a guardian ad litem is a person appointed by the court to protect the interests of a minor or legally incompetent person in a lawsuit.

-Yog ib lo los Latin uas muab txhaistias rau rooj plaub. Pivtxwv tias, guardian ad liten yog ib tus neeg raug tso cai ntawm lub tsev hais plaub los mus raug sawvcev saibxyuas yam zoo rau tus menyuam tsis tau muaj hnub nyoog 18 xyoo losyog tus neeg ntawd yeej tsis paub qab hau tog twg yuav los paub txog rooj plaub sib hais ntawd.
ADDITUR = PHUA TXIM THEJ NTAU TSHAJ - An increase by a judge in the amount of damages awarded by a jury.

-Tus kws txiav txim kom thej ntau tshaj li ntawm cov pejxeem tau pomzoo.
ADJOURNMENT = NCUA TSEG – Postponement of a court session until another time or place.

-Muab rooj plaub ncua rau lwm lub sijhawm losyog tshem rau lwm qhov chaw.
ADJUDICATE = TXIAV TXIM - To determine finally.

-Kev txiav txim.
ADJUDICATION - Giving or pronouncing a judgment or decree. Also the judgment given.

-Kev txiav txim rau ib rooj plaub.
ADMINISTRATOR = TUS SAIBXYUAS - One who administers the estate of a person who dies without a will.

-Tus neeg saibxyuas cov nyiaj, cov cuabyeej ntawm ib tug neeg uas tuag lawm es tsis muaj ntaub ntawv tseg haistias muab cov cuabyeej rau leej twg.
ADMISSIBLE - Pertinent and proper to be considered in reaching a decision.

-Tej yam uas tseemceeb thiab tsim nyog coj los xyuas thaum yuav txiav txim.
ADMISSIBLE EVIDENCE = KHOOM POVTHAWJ - Evidence that can be legally and properly introduced in a civil or criminal trial.

-Cov khoom povthawj uas muab raws txojcai thiab siv tau rau ib rooj plaub pejxeem sibfoob lossis ib rooj plaub raug kaw.
ADMISSION = LEES PAUB - Voluntary acknowledgment of the existence of certain facts relevant to the adversary's case.

-Txaus siab lees paub tias tej yam yeej muaj tsheeb rau tog tod rooj plaub.
ADMONISH - To advise or caution. For example the court may caution or admonish counsel for wrong practices.

-Qhuab qhia losyog qhia kom ceev faj. Xwslis tus txiav txim plaub qhuab qhia kom tus kws lijchoj ceev faj muaj tej yam nws ua tsis raws txojcai.
ADOPTION = COJ MENYUAM LOS TU - To take into one's family the child of another and give him or her the rights, privileges, and duties of a child and heir.

-Coj lwm tus menyuam los nyob rau hauv yus tsev neeg, muab kev hlub txhua yam thiab kev cob qhia rau tus menyuam ib yam li nws yog tus yus yug.
ADULTERY = KEV SIB DEEV - Voluntary sexual intercourse between a married person and a person who is not that person’s spouse.

-Kev nyias zoo nyias siab sib deev pw uake ntawm ib tug neeg muaj poj niam muaj txiv thiab ib tug neeg uas nws tsis yog tus neeg ntawd tus poj niam tus txiv.
ADVERSARY SYSTEM = KEV HAIS PLAUB - The trial method used in the U.S. and some other countries. This system is based on the belief that truth can best be determined by giving opposing parties full opportunity to present and establish their evidence, and to test by cross-examining the evidence presented by their adversaries. All this is done under the established rules of procedure before an impartial judge and/or jury.

-Txoj kev hais plaub uas siv rau tebchaws Asmesliskas thiab lwm lub tebchaws. Txoj kev hais plaub no tawm los ntawm qhov kev ntseeg tias yuav tsum muab caij rau ob tog los qhia txog thiab cev povthawj thiaj yuav paub meej txog qhov tsheeb. Thiab ob tog los shib xaub lus. Txhua yam no yeej muab coj los hais rau ib tus txiav txim thiab cov peej xeem txiav txim mloog raws nraim li tej kevcai hais plaubntug uas twb tau tsim ntsa tag los lawm.
ADVISEMENT OF RIGHTS - To provide an accused an explanation of their constitutional or other rights.

-Qhia rau ib tus neeg raug liam txog nws txojcai uas nws muaj nyob rau tsoomfwv tebchaws Ameslikas losyog lwm txojcai nws muaj.
AFFIANT - A person who makes and signs an affidavit.

-Tus neeg uas teev tsab ntawv thiab kos nws lub npe rau ntawm tsab ntawv affidavit.
AFFIDAVIT = TSAB NTAWV POVTHAWJ – A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths. For example, in criminal cases, affidavits are often used by police officers seeking to convince courts to grant a warrant to make an arrest or a search. In civil cases, affidavits of witnesses are often used to support motions for summary judgment.

-Ib tsab ntawv sau txog cov lus muaj tseeb los ntawm tus neeg uas lees tias yog nws cov lus tiag rau ib tug uas muaj lub ntau thwj lossis tus neeg uas muaj cai hais kom neeg tsa tes. Pivtxwv tias nyob rau cov plaub raug kaw, ntau zaus tub ceevxwm siv tab ntawv no los mus thov kom tsev hais plaub muab tsab ntawv ntev neeg los mus ntes neeg thiab ntshawb vajtse. Nyob rau cov plaub uas pejxeem sibfoob, ntau zaus cov timkhawv tsab ntawv muab coj los siv thov tus txiav txim rawsli cov lus povthawj nws tau hnov thiab pom xwb.
AFFIRMATIVE DEFENSE - Without denying the charge, the defendant raises circumstances such as insanity, self-defense, or entrapment to avoid civil or criminal responsibility.

-Tsis yog tsis lees tias tej lawv foob tsis muaj, tus neeg raug foob siv cov lus txeem nws tus kheej xwb li tsis meejpem, hlwb khiav tsis zoo, thiv thaiv yus tus kheej, lossis raug ntxias kom nws thiaj li tsis raug ev lub txim tau them nyiaj los raug kaw.
AFFIRMED = HAIS TIAS YOG LAWM - In the practice of appellate courts, the word means that the decision of the trial court is correct.

-Nyob rau tsev hais plaub uas mloog cov plaub uas coj rov qab los hais dua, lo lus no txhais tau haistias lub tsev hais plaub hauv nroog yeej txiav txim yog lawm.

AFFORD - To make available.

-Ua kom muaj.
AGENT = SAWVCEV - One who has authority to act for another.

-Tus tib neeg muaj cai sawvcev rau lwm tus.
AGGRAVATED ASSAULT - An attempt to cause serious bodily injury to another or purposely, knowingly or recklessly causing such injury, or an attempt to cause or purposely or knowingly cause bodily injury to another with a deadly weapon.

-Kev npaj siab ua kom lwm tus neeg raug mob lossis txhob txwm, yeej paub zoo lossis ua lwj ua liam kom raug mob, losyog npaj siab txhob txwm ua lossis yeej paub haistias yuav ua kom raug mob rau lwm tus lub cev nrog ib rab riam phom.

AGGRAVATED BATTERY - The unlawful use of force against another with unusual or serious consequences such as the use of a dangerous weapon.

-Siv lub zog tsis raws cai los mus ntau ib tus neeg nrog tej yam txawv lossis ua kom raug mob nyhav los ntawm siv riam siv phom.
AGGRAVATING FACTORS = LOOS NTXIV – Any factors associated with the commission of a crime which increase the seriousness of the offense or add to its injurious consequences.

-Tej yam muaj kev tshuam cuam nrog kev ua txhaum ua rau lub txim haj yam txhaum loj losyog kom raug mob nyhav heev duas.
AGREED STATEMENT OF FACTS = POMZOO TXOG TEJ LUS HAIS – A statement of all important facts, which all the parties agree is true and correct, which is submitted to a court for ruling.

-Cov suam lus tseemceeb tagnrho, uas ob tog pomzoo tias nws muaj tsheeb thiab yog, uas muab coj mus rau tsev hais plaub txiav txim.
AGREEMENT = POMZOO – A mutual understanding and intention between two or more parties. The writing or instrument which is evidence of an agreement. (Although often used as synonymous with contract, agreement is a broader term.)

-Kev totaub thiab kev yeem ua ntawm ob tog losyog cov tuaj sib hais. Tej lus sau tseg losyog teev cias ua povthawj los mus qhia txog tias ob tog yeej sib yeem. (Txawm tias lo lus no siv ib yam nkaus li lo lus contract, tabsis lo lus agreement no siv tau dav duav).
AID AND ABET = PAB THIAB TXHUB - Help, assist, or facilitate the commission of a crime.

-Pab, koomtes thiab txhub kom mus ua tej txhaum cai.
ALCOHOLISM = QUAV DEJ CAWV – the continued excessive or uncontrolled use of alcoholic drinks.

-Txoj kev haus dej cawv tas mus li lossis tswj tsi tau tus kheej kom txhob haus dej cawv.
ALFORD PLEA = CIA TXHAUM ALFORD – A special type of guilty plea by which a defendant does not admit guilt but concedes that the State has sufficient evidence to convict; normally made to avoid the threat of greater punishment.

-Ib lo lus lees txhaum tshwjxeeb uas tus neeg raug foob tsis lees txhaum tabsis lees haistias lub xeev yeej muaj povthawj txaus los nrhiav pom tias nws txhaum. Ntau zaus ua li no kom thiaj li tsis raug txhim nyhav tshaj.

ALIBI = MUAJ POVTHAWJ / LAVTHAM - A defense claim that the accused was somewhere else at the time a crime was committed.

-Lo lus txeem qhia haistias tus neeg raug liam twb tsis nyob ntawm thaj tsam ntawd thaum lub sijhawm txoj kev txhaum tshwmsim.
ALIMONY = NYIAJ THEM YUG TUS POJNIAM LOSYOG TUS TXIV – A court-ordered allowance that one spouse pays the other spouse for maintenance and support while they are either separated, pending suit for divorce, or after they are divorced.

-Pob nyiaj uas tsev hais plaub yuam kom ib tug ntawm khub naim txiv ntawd them nyiaj yug ib tug thaum lub sijhawm nkawv sib cais, tseem tos rooj plaub sib nrauj, losyog tom qab sib nrauj tiav.
ALLEGATION = LIAM – The assertion of a party to an action, setting out what he expects to prove.

-Cov lus uas ib tog hais rau rooj plaub tias qhov yuav npaj los qhia yeej muaj povthawj txaus thiab tsheeb.
ALLEGE = IAB LIAM – To state, recite, assert, claim, maintain, charge or set forth. To make an allegation.

-Muab lus, tham, hais tawm, liam, tuav rawv lus, cev lus, liam lossis hais tseg. Hais lo lus liam.
ALLEGED - Asserted to be true as depicted or a person who is accused but has not yet been tried in court.

-Hais tawm tias yeej muaj tseeb rawsli hnov thiab pom lossis ib tus neeg yeej raug liam tabsis tseem tsis tau mus sib hais hauv tsev hais plaub.
ALLOCUTION = THOV – A defendant's statement in mitigation of punishment.

-Tus neeg raug txim cov lus thov kom rau txim tsawg dua qhov lawv txiav.
ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION (ADR) = LWM YAM KEV SIB KHO - Settling a dispute without a full, formal trial. Methods include mediation, conciliation, arbitration, and settlement, among others.

-Hais sib yeem uas tsis tau mus nce hais rooj plaub loj muaj yeej muaj swb. Tej yam no kuj muaj xwsli mediation, conciliation, arbitration nrog rau lwm yam muaj tej no thaib.
AMEND = HLOOV/ KHO - To change, correct, revise, improve, modify, or alter.

-Muab hloov, muab kho, sau duas, kho ntxiv, hloov kom haum, losyog kho tshiab.
AMENDMENT - The correction of an error admitted in any process.

-Kho tej qho tau uas yeej lees tau tias yuam kev lawm.
AMICUS CURIAE - Latin for “A friend of the court”. One not a party to a case who volunteers to offer information on a point of law or some other aspect of the case to assist the court in deciding a matter before it.

-Ib tug phooj ywg ntawm lub tsev hais plaub. Tus neeg tsis muaj feem cuam rau rooj plaub uas nws muaj siab dawb paug los muab lus qhia txog txojcai lijchoj lossis lwm yam txog rau rooj plaub los mus pab lub tsev hais plaub txiav txim rau rooj plaub.
ANNOTATION = LUS QHIA – A case summary or commentary on the law cases, statutes, and rules illustrating its interpretation.

-Cov ntshiab lus sau lossis hais txog cov rooj plaub cov kevcai lijchoj, thiab kevcai, uas pab qhia txog tias cov kevcai dhau los twb tau muab txhais licas lawm.
ANNUAL REVIEW = IB XYOO XYUAS IB ZAUG – Yearly judicial review, usually in juvenile dependency cases, to determine whether the child requires continued court supervision or placement.

-Hom ntau siv rau cov plaub menyuam tsis tau muaj 18 xyoo, uas ib xyoo ib zaug tsev hais plaub coj los mus tshawb xyuas los txiav txim seb tus menyuam puas tseem tsim nyog tsev hais plaub rov saibxyuas nws ntxiv mus lossis coj mus nyob rau qhov twg.
ANSWER = TEB – The defendant's response to the plaintiff's allegations as stated in a complaint. An item-by-item, paragraph-by-paragraph response to points made in a complaint; part of the pleadings.

-Tus raug foob los lus teb tus tuaj foob cov lus iab liam nyob rau hauv tsab ntawv foob. Teb ib nqi rau ib nqi, ib kab rau ib kab rawsli cov lus muaj nyob rau tsab ntawv foob; qho no yog ib qho ntawm cov lus lees.

APPEAL = TSIS ZOO SIAB THOV HAIS NTXIV – A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is to appeal or to take an appeal.

-Ib lo lus thov tom qab rooj plaub hais muaj yeej muaj swb, thov kom lwm lub tsev hais plaub (feem ntau yog lub tsev hais plaub loj uas muaj cai mloog cov plaub twb txiav txim tag lawm) los txiav txim seb rooj plaub hais muaj yeej muaj swb ntawd puas hais raws cai ncaj ncees. Qho yuav ua li no yog los mus thov rov qab kom muab rooj plaub mloog ntxiv lossis coj mus hais txiv.
APPEARANCE - A coming into court as party or interested person or as a lawyer on behalf of party or interested person.

-Tuaj tawm ntsej muag hais plaub hauv tsev hais plaub losyog ib tug kws lijchoj tuaj saw cev rau ib tus neeg losyog tus neeg muaj feem cuam nrog.
APPELLANT = TUS NEEG MUAB ROOJ PLAUB MUS HAIS NTXIV – The party appealing a final decision or judgment.

-Ib tus neeg uas thov kom tsev hais plaub muab nws rooj plaub rov hais dua.
APPELLATE COURT - A court having jurisdiction to hear appeals and review a trial court's procedure.

-Lub tsev hais plaub loj uas muaj cai los mus mloog thiab tshawb xyuas lub tsev hais plaub hauv nroog tej kev hais plaub.
APPELLATE JURISDICTION – The appellate court has the right to review and revise the lower court decision.

-Lub tsev hais plaub loj uas muaj cai los mus mloog thiab tshawb xyuas rooj plaub yeej muaj txojcai los txheeb xyuas thiab hloov lub tsev hais plaub qis cov kev txiav txim.
APPELLEE - The party against whom an appeal is taken. Sometimes called a respondent.

-Sab los mus txheem rooj plaub uas rov muab los hais dua. Tejzaum kuj hu tau haistias yog tus tuaj mus txheem plaub.
APPRAISAL= KEV NTSUAS NQI – an estimate of the value of property or items by a person with expertise in determining their value.

-Ib qho ntsuas txog qhov nqi ntawm khoom losyog tej yam dabtsi los ntawm ib tug neeg uas paub ntsuas txog lawv cov nqi.
ARBITRATION = SIB KHO –- The referral of a dispute to an impartial third person chosen by the parties to the dispute who agree in advance to abide by the arbitrator's award issued after a hearing at which both parties have an opportunity to be heard.

-Ib rooj plaub uas hais tsis haum es muab xa mus mus rau ib tus neeg nruab nrab uas yog ob tog xaiv los mloog cov lus. Nkawd yuav tsum pomzoo thiab yeem ua ntej tias tom qab tus neeg nruab nrab ntawd mloog ob tug lus tag, nws txiav txim licas nkawd yuav tsum yuav li ntawd.
ARGUMENT - Remarks addressed by attorney to judge or jury on the merits of case or on points of law.

-Kwv lijchoj cov lus hais rau tus txiav txim losyog cov pejxeem txiav txim txog rooj plaub tej tshiab lus lossis kevcai lijchoj.
ARRAIGNMENT = THAWJ ZAUG TUAJ HAUV TSEV HAIS PLAUB - A proceeding in which the accused is brought before the court to plead to the criminal charge in the indictment or information. The charge is read to him or her and he or she is asked to plead guilty or not guilty or, where permitted, nolo contendere (no contest). Another term for preliminary hearing.

-Txheej txheem thaum coj tus neeg raug liam tuaj hauv tsev hais plaub tuaj mus teb cov lus foob uas muaj nyob rau tsab ntawv foob. Muab cov lus foob coj los nyeem rau nws thiab nug seb nws puas teb txhaum, tsis txhaum lossis txojcai muaj qhov tsis cam.
ARREARAGES – Money for alimony and/or child support, which is overdue and unpaid.

-Cov nyiaj them mus yug tus pojniam losyog tus txiv losyog yug menyuam es twb dhau sijhawm lawm es tsis them li.
ARREST = RAUG NTES – To deprive a person of his liberty by legal authority.

-Ntev lossis coj ib tus neeg mus kaw los ntawm ib tus neeg uas muaj cai xwsli tub ceevxwm.
ARREST OF JUDGMENT - Postponing the effect of a judgment already entered.

-Muab txoj kev phua txim uas teb tau hais lawm ncuag tseg.
ARSON = HLAWV TSEV – The malicious burning of someone else's or one's own dwelling or of anyone's commercial or industrial property.

-Txhob txwm lim hiam hlawv lwm tus lossis yus li vajtsev nyob , lossis lwm tus tej tuam tsev lagluam.
ASSAULT = NTAUS KOM RAUG MOB - Any willful attempt or threat to inflict injury upon the person of another, when coupled with the present ability to do so, and any intentional display of force such as would give victim reason to fear or expect immediate bodily harm.

-Npaj siab lossis hwv yuav ua kom lwm tus raug mob, thiab muaj lub peevxwm yuav ua tau thiab txhob txwm cuab zog kom tus neeg ntawd muaj kev ntshai lossis xav haistias nws lub cev yeej yuav raug mob tam sim ntawd.
ASSAULT WITH A DEADLY WEAPON = SIV RIAM PHOM UA KOM RAUG MOB - An aggravated unlawful assault in which there is threat to do bodily harm without justification or excuse by use of any instrument calculated to do serious bodily harm or cause death.

-Txoj kev ntau neeg uas tus neeg raug foob tau siv riam phom thiab hawv haistias yuav ua kom tus neeg raug mob ntawd tuag lossis ua nws cev qaij daim tawv kom raug mob nyhav heev.
ASSUMPTION OF RISK - In tort law, a defense to a personal injury suit. The essence of an affirmative defense is that the plaintiff assumed the known risk of whatever dangerous condition caused the injury.

-Nyob hauv txoj kevcai tort law, ib txoj kev txheem ntawm plaubntug raug mob kev sibfoob. Qhov tsiab lus ntawm qhov txheem ntawv yeej ntseeg tau tias tus neeg foob ntawv yeej paub txog tias qhov kev phem/ntshai uas yuav tshwmsim teebmeem raug mob yog licas.
AT ISSUE - The time in a lawsuit when the complaining party has stated his or her claim and the other side has responded with a denial and the matter is ready to be tried.

-Lub sijhawm thaum sibfoob uas tus tuaj foob tshaj nws cov lus foob es sab tov teb tuaj haistias tsis muaj tsheeb thiab npaj rooj plaub no mus hais muaj yeej muaj swb.

ATTACHMENT - Taking a person's property to satisfy a court-ordered debt.

-Muab ib tus neeg tej cuabyeej cuabtam, khoom vaj khoom tsev coj los mus them cov nuj nqes rawsli tsev hais plaub tau txiav txim.
ATTEMPT = SIM UA – An endeavor or effort to do an act or accomplish a crime, carries beyond preparation, but lacking execution.

-Sim lossis siv dag zog los ua tej yam losyog ua kom tiav ib txoj kev txhaum, ua ntau tshaj qho haistias npaj, tabsis tseem tsis tau ua kiag.
ATTEST = LEES TIAS MUAJ TSEEB – To bear witness to, to affirm to be true or genuine, to certify.

-Los ua timkhawv rau, los haistias yog thiab muaj tseeb, thiab los lav.
ATTORNEY = KWS LIJCHOJ – Attorney at law, lawyer, counselor at law.

-Kws lijchoj, tus neeg hais plaubntug.
ATTORNEY OF RECORD = TUS KWS LIJCHOJ MUAJ NPE HAUV NTAUB NTAWV - The lawyer who represents a client and is entitled to receive all formal documents from the court or from other parties. Also known as counsel of record.

-Tus kws lijchoj uas sawvcev rau tus neeg uas ntiav nws/ pab nws uas muaj cai txais tau txhua yam ntaub los ntawm hauv tsev hais plaub thiab sab tog tod.
ATTORNEY-IN-FACT = TUS NEEG MUAJ CAI SAWVCEV RAU LWM TUS - A private person (who is not necessarily a lawyer) authorized by another to act in his or her place, either for some particular purpose, as to do a specific act, or for the transaction of business in general, not of legal character. This authority is conferred by an instrument in writing, called a letter of attorney, or more commonly, a power of attorney.

-Ib tug neeg uas (tsis tas yuav yog tus kws lijchoj) raug kev tso cai los saw ua nws tug losyog nws qho chaw, ua txhawm haistias los ua mus ua ib yam huaj lwm dabtsi lossis nqis tes ua ib yam dabtsi, losyog khiav txhua yam dejnum tshuav tsis yog li tus kws lijchoj xwb. Qhov kev tso cai no yuav tsum muaj sau nyob rau hauv ntaub ntawv, uas hu tau tias “letter of attorney” lossis feem ntau “power of attorney”.
AUTHENTICATE = HAIS TIAS YOG QHOV TSEEB - To give authority or legal authenticity to a statute, record, or other written instrument.

-Tso cai rau haistias yog qhov tseeb losyog kev muaj tseeb raws cai ntawm kevcai lijchoj, ntaub ntawv, losyog lwm yam tau sau tseg.
AUTO TAMPERING = DAWJ TSHEB - The manipulation of an automobile and its parts for a specific purpose.

-Txhob txwm muab lub tsheb ua kom txawv thiab hloov cov khoom hauv lub tsheb los ua ib yam dabtsi.
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